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The Seventy's Course in Theology 


Outline Hi^ory of the Seventy 


A Survey of the Books of Holy Scripture 



Of the First Council of 
the Seventy 

To become a Seventy means mental activity, intellectual development, 
and the attainment of spiritual power 

Salt Ljike City 



Copyrighled 1907 by 


All Rishu Rctenred 





To bccoiiu- a Seventy means mental activity, intellectual development, 
and the attainment of spiritual power. 

The first three opening lessons of this j'ear's course of study are 
devoted to the history, organization and duties of the Seventy. They 
should be thoroughly mastered by the present membership of the 
quorums, and as fast as new members are brought in their attention 
should be called to these lessons, and they be required to mas- 
ter them also that all our Seventies may have a proper understanding 
of the dignity and importance and the responsibility of this office in the 
Holy Priesthood. 

The body of the present year's course of study deals with the four 
books of the scriptures, recognized by the Church as the only authorita- 
tive written embodiment of the doctrines of the Church; namely, the 
Bible, comprising the Old and New Testament, the American volume of 
scripture, the Book of Mormon, modern revelation, contained in the 
Doctrine and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great Price. The year's course 
of study is intended to be a rapid survey, not an exhaustive treatment, 
of these books; and this in order that all our Seventies may as soon 
as possible be made acquainted in a general, even if only in a super- 
ficial way, for the present, with this body of sacred literature: that they 
may know something of its history and character. The dominating 
idea of the whole course being, 

A Workman Should Knozv His Tools. 

In the past, a too exclusive adherence to merely "text methods" 
of work has been followed. That is to say, there has been a selection 
of separate and disconnected texts marshalled together in support of a 
given subject without sufficient care being taken to know the context and 
historical association of the scriptural utterances, often attended with 
great danger of forming misconceptions of such texts, resulting in wrong 
deductions and conclusions. The present aim is to make our Seventies 
familiar with the spirit of the scriptures, learning something of the indi- 
vidual books, as a whole, something of their general import and their 
relationship one to another; that from this general acquaintance with the 
whole volume of scripture, the Seventies may become more competent 
to use separate passages more intelligently and effectively, and with less 
likelihood of making mistakes. 


The fear has been expressed that since so many lessons are devoted 
to the Bible, nearly half the years' course, there will be some danger 
of the work becoming monotonous; but that fear is based upon the com- 
mon misconception that the Bible is one book, instead of a collection of 
books, thirty-nine in the Old Testament and twenty-seven in the New 
of our common English Bibles. Since the books are so many and the 
time period covered so great — about 2500 years, from Moses to St. John — 
and the books being composed by many writers — there is promise of 
plenty of variety, both as to books and subject matter. It is the rapid 
survey of a whole library of books that is contemplated, rather than the 
study of one book, albeit the many books are bound together in one 
volume. The consideration of the American volume of scripture, the 
Book of Mormon, and of modern revelation in the Doctrine and Covenants 
and Pearl of Great Price, in the latter part of the course, together with 
the suggested lectures and the special lessons '^n present day subjects, 
scripture reading exercises, etc., etc., will unquestionably give ample va- 
riety to the year's work. 


The First Council in its circular letter on the subject of the new or- 
der of things in relation to Seventies' meetings, course of study, etc., has 
already suggested that the new plans of Seventies' work would make it 
necessary for the quorums to find the most efficient teachers for their 
classes. "Where the most efficient teachers are to be found among the 
pi-esidents of quorums," says the circular letter, "of course they will be 
given preference; but where more efficient men can be found in the 
quorum membership they shoul,d be selected as teachers and perform 
their duties under the direction of the Council of the Quorum, which, of 
course, will always be the presiding authority in all quorum and class 
meetings, and conduct all the exercises except the class work. It might 
be well to select the most proficient man for teacher, and appoint one or 
mors assistants who should prepare for the class work, and in the event 
of the teacher's absence, and even occasionally when he is present, they 
could conduct the exercises. 


It is not desired that there shall be a too slavish adherence to the 
letter of the lessons. The lesson forms are merely suggestive. Nor is 
it the intention to set forth a stereotyped method of treatment of what is 
given. Much will depend upon the teachers. Some will prefer to assign 
the whole lesson to the quorum in general and conduct the exercises as 
a class; others may prefer to make special assignments of topics from 
the subject matter of the lessons and have brief formal lectures devoted 
to them, followed by review questions, formulated either in advance or 
in the course of the lesson exercises, or at its close by the one conducting 

the class. Either of these methods can be made satisfactory, or a com- 
bination of them might be adopted. It is desirable that the quorums and 
class teachers exercise their freedom in these matters, only let them 
throw life and individuality into the work and they will succeed. 

The class meetings of the quorums can continue throughout the year 
practically without interruption. Interruption will only be necessary in 
order to attend the Stake Quarterly Conferences, and the ward confer- 
ences where the respective quorums are located, and these occasions 
will not exceed five in number. There will be no occasion for postpon- 
ing class exercises in order to atend to the business affairs of the quorum, 
since half an hour of any regular session of the quorum will be sufficient 
for the transaction of any business it may have to do if prompt and bus- 
iness-like methods are employed. If not, a special meeting could be 
called. It is expected, of course, that the council will continue to hold 
itf council meetings apart from the quorum and class meetings, but 
these, too, could be held on the Sunday morning either before or after 
the regular meeting. 

Home reading and preparation outside of class hours should be in- 
sisted upon. It is not intended that the only mental work in connection 
with our course of study shall be the two or three hours devoted to the 
work on Sunday morning. There must be reading through the week. For 
example, during the weeks that the Pentateuch constitutes the lessons — 
three in number and hence extending over three weeks of time — it is 
expected that members will read the five books of Moses through, not a 
difficult task; and so on throughout all the lessons. By reading about 
one hour a day an average reader may complete in one year the reading 
of the four books of scripture covered by the present year's lessons. 
Necessarily, this will be rapid reading, but it should be remembered that 
we are only reading the scriptures this time to get a general idea of their 
contents, and the relation of the parts to the whole. The object now is 
not to ponder deeply over texts and combine them subjectively, or 
work out doctrinal or historical themes, hence we can read rapidly in 
this first survey of the scriptures proposed in these lessons. In addition 
to reading the books of scripture themselves, members should consult 
as far as possible the references given on the various books and top- 
ics in the lesson analysis. These references are quite numerous and 
varied, made so purposely, so that if the members do not happen to 
have access to one of the Dictionaries or Helps or other works of ref- 
erence, they might possibly have another — one at least out of the many, 
and the notes are given that all may be assured of some assistance in 
making lesson preparations by consulting the utterances of those who 
r^re recognized as authorities upon the subjects on which they are quoted. 
If this is thought to be a rather heavy course of work let it be remem- 
bered that it is to become a settled conviction with all that. To be a Seventy 

means mental activity, intellectual development, and the attainment of spiritual 
power, and this may be done only by hard persisent work. 


At Lesson XIV, Part II, it will be observed that "scripture reading" is 
introduced as an exercise to be rendered immediately after the opening 
exercises and before taking up the lesson proper. The purpose of this 
exercise is as follows: It is well known that in some Christian families 
in the world, it is the custom to make the reading of the scriptures a 
part of the family worship, and our Elders when visiting in such families 
are called up6n to read the scripture lesson before engaging in prayer — 
an example that could be followed with profit in our own family worship. 
The desirability of our Elders being prepared to acquit themselves well 
on such occasions as named above, is obvious, and to do that each one 
should have in mind a number of suitable chapters or parts of chapters 
of the scriptures with which he is familiar, which are appropriate for in- 
spiring the true spirit of worship, and which he can read effectively. It 
is. therefore, urged that class teachers direct the members of the class, 
when this exercise begins, to select each for himself, such scriptures 
and practise the reading of them, that when called upon to read before 
the class he may be prepared. Both the reading and the appropriate- 
ness of the scriptures chosen should be subject to the criticism of the 
teacher at the time. Correct pronunciation should be taught and in- 
sisted upon and practiced until it shall become habitual. From the se- 
lections read before the class, and the suggestions from the teachers the 
readings will elicit, each member in time will be able to build up a fine 
list of chapters or parts of chapters that will be suitable for family worship and 
special reading. It is not expected that this exrecise will occupy more than ten 
minutes, and usually should not occupy more than five. An example 
of such reading exercise is given in Lesson XIV, Part II. 

The object of publishing a special text with each lesson, is to bring 
before the members of the class passages of striking beauty, doctrinal 
value, or of spiritual power; both that our Seventies may in this way 
gradually build up a collection of striking texts, and also that they them- 
selves may form the habit while reading, of noting such passages and 
making them their own. They will find the noting of such passages a 
very fruitful and successful means of enriching their own language and 
enlarging their powers of expression. 


Occasionally special lectures and papers are outlined in the lesson. 
Teachers should make assignments of these exercises two or three weeks 
before the time for them to be rendered, that there may be ample time 
for thorough preparation, with the view of making the lectures and pa- 
pers an intellectual treat to the quorums. 


In the latter half of the course for the present year .subjects of pres- 
ent day interest are introduced to give variety to, and increase the in- 
terest in the lessons. It is suggested that these subjects be treated by 
having extemporaneous speaking upon the various topics in them. That 
is to say, let the subject be announced a week in advance for general 
consideration by all the members of the quorum. Then vi^hen assembled, 
the teacher conducting the exercise should call upon the members with- 
out previous notice or warning to speak on some subdivision or special 
topic associated with the subject matter of the lesson. The notes in 
these lessons comprise suggestions as to the construction of speeches or 
lectures, and these should be considered and enlarged upon, as the notes 
are only hints in the direction of helpfulness to the young and inexperi- 
enced members of the class. The purpose of introducing these subjects 
of present day interest is that the members of the quorums may be 
trained a little in applying the revealed principles of the Gospel to our 
present day problems, which to know how to do, and to do it well, is a 
matter of first rate importance. 

Neither in these extemporaneous exercises nor in any other of the 
lessons should excuses or hesitancy be tolerated. No member should be 
allowed to refuse to make the effort to speak. Strict class discipline 
should be maintained all along the line. We are dealing with men, not 
children; and, moreover, with men who of their own volition and desire 
have accepted the office of Seventy, and are under the deepest moral 
obligation to bend every energy to qualify themselves for the high duties 
pertaining to their office, and therefore should be thoroughly in earnest in 
these class exercises, and in home study and preparation. No foolish 
pride that shrinks from revealing one's ignorance or lack of training or 
ability should stand in the way of taking an active part in class work. 
He who would make progress in knowledge and the training of mind fac- 
ulties and polite and graceful deportment, must know that a humble atti- 
tude of mind that submits to correction and suggestion, are conditions 
precedent to that progress. We assemble in qtiorum capacity for this 
training. Our quorums are to become our workshops for the education 
of men, and each should manifest the willingness to try, and no matter 
how complete the failure or how often it is repeated there should be 
promptness and thoroughness and earnestness of effort and willingness 
to try again whenever a member is called upon to take part in class work. 


Class critics may be appointed to criticize in kindness and in fair- 
ness, but frankly and honestly, the class exercises; not necessarily con- 
fining their criticism to defects alone. Excellence may be noted and 
moderately praised, but benefits will naturally arise chiefly from having 


defects in matter and manner pointed out to the member rendering an 
exercise, such as awkwardness in bearing, unsuitableness of phrase- 
ology, wrong use of words, errors in grammar, mispronunciation of 
words, misconceptions in ideas, defects in logical treatment, inappro- 
priateness of illustration — let all such things be subjects for fair but 
frank criticism, and submitted to willingly and in good part, for pur- 
poses of improvement, and beyond a doubt such criticism would be very 

If the suggestion of the appointment of the critic be acted upon, a 
different one should be appointed, say every month, or not Jess seldom 
than every two months. 


It will be observed that no suggestions are made in the lessons in 
relation to opening exercises. It was thought unnecessary to make any 
since that can be easily managed as each quorum deems proper. We do 
suggest, however, that singing be made part of such exercise; both on 
account of its being a very beautiful and appropriate exercise for such 
meetings as we propose our quorum class meetings to become, and also 
for the reason that singing is a training that our Elders very much need 
to equip them for their mission work. All, therefore, should be induced 
to participate in this exercise to the extent of their abilities. Occasion- 
ally ten or fifteen minutes could be devoted to practice in singing — right 
good earnest work, until each quorum builds up a repertoire of suitable 
hymns and spiritual songs. It is quite possible, too, for nearly every 
quorum to have a fine quartette or male chorus, and occasionally these 
could render special pieces to enliven the meetings and make glad the 
hearts of the brethren, but not to the displacement of congregational or 
quorum singing. 

And in the selection of hymns and songs, and choruses, appropriate- 
ness should be carefully considered. Let the strong, stalwart hymns of 
the present dispensation be practiced in the quorums, and not the namby, 
pamby, childish hymns that sometimes find their way into the reper- 
toire of songs sung by our Elders in the mission field. Let us have 
such hymns as, 

"The morning breaks, the shadows flee; 

Lo! Zion's standard is unfurled! 
The dawning of a brighter day 

Majestic rises on the world." 

A trumpet blast within itself. Such hymns as, 

"An angel from on high, 

The long, long silence broke," etc. 


"Israel, Israel, God is calling, 

Calling thee from lands of woe," etc. 




"If you could hie to Kolob. 

In the twinkling of an eye," etc. 

"O say, what is Truth? 'Tis the fairest gem,"' etc. 

"Israel, awake from your long silent slumber I 

Shake off the fetters that bound thee so long," etc. 

These few indicate a class of our hymns that are peculiarly ours — 
peculiarly Mormon hymns that are vibrant with the spirit of the latter- 
day work because it produced them — inspired them, and they are more 
appropriate, at least for Seventies, for missionaries, than the half sec- 
tarian songs many of our youth are learning to cultivate a taste for. Let 
us learn to sing Mormonism as well as to preach it. Every Elder who 
can sing at all should carefully select a set of hymns that have the mis- 
sionary spirit in them and learn to sing them. 


A word on prayer. If singing be considered important, both in the 
opening and closing exercises of our meetings, and as an accomplish- 
ment of our Seventies, praying must be regarded as of far more impor- 
tance. As gold to brass; as diamonds to pebbles; so is prayer to singing, 
even, so much more important is it. Yet how little attention is given to 
prayer! I mean to the cultivation of the gift of it; to nourishing the 
spirit of it. After an elapse of two thousand years we still have need of 
going to the Master and saying, "Lord teach us how to pray." To at- 
tempt any extended suggestions on the subject here, however, would be 
beyond the scope of this introduction; all that can be done is to call at- 
tention to the need of good taste being observed when addressing the 
All Father; appropriateness of our petitions to the occasion, respect- 
fulness and reverence in the manner of our address; avoiding a frequent 
repetition of the divine name or titles; and, above all, right feeling to- 
wards the Good Father when speaking to him. 


The Seventies are to be congratulated upon now having an organ 
through which the First Council can communicate with them from time 
to time without the inconvenience and expense of special circulars. That 
the Seventies have an organ may be matter of surprise to them, since 
this is the first announcement of the fact, and there has been but little 
agitation of the matter though it has been the proverbial "long felt 
want." It came about in the following manner: The First Council sug- 
gested to President Joseph F. Smith that the "Improvement Era," now 
the organ of the Young Men's Mutual Improvement Associations, could 

easily be extended in its scope so as to become also the organ of the 
Seventies. Its general literature is already, in the main, of the class our 
Seventies would do well to read. The Era has been the vehicle through 
which very many important doctrinal articles have been published; and 
having become the organ of the Seventies, as well as of the Young 
Men's association, is a guarantee that it will continue that line of work, 
and perhaps more abundantly in the future than in the past. There will 
be a Seventies' department opened in the magazine, of several pages, in 
which will be published each month suggestions and directions relative 
to Seventies' class work, quorum discipline and general management. Of 
the advantages of such an arrangement little need be urged since they 
must be obvious to all. Hereafter, then, the Improvement Era will be 
known as the "organ of the seventies and the young men's mutual im- 
provement ASSOCIATIONS." 

The First Council bespeak for our organ the hearty support of all 
the Seventies. Its success has depended heretofore on the love and loy- 
alty of the Young Men's Association; hereafter that will be supple- 
mented by the love and loyalty of the Seventies' quorums. The atten- 
tion of the members of the quorums should at once be called to this new 
adjunct in our work and they be invited to become subscribers to our 
magazine. We suggest that one or two members in each quorum be ap- 
pointed to solicit subscriptions within the quorum, that each member be 
given the direct opportunity to become a subscriber. The Era, it will be 
understood, has no other agents except those appointed by r.he Young 
Men's Association in the respective wards and branche-^ of the Church, 
and now, of course, those who will be appointed by on qiorums. The 
service is to be given without remuneration — solicit subscriptions 
within our quorums is to be a work of love and ir ^est. The price is 
two dollars per year, paid in advance, and subsii ions should be sent 
by the quorum agent to the manager of the Er .u^ider Alpha J. Higgs, 
Era office, 214 Templeton Building, Salt LaV City. Promptness and 
efficiency in dealing with this matter is expected. 

It is a fortunate circumstance that this inauguration of better work- 
ing conditions for the quorums of Seventies, and the beginning of the 
volume of the Era — volume XI — should start off together, viz., in the 
month of November. But is it not a co-ordination of circumstances 
brought about by the operation of the Spirit of the Lord upon the minds 
of the brethren rather than a matter of good fortune? So many things 
have conjoined for this new movement among the Seventies to augur 
success that those of us who have been watching its development can- 
net doubt but that 

•• ; : Wills It!" 


And now, brethren of the Seventies, in conclusion: Be earnest in 
this work. Be thorough, patient, self-denying. A great opportunity has 


come to us — let us make the most of it, and be grateful that it has come. 
Let no difficulties appall us. We can overcome them. Let us say of dif- 
ficulties, what Napoleon said of the Alps, when the difficulty, if not the 
impossibility, of crossing them with an army was suggested, he an- 

"There Shall Be No Alps!" 

Remember.' To become a Seventy means mental activity, intellectual de- 
velopment, and the attainment of spiritul power. 


The following named books of reference will be especially useful in 
the present year's course of study. It is not expected, of course, that all 
our Seventies will be able to secure the entire collection suggested, but it 
would be well for our members to purchase so many of them as they 
can afford to buy as the beginning of a small personal library. The 
books recommended will not only be useful for the present year's lessons, 
but are standard books that will be useful in all the courses of study 
ytt to be prescribed. Inasmuch as individuals may not be able to pur- 
chase these books, we suggest that it would be well for each quorum to 
take under consideration the propriety of the quorum as a body obtain- 
ing this complete list as the foundation of a quorum reference library, 
that might be available to all for preparation. 

L "The Seventy's Indispensible Library:" This consists of the 
Cambridge Bible, the Book of Mormon, The Doctrine and Covenants, 
Pearl of Great Price, (bound in one volume) and the Richards-Little 
Compendium; price, post-paid, $9.00. 

Webster's New Standard Dictionary of the English Language, 
adapted for High School, Academic and Collegiate Courses; price, $1.50. 

The Works of Flavius-Josephus, in one volume, by William Whis- 
ton, A. M., David McKay, Publisher, 23 South Ninth Street, Philadelphia, 

Dictionary of the Bible (Dr. William Smith's). The most desirable 
edition of this work is the four volume edition of Prof. H. B. Hackett, 
D. D., published by Houghton-Miffiin & Co., Boston. It is a very valu- 
able work and contains, "by universal consent, the fruit of the ripest 
biblical scholarship of England, and constitutes a library of itself, su- 
perceding the use of many books otherwise necessary." The price in 
leather binding, $25.00. The Seventies individually may not be able to 
purchase this edition, but where quorums unite for the purchase of books 
this is the edition that should be secured. 

"There is, however, a one volume edition of this work, known as 

Smith's Smaller Dictionary of the Bible, published by Fleming H. 
Revell Co., New York and Chicago, $1.25, post-paid. 

Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature, edited by John Kitto, two vol- 
umes, S. W. Green's Son, Publishers, 74, 76 Beekmen St., New York. If 
Smith's Dictionary is not secured then the work next in value is the 
one here named. 

"A Commentary Critical and Explanatory of the Old and New Testa- 
ment," Jamieson-Fausset-Brown, S. S. Scranton & Co., Hartford, Pub- 
lishers. This is a very excellent work, and frequently quoted in the 
references and also in the notes of the present year's course of study. 
As remarked in one of the notes, the Eld&rs who make up our ministry 
may not accept the doctrinal interpretation of this or any other com- 
mentary, yet its historical and critical treatises are among the most recent 
and valuable. 

The Old Testament History, by William Smith, Harper & Brothers, 
Publishers, New York; price, $2.00. This work is designed by the com- 
piler and editor as a manual in relation to Hebrew history and on a par 
with the histories of Greece and Rome, generally used in our best 
schools. As a digest of Biblical History, it is a most valuable work. 

Dr. Smith's New Testament History, with introduction, connecting 
the history of the Old Testament with the New, Harper Brothers, New 
York. This work stands in the same relationship to the New Testament 
History that the previously mentioned work does to the Old. 

"Illustrated Bible Treasury," edited by William Wright, D. D. To 
those who may have neither Cambridge or Oxford or Nelson Bible 
Helps, we recommend this as a very valuable collection of material, in- 
cluding a Concordance, a Dictionary and Maps, and upwards of 350 il- 
lustrations, on Bible subjects; price, post-paid, seventy-five cents. 

As helps in the study of the Book of Mormon we recommend: 

Reynolds' Dictionary of the Book of Mormon. 

Y. M. M. I. A. Manuals, Nos. 7, 8 and 9, containing Elder Roberts' 
treatise on the Book of Mormon, including a consideration of External 
and Internal Evidences, price twenty-five cents per number. 

Defense of the Faith and the Saints (just out from the press), price 

Y. M. M. I. A. Manual, No. 10; subject. Modern Revelation, especi- 
ally valuable in the study of the Doctrine and Covenants; price twenty- 
five cents. Manuals can be obtained from the Era office, Templeton 
Building, Salt Lake City. 

The Book of Abraham. Its Authenticity as a Divine and Ancient 
Record, (Elder George Reynolds). 

The Improvement Era, organ of the Seventies and Y. M. M. I. 
Associations, for current literature, comment and special articles on sub- 
jects of first year's Seventies' work, price $2.00 per year, in advance. 

The Seventy's Course in Theology. 


Outline History of the Seventy. 


Exodus xxiv: xi; Num- 
ber xi: 16, 25. Note 1. 


I. The Seventy in the Mosaic Dispensa- 

1. The Seventy Chosen. 

2. Their Spiritual Powers . 

3. Was the Sanhedrim a perpetua- 
.tion of the Seventy. 

11. The Seventy of the Christian Dispen- g^uke ^- .i;2^. ^ ^mitivs 

Sation. "Seventy Disciples.'- 

^^ . . . /-^ Edersheim's "Jesus the 

1. Organization 01 Uuorums. Messias," vol 11, chap. 

2. Commission and Spiritual Powers. l^f^!"^' 5f - IfuSs^ 

Eccl.' Hist.' pp. 17, IS. 
Notes 2, 3. 

*Hackett edition, in four volumes, now and always quoted. 

tl take occasion here to remark that by making reference to works 
such as Edersheim's Life of Jesus, Bible Dictionaries Ecclesiastical His- 
tories, etc., it must not be understood that in making such references 
I approve the works, or even accept the correctness of the passages 
indicated. Such references are made that the student may consult the 
literature on a given point. He must make his own deductions as to the 
correctness of the stateinents and arguments of such authors. As for in- 
stance, in this very passage cited from Edersheim's really great work, I 
think him, in the main, wrong in his treatment of this subject of the 
Seventy, but our Seventies should know what so high an authority, as 
Edersheim is generally accepted to be, has said upon the subject. 


III. The Seventy in the Dispensation of j^^otes 4,^ s.^e, 7.^ akso 
the Fulness of Times. voi. li, is}-2 and notes; 

,^, r^ ■ ^- £ .^ T^- i. Ibid. Chap. xiii and 

1. The Organization of the rirst notes, iwd, p. 221, and 

V^UOrum. Report of to the Prophet). 

2. First Report to the Prophet. Notes s, 9, 10, n, 12. 

3. Blessed in Kirtland Temple. 

4. They lead Zion's Camp to Mis- 

5. Increase in the number of Quor- 
ums in Nauvoo and the West, 
Present Status. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "God could not organize His kingdom with hvclve 
men to open the gospel door to the nations of the earth, and with seventy men 
under their direction to follow in their tracks, unless he took them from a 
body of men zvho Iiad offered their lives, and zuho had made as great a sacri- 
fice as did Abraham. A'ozv the Lord has got his Twelve and his Seventy, and 
there zvill be other quorums of Seventies called, who will make the sacrifice, 
and those who have not made their sacrifices and their offerings now, will 
make them hereafter." — Joseph Smith. 


1. The Seventy of the Mosaic Dispensation: It is difficult to de- 
termine just what the relationship of the Seventy Elders of Exodus xxiv 
and 1, and Numb, xi: 16, 25, occupied in the Mosaic polity. Commenting 
on the passage in Exodus, a somewhat celebrated authority (Jamieson- 
Fausset-Brown's Commentary) says: 

"An order of Seventy was to be created, either by a selection from 
the existing staff of Elders, or by the appointment of new ones, empow- 
ered to assist him [Moses] by their collective wisdom and experience in 
the onerous cares of government. The Jewish writers say that this was 
the origin of the Sanhedrim, or supreme appellate court of their nation. 
But there is every reason to believe that it was only a temporary expedi- 
ent, adopted to meet a trying exigency." 

Catholic commentators, however, positively assert that this appoint- 
ment of the Seventy Elders "was the first institution of the Council or 
Senate, called the Sanhedrim, consisting of seventy or seventy-two Sen- 
ators, or Counselors." (Douay Bible, foot-note. Numb, xi: 16-25.) 

But Dr. William Smith, in his Old Testament History, says: 

"The appointment of the Seventy Elders has often been regarded 
as the germ of the Sanhedrim. They seem rather to have been a Sen- 
ate, whose office was confined to assisting Moses in the government, and 
ceased with the cessation of his leadership. No trace of the Sanhedrim 
is found till the return from the Babylonish captivity. It is more cer- 
tain that the manner of their consecration prefigured the order of the 
Prophets. (Old Testament History, p. 185.) 

From all this it will be seen that much confusion exists among the 
learned with reference to the exact nature of the office of the Seventy. 
From the revelations of the Lord, however, to the Prophet Joseph 
Smith, we learn that the Priesthood existed in Israel in the days of 
Moses, but that "he took Moses out of their midst and the Holy Priest- 
hood also," but that " the lesser Priesthood continued, which Priesthood 
holdeth the key of the ministering of angels and the preparatory gospel" 
only. With this as a key, that is. with the knowledge that the "Holy 
Priesthood," meaning by that the higher, or Melchisedek Priesthood, ex- 
isted in Israel in the days of Moses, it is fairly safe to conclude that the 
Seventy Elders of the two passages in question were really a quorum of 
the Seventy as we know it, and that perhaps the princes at the head of 
the twelve tribes of Israel may have occupied a position somewhat an- 
alogous to, if not identical with, that of the Twelve Apostles in the later 
Church, though it must be admitted that the latter suggestion, especially 
is merely conjecture. The conclusion with reference to the Seventy, how- 
ever, takes on increased probability when the spiritual powers exercised 
by the Seventy described in Numb, xi : 24, 29, is taken into account ; powers 
that are so nearly akin to those of the Seventy in the Meridian and later dis- 
pensations of the gospel. 

2. The Seventy of the New Testament: The opinions of ecclesiasti- 
cal writers with reference to the Saventy mentioned in Luke x, seem to 
be as hopelessly inconclusive as those held with reference to the Sev- 
enty in the Mosaic polity. Some, for instance, hold that "no power or 
authority was formally conferred upon the Seventy, their mission being 
only temporary, and indeed for one divine purpose; its primary object 
was to prepare for the coming of the Master in the places to which they 
were sent; and their selection was from a wider circle of disciples, the 
number being now seventy instead of twelve." So says Edersheim (Jesus 
the Messiah, Vol. II, p. 136), from which it appears that he does not 
regard the Seventy as permanent officers in the Church, because, as he 
assumes, their mission was temporary. 

Whereas, on the other hand, Dr. Smith holds that "their office did 
not cease with the fulfillment of their immediate and temporary mission, 
but was to continue." (Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, Vol. IV, Article, 
Seventy Disciples.) 

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown's Commentary, on the passage, says: 

"The mission [i. e., of the Seventy], unlike that of the Twelve, was 
evidently quite temporary. All the instructions are in keeping with a 
brief and hasty pioneering mission, intended to supply what of general 
preparation for coming events, the Lord's own visit afterwards to the 
same "cities and places" would not from want of time, now suffice to ac- 
complish; whereas the instructions to the Twelve, besides embracing 
all those of the Seventy, contemplate world-wide and permanent effects. 
Accordingly, after their return from this single missionary tour, we 
never again read of the Seventy." 

"We never again read of the Seventy" should be limited, however, to 

the books of the New Testament, for in the ecclesiastical writers which 
succeed the New Testament authors, mention is made of individual mem- 
bers of this body of Seventy, and of their labors. For instance, Eusebius 
has the following passage with reference to them. 

"The names of our Savior's Apostles are sufficiently obvious to ev- 
ery one, from his gospels; but of the seventy disciples, no catalogue is 
given anj'where. Barnabas, indeed, is said to have been one of them, 
of whom there is distinguished notice in the Acts of the Apostles; and 
also in St. Paul's Epistle to the Galatians. Sosthenes, who sent letters 
with Paul to the Corinthians, is said to have been one of these. Clement, 
in the fifth of his Hj^potyposes or Institutions, in which he also men- 
tions Cephas, of whom Paul also says, that he came to Antioch, and 
"that he withstood him to his face;"* — says, that one who had the same 
name with Peter the Apostle, was one of the Seventy; and that Mat- 
thias, who was numbered with the Apostles in place of Judas, and he who 
had been honored to be a candidate with him, are also said to have been 
deemed worthy of the same calling with the Seventy. They also say 
that Thaddeus was one of them; concerning whom I shall presently re- 
late a narrative that has come down to us. Moreover, if any one ob- 
serve with attention, he will find more disciples of our Savior than the 
Seventj% on the testimony of Paul, who says, that "he appeared after his 
resurrection, first to Cephas, then to the Twelve, and after these to five 
hundred brethren at once." Of whom, he says, "some are fallen asleep," 
but the greater part were living at the time he wrote." ((Eccl. Hist. Eu- 
sebius, Chap, xii.) 

In the chapter following the one from which the foregoing quota- 
tion is taken, Eusebius refers to Thaddeus in the most positive manner as 
being one of the Seventy, and that he was sent by Thomas, the Apos- 
tle, to visit King Agbarus. (See Eusebius' Eccl. History, Chap, xiii.) 

3. Of Their Being More Than One Quorum of Seventy in the 
Meridian Dispensation: In all comments upon the Seventy mentioned 
in St. Luke, chapter x, one thing seems to have been strangely over- 
looked; namely, that Jesus had appointed other quorums of Seventy be- 
fore those mentioned by the third Evangelist. Such is the plain impli- 
cation of the first verse in said chapter, to-wit: 

"After these things the Lord appointed other Seventy also, and sent 
them two and two before his face," etc. Undoubtedly, it is in their col- 
lective capacity that they are referred to here, since the term "Seventy" 
is used in the singular; and before the appointment of this Seventy men- 
tioned in Luke, Jesus had appointed "other Seventy," or quorums of Sev- 
enty, how many may not be determined. In I Cor.: xv, where Paul de- 
scribed the appearances of Jesus after the resurrection, it is said "that 
he was seen of Cephas (Peter), then of the Twelve, after that he was 

*It will be observed from this statement that the "Cephas," or "Pe- 
ter" whom Paul "withstood to his face" at Antioch, was not the chief 
Apostle Peter, but another "Cephas" or "Peter," one of the Seventy. I 
fear, however, that the testimony in Galatians ii, as to its being Peter, 
the chief Apostle, with whom Paul had his unfortunate controversy, is 
too strong to be overturned by this inference in Eusebius. 

seen of about five hundred brethren at once, of whom the greater part 
remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep." Now, taking the 
close relationship between the Twelve and the Seventy, the similarity of 
their mission and commission, (compare Luke x with Matthew x), and 
the fact that in the above quoted passage from Paul the appearances of 
Jesus is spoken of as being associated with Peter, then with the Twelve, 
and then of five hundred brethren at once, may it not be that those 500 
brethren were those who held similar authority with the Twelve Apos- 
tles, namely, the Seventy, which would make, allowing for slight dis- 
crepancy and perhaps the attendance of the Twelve Apostles, among the 
five hundred, seven quorums of Seventy. (See Doc. & Cov. Sec. cvii: 95.) 
This is admittedly conjecture, and yet conjecture upon which strong 
probability attends. 

4. The Prophet's Vision of the Order in Church Government: It is 
evident from the account given in the history of the Prophet Joseph 
Smith, that the organization of the Twelve and the Seventy grew out 
of a vision he had concerning the order of Church organization, since 
both in his history and also in the revelation contained in the Doc. & 
Cov. Sec. 107, he repeatedly makes mention of that vision. In the min- 
utes of the meeting at which the organization of the Twelve began, it is 
written that "President Smith then stated that the meeting had been 
called because God had commanded it; and it was made known to him 
by vision and by the Holy Spirit." (History of the Church, Vol. II, p. 
182, also note.) 

In the revelation above referred to, describing the order of the 
Seventy, the Prophet says: "It is according to the vision, showing the 
order of the Seventy, that there shall be seven presidents to preside over 
them, chosen out of the number of the Sevent}'." 

5. The First Quorums of Seventy Chosen from Zion's Camp: The 
first and second quorum of Seventy was made up, in the main, from that 
band of men who constituted Zion's camp, the camp, it will be remem- 
bered, that went up to the deliverance of the Saints who had been ex- 
pelled from Jackson county in 1833. In the meeting referred to in the 
foregoing note, at which the Twelve were organized, it is stated that the 
Prophet related some of the circumstances attendant upon the journey 
of Zion's camp; its trials, sufferings, etc., and said, "God had not de- 
signed all this for nothing, but he had it in remembrance yet; and it was 
the will -of God that those who went to Zion (i .e., Missouri) with the 
determination to lay down their lives if necessary, should be ordained 
to the ministry and go forth to prune the vineyard for the last time." 
(History of the Church, Vol. ii, p. 182.) In an address to certain Elders 
assembled in Kirtland soon after the Seventy were organized, the 
Prophet said: 

"Brethren, some of you are angry with me, because you did not fight 
in Missouri; but let me tell you, God did not want you to fight. He 
could not organize his kingdom with twelve men to open the gospel door 

to the nations of the earth, and with seventy men under their direction 
to follow in their tracks, unless he took them from a body of men 
who had offered their lives, and who had made as great a sacrifice as 
did Abraham. Now the Lord has got his Twelve and his Seventy, and 
there will be other quorums of Seventies called, who will make the sac- 
rifice, and those who have not made their sacrifices and their offerings 
now, will make them hereafter." (History of the Church, Vol. II, p. 
182 in note.) 

From this, it appears, that the character of men who attain unto this 
high station in the Priesthood of God should be men who have made 
sacrifices for the work of God, or who are perfectly willing to make 
such sacrifices, even to laying down their lives for the cause. 

Organization of the Seventy in Dispensation of the Fullness of 
Times: The organization of the Seventies in the dispensation of the 
fulness of times began on the 28th of February, 1835, when, according 
to the History of the Prophet Joseph, "The Church in council assem- 
bled, commenced selecting certain individuals to be Seventies from the 
number of those who went up to Zion with me in the camp (i. e., Zion's 
camp); and the following are the names of those who were ordained and 
blessed at that time (names omitted), to begin the organization of the 
first quorum of Seventies, according to the visions and revelations which 
I have received. The Seventies are to constitute traveling quorums, to 
go into all the earth, whithersoever the Twelve Apostles shall call them." 
(History of the Church, Vol. II, p. 201-302. See also notes on the text 
of those two pages.) 

7. President Joseph Young's Account of the Organization of the 
First Quorums of Seventy: The account of the organization of the Sev- 
enty given by the late Joseph Young, brother of President Brigham 
Young, who became the First President of the Seventy in this dispen- 
sation, is too important to be omitted, and therefore is given here in 

"On the 8tli day of February, in the year of our Lord 1835, the 
Prophet Joseph Smith called Elders Brigham and Joseph Young to the 
chamber of his residence, in Kirtland, Ohio; it being on the Sabbath day. 
After they were seated, and he had made some preliminaries, he pro- 
ceeded to relate a vision to these brethren, of the state and condition of 
those men who died in Zion's Camp, in Missouri. He said, "Brethren. 
I have seen those men who died of the cholera in our camp; and the 
Lord knows, if I get a mansion as bright as theirs, I ask no more." At 
this relation he wept, and for some time could not speak. When he had 
relieved himself of his feelings, in describing the vision, he resumed the 
conversation, and addressed himself to Brother Brigham Young. Said 
he to him, "I wish you to notify all the brethren living in the branches, 
within a reasonable distance from this place, to meet at a General Con- 
ference on Saturday next. I shall then and there appoint twelve special 
witnesses, to open the door of the gospel to foreign nations, and you," 
said he (speaking to Brother Brigham), "will be one of them." 

He then proceeded to enlarge upon the duties of their calling. The 
interest that was taken on the occasion of this announcement, produced 

in the minds of the two Elders present a great sensation, and many 
reflections; having previously notified Brother Brigham Young that he 
would be one of the witnesses, but said nothing to Joseph until he had 
exhausted much of his feelings in regard to the Twelve, which took up 
some little time. 

'"He then turned to Elder Joseph Young with quite an earnestness, as 
though the vision of his mind was extended still further, and addressing 
him, said: "Brother Joseph, the Lord has made you President of the 

"They had heard of Moses and seventy Elders of Israel, and of 
Jesus appointing other Seventies, but had never heard of Twelve Apos- 
tles and of Seventies being called in this Church before. It was a 
strange saying, "The Lord has made you president of the Seventies," as 
though it had already taken place, and it caused these brethren to mar- 

"The Prophet did not say that any others would be called to be the 
bearers of this message abroad, but the inference might be clearly 
drawn, that this was his meaning, from the language he used at the 

"Agreeable to his request to Elder Brigham Young, the branches were 
all notified, and a meeting of the brethren in General Conference was 
held in Kirtland, in the new school house, under the printing office, on 
the following Saturday, February 14th, when the Twelve were ap- 
pointed and ordained, and the Conference adjourned for two weeks. 

"Pursuant to this adjournment, the Conference convened on Satur- 
day, the 28th of that month, when the first quorum of Seventies were 
appointed and ordained, under the hands of the Prophet, his Counselors, 
and others. 

"Adjourned meetings were held from time to time, and the second 
quorum of Seventies were appointed and ordained." 

8. The First Report of the Seventy: The first report that the Sev- 
enties made of their labors seems to have given very great satisfaction 
to the Prophet. Under date of December 28, 1835, (less than a year 
after their organization) the Prophet says: 

"This day the Council of the Seventy met to render an account of 
their travels and ministry, since they were ordained to that Apostleship. 
The meeting was interesting, indeed, and my heart was made glad while 
listening to the relation of those that had been laboring in the vineyard 
of the- Lord, with such marvelous success. And I pray God to bless 
them with an increase of faith and power, and keep them all. with the 
ei''.durance of faith in the name of Jesus Christ to the end." (History of 
the Church, Vol. II, p. 346.) 

9. The Anointing of the Seventy: The Seventies were privileged to 
receive their washings and anointings in the Kirtland Temple prepara- 
tory to its public dedication. The Presidency of the Seventy received 
their anointing and blessing under the hands of the Twelve Apostles on 
the 22nd of January, 1836; and had sealed "upon their heads power and 
authority to anoint their brethren" — the members of their quorums. 
(History of the Church, Vol. II, p. 383.) Under date of the 30th of 
January, 1836, members of the quorums were anointed and blessed, of 
which circumstance the Prophet saj's: 


"In the evening, went to the upper room of the Lord's house, and 
set the different qqorums in order. Instructed the presidents of the 
Seventy concerning the order of their anointing, and requested them to 
proceed and anoint the Seventy." (History of the Church, Vol. II, p. 

10. The Seventy Sustained as Apostles: During the dedicatory 
services in the Kirtland Temple, March 27, 1836, when the various ofti- 
cers of the Church were sustained, the Seventies were sustained as 
"Apostles and special witnesses to the nations to assist the Twelve," etc. 
I quote the passage in full. 

"I then called upon the quorums and congregation of Saints to ac- 
knowledge the Twelve Apostles, who were present, as Prophets, Seers, 
Revelators, and special witnesses to all the nations of the earth, holding 
the keys of the kingdom, to unlock it, or cause it to be done, among 
them, and uphold them by their prayers, which they assented to by ris- 
ing. I next called upon the quorums and congregation of Saints to ac- 
knowledge the presidents of Seventies who act as their representatives, 
as Apostles and special witnesses to the nations, to assist the Twelve in 
opening the gospel kingdom among all people, and to uphold them by 
their prayers, which they did by rising." (History of the Church, Vol. 
II, p. 417-18.) 

11. The First Council of Seventy Lead Kirtland Camp to Missouri: 

Perhaps the greatest work achieved by the First Council of the Seventies 
in their organized capacity, was the organization of the Kirtland Camp, 
and leading it from Kirtland, Ohio, to Adam-ondi-Ahman, Missouri, a 
distance of 860 miles. The camp numbered 105 families, 529 souls in all. 
They left the vicinity of Kirtland on the 6th day of July, 1838, and ar- 
riving at Adam-ondi-Ahman on the 4th of October, of the same year. A 
full history of the organization of this camp and its journey is to be 
found in the History of the Church, Vol. Ill, p. 87 to 148. 

12. Increase of Quorums at Nauvoo: At the October Conference, 
1844, the number of the Seventy was greatly increased. On the third day 
of the conference, "Elder George A. Smith moved that all in the 
Elders' quorum under the age of thirty-five should be ordained into the 
Seventies', if they are in good standing, and worthy, and will accept it. 
The motion was seconded and carried unanimously." Enough members 
were added to make in all eleven quorums, and forty more were or- 
dained to be part of the twelfth quorum. (See minutes of Conference, 
"Times and Seasons," Vol. V, p. 695-696.) By the first of January, 1845, 
the number of quorums had increased to fourteen, and a Seventies' li- 
brary was started, which caused the editor of the "Times and Seasons" 
to exclaim: 

"Ten years ago but one Seventy, and now fourteen [quorums of] 
Seventies, and the foundation for the best library in the world. It looks 
like old times when they had 'Kirjath Saphcr,' the City of Books. (Times 
and Seasons, Vol. V, p. 762-3.) 

Meantime the Seventies had built a large brick hall in Nauvoo, known 
ns the "Seventies' Hall," and on the 26th of December, 1844, this build- 
ing was dedicated with imposing ceremonies extending through an entire 

Aveek. Most of the members of the Council of the Apostles participated in the 
dedicatory services. It may be of interest for the Seventies to know 
that the heroic hymn, "The Seer, the Seer, Joseph the Seer," by the late 
President John Taylor, was written for these services though dedicated 
by the author to President Brigham Young. (Times and Seasons, Vol. 
V, p. IQ.) The arrangement was made for two quorums to be in at- 
tendance at the dedication each day with their wives and children and 
a number of invited guests. By this time there were fifteen quorums in 
existence. By the 19th of January, 1846, the number of quorums had in- 
creased to thirty. (Times and Seasons, Vol. VI, p. 1096.) Whether or 
not any more quorums than these were organized in Nauvoo we do not 

13. Status of the Quorums Since Nauvoo Times: For some time 
after the settlement of the Church in Utah some confusion existed in re- 
lation to the quorums of Seventy, and the members of the respective 
quorums were so badly scattered that they convened in what were 
known as "mass quorums," consisting of all the Seventies living in a 
stake or ward, without regard to the particular quorum to which they 
belonged. In the year 1883, however, a movement was set on foot to 
put the quorums in order, and the Presidency of the Church issued the 
following instructions on the subject of 


Salt Lake City, U. T., April 13, 1883. 

In the organization of these quorums in October, 1844, there were 
ten quorums, each provided with seven presidents, which presidents con- 
stituted the First Quorum of Seventies, and of which the First Seven 
Presidents of the Seventies were members, and over which they presided. 
But as the Seventies have greatly increased, these regulations will not 
apply to the present circumstances; and furthermore, the First Quorum, 
according to the present organization, has not acted in a quorum capa- 
city, but it would seem there are duties devolving upon its members, as a 
quorum, that may require their official action. 

The First Quorum of Seventies may be composed of the First Sev- 
en Presidents of the Seventies, and the senior president of the first sixty- 
four quorums. These may form the Seventy referred to in the Book of 
Doctrine and Covenants, and may act in an official capacity as the First 
Quorum of Seventies. 

The senior president's of the other quorums, over and above the 
sixty-four, may meet with the First Quorum in their assemblies in any 
other than an official capacity; but in case of the absence of any of the 
members of the First Quorum, they can act, in the place of such mem- 
bers with the First Quorum during such absence, in any cases of im- 
portance that mav arise. 

The headquarters of the different quorums, and the records thereof, 
may be distributed throughout the various Wards and Stakes, under 
the direction of the First Seven Presidents, as the number of the Priest- 
hood residing in such localities may seem to justify and any vacancies 
that exist, either in the presidency or membership of the different quor- 
ums may be filled by the ordination of persons residing in the locality 
in which the respective quorums are organized. 


Any of the members or presidents of other quorums who are in 
good standing may have the privilege of joining the quorum located in 
the district in w^hich they reside; but in such cases they should first ob- 
tain a certificate as to their standing in the quorum from which they de- 
sire to withdraw; to obtain which it would only be necessary to pro- 
cure a certificate of their good standing from the Bishop of the Ward 
to which they belong, provided their names are found upon the record 
of their quorum as in good standing. 

The presidents of the quorums residing in the district where their 
respective quorums are organized shall have a general supervision of all 
the Seventies residing in their district. 

In all cases where members of quorums are called in question, a 
majority of their respective quorums will have jurisdiction in all cases 
involving their standing in the quorum, but in case there is not a major- 
ity residing in the district where the quorum is organized, or in the case 
of scattered members, the members present should investigate the mat- 
ter and report their findings to the First Seven Presidents. Any com- 
plaints regarding the presidents of quorums should be made to the 
First Seven Presidents of the Seventies, who may suspend such pres- 
idents, if their conduct seem to justify it, pending the action of the 
First Quorum. Any presidents or members from whom fellowship has 
been withdrawn by the quorums, should be reported to the High Coun- 
cil having jurisdiction. 

The Seventies, when abroad, if anything should occur requiring their 
supervision, in the absence of other authorities, may act upon the case 
of any delinquent belonging to the Seventies, and should report their 
decisions to the First Seven Presidents of the Seventies. 

Your Brethren in the gospel, 
First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints. 

A revelation given through President John Taylor, at Salt Lake City, 
Utah Territory, on Saturday, April 14th, 1883, in answer to the question: 
"Show unto us thy will, O Lord, concerning the organization of the Seventies." 

What ye have written is my will, and is acceptable unto me: and 

Thus saith the Lord unto the First Presidency, unto the Twelve, unto 
the Seventies and unto all my holy Priesthood, let not your hearts be 
troubled, neither be ye concerned about the management and organiza- 
tion of my Church and Priesthood and the accomplishment of my work. 
Fear me and observe my laws and I will reveal unto you, from time to 
time, through the channels that I have appointed, everything that shall 
be necessary for the future development and perfection of my Church, 
for the adjustment and rolling forth of my kingdom, and for the building 
up and the establishment of my Zion. For ye are my Priesthood and I 
am your God. Even so. Amen." 

Under the instructions given in the foregoing communication and 
revelation, the First Council of the Seventy have proceeded with the 
work of increasing the quorums and managing their aflfairs. The quor- 
ums now number 151, giving to the foreign ministry of the Church a 
body of men numbering about ten thousand. 



I. The Priesthood. 

I. Definition, and the Grouping of 
Powers and Officers. 

II. The Church: Defined. 

1. The Depository of Revealed 

2. Of Divine Authority — Her Com- 

III. The Mission of the Church. 

1. Proclamation of the Truth. 

2. Perfecting the Lives of Those 
AMio Receive Her Truth. 

IV. The Foreign Ministry. 

1. The Twelve Apostles. 

2. The Seventy. 

3. Special Duties of the Seventy. 


Note 1; Alma xiii; D c. 

& Gov. Sec. 84; Sec. 107; 

Compendium * pp, 64-73. 

History of the Church 

Vol. II, Chap. 33; Vol IV, 

Chap. 11; Outlines Bccl. 

History, Part IV, Sec. v. 

The Gospel fpp. 210-216. 
Note 2. I Corinthians 
xii. Articles of Faith. 

(Talmage; Lecture XI. 

Compendium pp. 157-168. 

Book of Mormon. Mo- 

siah 5: 7-12. Doc. & C>jV. 

Sec. 76; 50^70. The Gos- 
pel pp. 216-227. 

Note 3; Eph. iv: 4-17. 
The Gospel pp. 216-227. 
History of tne Churcn 
Vol. II. pp. 476-48(3. 

Note 4, 5, 6. Dec. & 
Gov. Sec. 10'7; also Sec. 
124; li8-140. History ot 
the Church, A^ol. Ill.i 
Chap. xxvi. Luke x; 
Oaitlines Eccl. History|| 
Sec. V, p. 336-7, p. 360; 
also pp. 343-6. Also note 7. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "Wherefore nozv, let every man learn his duty, and to 
act in the oifice in which he is appointed, in all diligence." Doc. and Cov., 
Sec. 107. 


1. Priesthood. Priesthood is authority which God gives to man, by 
which man is made an agent of God, authorized to speak, act, and ad- 
minister in the divine name, and have his words and administrations of 

*Richards and Little's, of "The Seventy's Indispensible Library," al- 
ways meant. 

tThird edition always quoted. 

f'After all that has been said, the greatest and most important duty 
is to preach the Gospel." — Joseph Smith. 

|]Third edition always quoted. 


binding effect as if done by the Lord himself; provided, of course, said 
administrations are in accordance with the divine directions or instruc- 
tions, within the limits of the authority confirmed upon the agent, per- 
formed in righteousness and relate to the matters for which the divine 
authority was given to man. 

Necessarily this delegated authority is one in kind;* it is simply au- 
thority given of God to man by which man is authorized to act in God's 
stead in relation to certain things; but its powers are grouped in various 
ways for the purpose of facilitating the administration of its government. 
First, its powers are grouped with reference to temporal and spiritual 
affairs; the division of the Priesthood which has charge more especially 
of spiritual affairs is called the Melchisedek Priesthood; that which has 
charge more especially of temporal affairs, the Aaronic Priesthood. The 
oflficers of the Melchisedek Priesthood are. Apostles, Prophets, Patri- 
archs, High Priests, Seventies, Elders; of the Aaronic Priesthood: Bish- 
ops (who are High Priests, ordained to be Bishops and constitute the 
Presidency of the Aaronic Priesthood), Priests, Teachers, Deacons. 

While this division of the Priesthood, or this grouping of its offi- 
cers with reference to spiritual and temporal labors, assigns one to 
spiritual and the other to temporal concerns, it must not be thought that 
there is anything rigid in said division of labor; that the Aaronic Priest- 
hood is excluded from participation in spiritual labors; or that the Mel- 
chisedek Priesthood is excluded from dealing with temporal affairs. The 
line of demarkation,! as a matter of fact, is crossed by each division; 
some of the duties of the Aaronic Priesthood are spiritual, and some of 
the duties of the Melchisedek, temporal. This division then rests upon 
the fact that the duties assigned the Aaronic priesthood are chiefly tem- 
poral, and the duties of the Melchisedek chiefly spiritual. 

Another division of the Priesthood may be said to exist within the 
Melchisedek Priesthood, which is also a division with reference to its 
labors, viz., the foreign ministry and the home ministry, of which 
more is to be said later. 

*"There are two Priesthoods spoken of in the Scriptures, viz., the 
Melchisedek and the Aaronic or Levitical. Although there are two 
Priesthoods, yet the Melchisedec Priesthood comprehends the Aaronic 
or Levitical Priesthood, and is the grand head, and holds the highest 
authority which pertains to the Priesthood, and the keys of the Kingdom 
of God in all ages of the world to the latest posterity on the earth, and 
is the channel through which all knowledge, doctrine, the plan of salva- 
tion, and every important matter is revealed from heaven." (History of 
the Church, Vol. IV, pp. 207, et. seq.) 

"Therefore, in viewing the Church as a whole, we may strictly de- 
nominate it one Priesthood." (History of the Church, Vol. II, p. 478.) 

tThe distinction in the terms "temporal" and "spiritual" are used in 
connection with this subject that man may understand; that is, God adapts 
himself to man's terms, but with God there is no such distinction as tem- 
poral and spiritual, but all things are spiritual. (See Doc. & Gov., Sec. 
29: 31-35. 


2. The Church. The Church may be said to arise from the Priest- 
hood. Comprehensively defined it may be said to be an organization of 
people — including all officers and members — who believe in and endeavor 
to incorporate in their lives God's Truth; who have obeyed the ordinances 
or sacraments appointed of God for salvation and admission into his 
Church; whose officers are of divine appointment and commission, (that 
is, possessed of divine authority, the Priesthood) guided by an ever pres- 
ent inspiration from God, and walking within reach of an ever present 
and continuous source of immediate revelation. 

The Church is the depository of God's revealed truth. Man may be able 
by searching to find out many truths. What he has learned by study, by 
investigation, aided by the inspiration of the Lord — for "there is a spirit 
in man, and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth them understanding" — 
amounts to very much; but there are some things which even by search- 
ing man may not learn. "Canst thou by searching find out God? Canst 
thou find out the Almighty unto perfection?"* The inference in the 
scripture is, and the fact is," that the answer must be, no. God can not 
be perfectly known, only as he reveals himself to man; man can know 
his relationship to God only as God is pleased to reveal it; man can only 
know the terms and means of his salvation as the Lord reveals it; and 
these revelations, when he has one in the earth, God gives to his Church; 
these truths which man by searching, by his own wisdom, may not find 
out in their perfection — God deposits with his Church — hence the Church 
is the depository of God's revealed truth — she receives and is the cus- 
todian of the Gospel. 

And not only is the Church the depository of revealed truth; but 
she is also the depository of the divine authority; she, in organized ca- 
pacity, holds as content the Holy Priesthood; and she has commission 
and agency to dispense the truth and administer through her instru- 
mentalities all the ordinances of the gospel. 

3. The Mission of the Church: The Church of Jesus Christ of Lat- 
ter-day Saints was brought into existence for the accomplishment of two 
great things: first, the proclamation of the truth concerning man's sal- 
vation to all the world: and second, the perfecting of those who accept 
that truth. The Church is organized with reference to the accomplish- 
ment of these two purposes, and has, for the accomplishment of those 
purposes, a foreign ministry and a home ministry. In defining the du- 
ties of a Seventy it is with the foreign ministry that we have to deal. 

4. The Foreign Ministry. The business of the foreign ministry is 
to make proclamation of the gospel in all the world, and gather, as soon 
as wisdom dictates, those who accept it into the organized stakes of 
Zion. This foreign ministry, strictly speaking, is composed of the 
Twelve Apostles and the quorums of the Seventy. 

5. The Twelve: "The twelve traveling counselors are called to be 

*Job xi: 7. 


the Twelve Apostles, or special witnesses of the name of Christ in all the 
world; thus differing from other officers in the Church in the duties of 
their calling. * * * * 'p^g Twelve are a traveling presiding High 
Council, to officiate in the name of the Lord, under the direction of the 
Presidency of the Church, agreeable to the institution of heaven; to 
build up the Church, and regulate all the affairs of the same in all na- 
tions; first unto the Gentiles, and secondly unto the Jews. * * * * 
The Twelve being sent out, holding the keys to open the door by the 
proclamation of the gospel of Jesus Christ — and first unto the Gentiles 
and then unto the Jews." (Doc & Cov., Sec. cvii.) This is the special 
calling of the Twelve Apostles, and the calling of the Seventy is like 
unto it. 

6. The Seventy: "The Seventy are also called to preach the gos- 
pel, and to be especial witnesses unto the Gentiles and in all the world. 
Thus differing from other officers in the Church in the duties of their 
calling. * * * * The Seventy are to act in the name of the Lord, 
under the direction of the Twelve or the traveling High Council, in 
building up the Church and regulating all the affairs of the same in all 
nations— first unto the Gentiles and then to the Jews. * * * * jj- jg 
the duty of the traveling High Council to call upon the Seventy, when 
they need assistance, to fill the several calls for preaching and admin- 
istering the gospel, instead of any others. * * * * And these Sev- 
enty (the reference is to the whole body of that Priesthood) are to be 
traveling ministers unto the Gentiles first, and also unto the Jews. * * 
* * Whereas other officers of the Church, who belong not unto the 
Twelve, neither to the Seventy, are not under the responsibility to travel 
among all nations, but are to travel as their circumstances shall allow, 
notwithstanding they may hold as high and responsible offices in the 
Church." (Doc. & Cov., Sec. cvii.) 

When the Church was set in order at Nauvoo, in 1841, by direction 
of a revelation (Doc. & Cov., Sec. cxxiv.) after naming the First Seven 
Presidents, who were to preside over the quorums of Seventies, the Lord 
said: "Which quorum is instituted for traveling Elders to bear record 
of my name in all the world, whenever the traveling High Council, my 
Apostles, shall send them to prepare a way before my face. The differ- 
ence between this quorum and the quorum of Elders is, that one is to 
travel continually, and the other is to preside over the churches from 
time to time: the one has the responsibility of presiding from time to 
time, and the other has no responsibility of presiding, saith the Lord 
your God." 

In these passages the special calling and duties of the Seventies arc 
so clearly set forth that neither comment nor amplification is necessary, 
since these foregoing quotations are the word of the Lord, and evi- 
dence the fact that the Twelve, with the Seventy, constitute the foreign 
ministry of the Church. They are special witnesses of God and Christ to 
the truth of the gospel, and that is their special and peculiar calling in 


the Church. Not that the whole responsibility of preaching the gospel 
rests tipon the Twelve and the Seventy alone. That responsibility rests 
tipon the whole body of the Church. These quorums, the Twelve and 
Seventy, are merely the instrumentality through which the Church dis- 
charges its obligations to the people of the world in making known to 
them the truth. 

7. President Joseph F. Smith on the Calling of the Seventy: We 

have also in the Church todaj-, I am informed, 146 quorums of Seventy, 
[the number in 1904]. These constitute a body of Elders of somewhere 
in the neighborhood of 10,000 men, whose special duty it is to respond 
to the call of the Apostles to preach the gospel, without purse or scrip, 
to all the nations of the earth. They are minute men. It is expected 
that they will be ready, whenever they are called, to go out in the world, 
or to go out to the various organizations of the Church to fulfill mis- 
sions and to perform such duties as shall be required of them, in order 
that the work of the Lord and the work of the ministry may he upheld 
and sustained and carried on in the Church and throughout the world. 
These councils or quorums of Seventy are not always full, a full council 
being 70 Elders. But there are approximately 10,000 Elders who now 
hold that position in the Church. They are called to an apostolic call- 
ing. They are required to be special witnesses of the Lord Jesus Christ. 
It is expected of this body of men that they will have burning in their 
souls the testimony of Jesus Christ, which is the spirit of prophecy; that 
they will be full of light and of the knowledge of the truth; that they 
will be enthusiastic in their calling, and in the cause of Zion, and that 
they will be ready at any moment, when required, to go out into the 
world, or anywhere throughout the Church and bear testimony of the 
truth, preach the gospel of Jesus Christ, and set examples before the 
world of purity, love, honesty, uprightness and integrity to the truth. 
(The General Conference Reports, October 6th, 1904, p. 3.) 




I. Of Other Than the Special Labors of 
the Seventy. 
II. Quorum Organization. 

1. Presidents. 

2. Members. 

3. Effectiveness of the Quorum Or- 

III. The First Quorum of Seventy. 

1. Jurisdiction^ — Local, General. 

2. Limitation in the Choice of Pres- 

3. Distinction and Authority of the 
First Quorum. 


IV. The Seventy to be an Educated, 

Trained Ministry. 

1. Need of Knowing the Truth in 
Order to Teach It. 

2. Admonition of the Lord to the 


Note 1. Dec. & Cnv. 
Sec. 107; 8-10, 34. Note 2. 

Note 3. D'oc. & Gov. 
Sec. 1G7; 93-98: Note 4, 5. 

Note 4. Dec. & Gov. 
Sec. 107; 25, 33* Art. of 
Faith. (Talmage) p. 2L4. 
Outlines Eiccl. Hist. Sec. 
V, p. 344. 

Note 6. Doc. & Gov. 
Sec. 88; 77, 8, 117, 118. Ibid 
Sec. 130; 18-21. Sec. 131; 
6. Brigham Young on Ed- 
ucation, Contributor Vol. 
X, pp. 281-283; Mormon 
Point of View in Educa- 
tion, Improvement Era 
Vol. Ill, pp. 119 et seq. 
Doc. & Gov. Sec. 84; 8i. 
Note 7. 

SPECIAL TEXT : Let it become a special conviction zvith all, that to 
become a Seventy means mental activity, intellectual development, and finally 
spiritual power. 

"All are to preach the gospel by the pozver and influence of the Holy 
Ghost; and no man can preach the gospel zvithout the Holy Ghost." — Joseph 


1. Of Labors Other than Special that Seventies May Perform: 

While preaching the gospel unto all nations is the special business of 
the Twelve and Seventy, it must not be thought that that is the only 

*Conipare verse 33 with verse 32: also verses 25 and 26, with verses 
23 and 24, Doc. & Cov., Sec. 107. 


function which the Seventy may discharge. As on occasion the High 
Priests and Elders and members of the lesser Priesthood can be used 
to assist in the work of the foreign ministry (Doc. & Cov., Sec. 84: 106- 
111), so also, when at home, and not engaged in the special work of their 
calling, the Seventy may be employed in the home ministry, and assist 
the standing ministry in the wards and stakes of Zion in perfecting the 
Saints and edifying the body of Christ until they shall all come unto a 
unity of the faith and the knowledge of the Son of God, "unto the meas- 
ure of the stature of the fulness of Christ." Paul, in his most excellent 
description of the Church organization, likens it unto the body of a 
man. Accepting his illustration it may be said that the foreign ministry 
may be regarded as the right arm of the Church, and the home ministry 
as the left arm. Now, because one is the right arm and one the left, 
shall either refuse to assist the other at need? Or shall this organization 
(the Church), which is said to be the "body of Christ," be as effectual 
in the performance of its functions as the natural body of man is, and 
in every case of need have the right hand come to the assistance of the 
left, and vise versa? Right reason will approve an affirmative answer. 

2. Power of the Melchisedek Priesthood: The Melchisedek Priest- 
hood holds the right of Presidency, and has power and authority over 
all the offices in the Church in all ages of the world, to administer in 
spiritual things. The Presidency of the High Priesthood, after the or- 
der of Melchisedek, have a right to officiate in all the offices in the 
iZhurch. High Priests after the order of the Melchisedek Priesthood, 
nave a right to officiate in their own standing, under the direction of the 
Presidency, in administering spiritual things; and also in the office of an 
Elder, Priest, (of the Levitical order). Teacher, Deacon, and member." 
(Doc. & Cov. Sec. 106: 8-10.) 

While the statements here made about the higher officers of the 
Church administering in the lower offices — a High Priest officiating in 
the office of Elder, Priest, Teacher or Deacon — are limited to High 
Priests, yet the principle holds good as to Seventies also. Besides note 
the statement, "The Melchisedek Priesthood holds the right of presidency 
and has power and authority over all the offices in the Church, in all 
ages of the world, to administer in spiritual things;" and as the Seventy 
holds this Melchisedek Priesthood, he may, under the direction of the 
presidency (See Ibid verse 10), administer in any of the offices of the 
Church ; also this has always been the practice of the Church ; and the 
practice of the Church, generally speaking, is the best interpretation of 
the scripture. 

3. Organization of the Seventy. The quorums of Seventy are or- 
ganized with special reference to their calling as the foreign ministry of 
the Church. It will be observed that their organization is different from 
that of every other quorum in the Church, for whereas in all other 
quorums of the higher Priesthood the presidency consists of one presi- 
dent and two counselors, in the quorum of the Seventy there are seven 
presidents of equal power and authority. That is to say, there is not 


one president and six counselors, but each of the seven is a president 
and in power and authority is equal with his fellow-presidents; but for 
the sake of order the right of presidency is recognized as being vested 
in the senior president by ordination. "And it is according to the vision, 
showing the order of the Seventy, that they should have seven presidents 
to preside over them, chosen out of the number of the Seventy. And the 
seventh president (counting from the one last ordained) of these presi- 
dents is to preside over the six." In the absence of the senior presi- 
dent the next senior in ordination becomes the acting president. By this 
simple arrangement all confusion as to the right of presiding is obviated, 
for no sooner does the council of a quorum or any part thereof convene, 
than each president knows at once upon whom the responsibility of 
presiding rests, let them meet where they may. 

By virtue of having seven presidents a quorum of Seventy is not 
easily disorganized, and this doubtless was one of the objects in view in 
this arrangement. One, two, three, or even six of the presidents could 
be sent abroad upon missions (although that is not likely to be the case 
at any one time) and yet the quorum would have a president left, who, 
with the quorum, would be competent to transact whatever of business 
might be necessary for that quorum. 

Other duties and advantages growing out of this organization are 
apparent on a little reflection. Suppose, for instance, that a quorum of 
Seventy should be sent out bodily to preach the gospel, as the quorum 
of the Twelve at times have been. You would then have an organiza- 
tion which could be broken up into seven groups of ten men each, with 
a president for each group. These groups could be broken up into five 
pairs, and the Elders travel two and two, as the law of the gospel re- 
quires. It can be readily seen that such a quorum could be a flying 
column, capable of being broken up, first into groups and sent into dif- 
ferent districts; and the groups again broken up into pairs and spread 
out over a wide area of country. The pairs could be called together in groups 
of ten for conference, for adjustment and rearrangement of traveling com- 
panions, and the groups occasionally brought together in quorum con- 
ference, report, or transact whatever business might be necessary, and 
again be scattered into fields of labor. In all of which there appears 
the very finest adaptation of means to an end; and also there appears 
more than mere human wisdom displayed in this organization of the 
quorums of the foreign ministry. 

4. Of the First Quorum of the Seventy: In the revelation before 
quoted it is said: "And it is according to the vision, showing the order 
of the Seventy, that they should have seven presidents to preside over 
them, chosen out of the number of the seventy. * * * And these 
seven presidents are to choose other Seventy besides the first Seventy, 
to whom they belong, and are to preside over them; and also other 
Seventy, until seven times seventy, if the labor in the vineyard of ne- 
cessity requires it." 


It must not be understood that this passage limits the number of 
quorums to seven times seventy, for the Prophet, at the time the quor- 
ums w^ere being organized, stated that "If the first Seventy are all em- 
ployed and there is a call for more laborers, it w^ill be the duty of the 
seven presidents of the first Seventy to call and ordain other Seventy, 
and send them forth to labor in the vineyard, until if needs be, they set 
apart seven times seventy, and even until there are 144,000 thus set apart 
for the ministry." (See Church History, Vol. II: 221 and Notes.) 

It will be observed in the quotation from the Doctrine & Covenants 
above that provision is made that the presidents of Seventy are to be 
"chosen out of the number of the Seventy." It is because of this special 
piovision that when inadvertently High Priests have been selected for 
presidents of Seventy they have taken their place again in the quorum 
of High Priests and others from among the Seventy, as provided by 
Ihe law of God, chosen to fill their place. It will also be observed 
that the council of the First Seventy, in addition to presiding over their 
own quorum (the first), have a general presidency over all the quor- 
ums of the Church. It is this first quorum, members and presidents to- 
gether, which constitutes what, by way of explanation, we may call the 
quorum of Seventy, the quorum of which it is said that they are equal 
in authority to the quorum of the twelve special witnesses, or Apos- 

5. Summary. It may be said by way of recapitulation that the 
Seventy hold the Melchisedek Priesthood ; that with the Twelve, under whose 
directions they labor, they constitute the foreign ministry of the Church: 
that their special calling is to travel and preach the gospel in all nations, 
first to the Gentiles and then to the Jews; that they can, on occasion 
be employed in the work of the ministry at home, because their Priest- 
hood authorizes them to do good and bring to pass righteousness wher- 
ever they may be, and when acting in order and under the direction of 
the Twelve Apostles they may do whatever is necessary to be done in 
order to accomplish the purposes of God, whose ministers they are; but 
their orgainzation has particular reference to their special work of 
preaching the Gospel in all the world. 

6. An Intelligent and Informed Ministry Contemplated in the 
Church: After this brief review of the organization and duties of the 
Seventies, it must be clearly manifest that it is the imperative duty of 
those holding this office in the Priesthood to make careful and thor- 
ough preparation to discharge the responsibilities of their high calling 
as the ambassadors of the Lord Jesus. Being special witnesses of the 
name of Christ in all the world, preachers (i. e., teachers) of the gos- 
pel, and authorized under the direction of the Twelve Apostles to act 
in the name of the Lord in "building up the Church and regulating all the 
affairs of the same in all nations" (Doc. & Cov. Sec. cvii), it behooves 
them to become witnesses who understand the truth of which they tes- 
tify, skilled workman, ambassadors of whom the Master need not be 


ashamed. It is evident that the Lord never designed that his ministry 
should be an ignorant ministry; for to the early Elders of his Church, 
in this last dispensation, when instructing a number of them to prepare 
for labor in the vineyard, he said: 

"And I give unto you a commandment that you shall teach one an- 
other the doctrine of the kingdom; teach ye diligently and my grace 
shall attend you, that j'ou may be instructed more perfectly in theory, 
in principle, in doctrine, in the law of the gospel, in all things that per- 
tain unto the kingdom of God, that are expedient for you to under- 
stand. Of things both in heaven and in the earth, and under the earth; 
things which have been, things which are, things which must shortly 
come to pass; things which are at home, things which are abroad; the 
wars and the perplexities of the nations ,and the judgments which are on 
the land, and a knowledge also of countries and of kingdoms. That ye 
may be prepared in all things when I shall send you again to magnify the 
calling whereunto I have called you, and the mission with which I have 
commissioned you. * * * Therefore, verily, I say unto you, my friends, call 
your solemn assembly, as I have commanded you; and as all have not 
faith, seek, ye diligently and teach one another words of wisdom; yea, 
seek ye out of the best books words of wisdom; seek learning even by 
study, and also by faith." (Doc. & Cov. Sec. 88: 11, 78, 79, 80 and 117, 

The instructions then given to the Elders of the Church are still 
applicable to men engaged in the same ministry, and charged with like 

Elsewhere I have said, on the foregoing passage from the Doctrine 
and Covenants: 

"I think I may safely challenge any one to point out a broader field 
of knowledge than is here indicated. It includes all spiritual truth, all 
scientific truth, all secular knowledge — knowledge of the past, of the 
present, of the future; of the heavens, and of the earth. A knowledge of 
all countries, their geography, languages, history, customs, laws and gov- 
ernments — everything in fact that pertains to them. There is nothing in 
the heights above or the depths below that is not included in this field of 
knowledge into which the commandment of God directs his servants to 
enter. I may claim for it that it includes the whole realm of man's 
intellectual activities. And the doctrine that whatever principles of in- 
telligence man attains unto in this life will rise with him in the morning 
of the resurrection — this doctrine that nothing acquired in respect of 
knowledge is ever lost, must forever form the most powerful incentive 
to intellectual effort that possibly can be conjured up by the wit of man. 
So that, referring to the acquirement of knowledge, and intellectual de- 
velopment, Mormonism at once both indicates the broadest field and 
furnishes the grandest incentive to intellectual effort." ("The Mormon 
Point of View in Education," Improvement Era, Vol. II, p. 119.) 

Commenting once upon the above passages from the Doctrine and 
Covenants, the writer remarked: 

"I trust no one will receive the impression that I leave out of con- 
sideration, or have not attached proper importance to the part which the 
Spirit of God takes in these things (the preaching of the gospel). I 
think there is no one with whom I am acquainted that believes more 


fervently than I do that in order to succeed in preaching the gospel one 
must do so by the gift and by the power of the Holy Ghost. I know- 
that the Lord has given instruction to the Elders of the Church that 
separates their methods of work, as wide as day is separated from the 
night, from those methods of preaching adopted by the world — I know 
that he has said: "Think not what ye shall say, but in the very hour 
that it is needed it shall be given to you that which you shall say." But 
while I remember that, I remember also the admonition which he has 
given to the Elders in the self same passage, to the effect that they 
should "treasure up continually the words of life," a part of the in- 
struction that I have sometimes thought is too much neglected. I be- 
lieve we shall best succeed if, when treasuring up the words of life, 
we do it systematically; that instead of being like an unwise builder who 
throws into one promiscuous heap lime, sand, bricks and frames, to- 
gether with a hundred and one other materials that enter into the con- 
struction of his building, that each be placed by itself, carefully stored 
away where the workmen can readily find it and bring each part to the 
building as the builder has need. So, I say, systematize your efforts in 
reading, in thought, in speech, and after you have done all that, I be- 
lieve that you will have all the more claim upon the Spirit and blessing 
of God. After you have made the attempt to carry out 
the instructions which our Father in heaven has given in respect of 
storing your minds with the words of life, you can then go to him say- 
ing: Father, I have done all I can with the powers thou hast placed at 
my command, now help me by thy grace; and bless all that I have done, 
and the honor and praise and the glory shall be thine." Under these 
circumstances, if your efforts be accompanied by secret prayer before 
God, who hears in secret and rewards openly, he will bless your minis- 
try beyond all your expectation. ("Preparation for the Ministry," a dis- 
course delivered in Salt Lake Tabernacle, Oct. 28, 1894.) 


A Study of the Hebrew Scriptures. — Th( 
Old Te^ament. 




I. Definitions of the Term "Bible." 

II. Antiquity of the Old Testament 


The Seventies Bib'.e 

Dictionary word, "'Bi- 
ble;" (a) also other 
Bible Helps; "Smith's 
Dictionary of the Bible;" 
(b) "Cyclopaedia Biblical 
Literature," (Kitto); 

"The Gospel," (Roberts), 
Chap, vi (c). 

Notes 1 and 2. Jo- 
sephus' Antiquities of 
the Jews. Book XX, 
Chap. X. Jo5«phus' Pre>- 
face to Antiquities of the 
Jews; "Commentary 

Critical anrK Explnna- 
tory;" (d) The Gospel. 
(Roberts), Chap, vi and 
vii. Book of Mormon, I 
Nephi, chap, v: li>-13; T. 
M. M. I. A. Manual. 
1903-4, on the Book of 
Mormon, Part I. Chap. I, 
IT. Pearl of Great Price, 
Chap. 1; History of the 
Church Vol. I, p. 98. 

Jcsephus vs Apion, Bk. 
I. (See note 1). The Gos- 
pel, -(Roberts), Chap, vi; 
Dr. Smith's Old Testa^ 
ment History, Appendix 
1. pp. 651-3. The Seven- 
ty's Bible Dictionary, 
Art. Bible, subdivision 
"Structure of the Bi- 
ble;" Ibid. Art. Apocry- 
pha. Oxford and other 

Bible Helps. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "Search the Scriptures ; for in them ye think ye 
have eternal life: and they are they zvhicli testify of iue."—jESVS. 

III. Classification of the Old Testament 

1. The Law ; 

2. The Prophets ; 

3. The AWitings or Hagiographa ; 

4. The Apocrypha. 

(a) It will be understood that by "Seventies' Bible," is meant 
throughout the Bible selected for the "Seventies' Indispensible Library," 
"The Teacher's Bible," Cambridge edition. 

(fc) Hackett edition always quoted. 

(c) Third edition always quoted. 

(d) This work will always be so quoted, it is a recent work produced 
in colaboration by Robert Jamieson, D. D., St. Paul's, Glasgow, Scotland; A. 



1. Antiquity of the Hebrew Sacred Books: Josephus in liis first 
book against Apion ascripes the most ancient books of the Hebrew race 
— the Pentateuch, the five books — to Moses, and in contrasting the He- 
brew Hterature with that of the Greeks, he says: 

"We, therefore, (who are Jews) must yield to the Grecian writers 
as to language and eloquence of composition; but then we shall give 
them no such preference as to the verity of ancient history, and least 
of all as to that part which concerns the affairs of our several coun- 
tries. As to the care of writing down the records from the earliest 
antiquity among the Egyptians and Babylonians; that the priests were 
intrusted therewith, and employed a philosophical concern about it; that 
they were the Chaldean priests that did so among the Babylonians, and 
that the Phoenicians, who were mingled among the Greeks, did espe- 
cially make use of their letters both for the common affairs of life 
and for the delivering down the history of common transactions, I 
think I may omit any proof, because all men allow it so to be. But 
now as to our forefathers, that they took no less care about writing 
such records, (for I Avill not say they took greater care than the others 
I spoke of,) and that they committed that matter to their high priests 
and to their prophets, and that these records have been written all along 
down to our own times with the utmost accuracy. ***** Pqj- 
our forefathers did not only appoint the best of these priests, and- 
those that attended upon the divine worship, for that design from 
the beginning, but made provision that the stock of the priests should 
continue unmixed and pure; for he who is partaker of the Priesthood 
must propagate of a wife of the same nation, without having regard to 
money, or any other dignities: but he is to make a scrutiny, and take 
his wife's genealogy from the ancient tables, and procure many wit- 
nesses to it. And this is our practice not only in Judea, but whereso- 
ever any body of men of our nation do live; and even there an exact 
catalogue of our priests' marriages is kept; I mean at Egj'pt and at 
Babylon, or in any other place of the rest of the habitable earth, whith- 
ersoever our priests are scattered; for they send to Jerusalem the an- 
cient names of their parents in writing, as well as those of their re- 
moter ancestors, and signify who are the witnesses also. * * * g^t 
what is the strongest argument of our exact management in this matter 
is what I am now going to say. That we have the names of our 
high priests from father to son set down in our records, for the interval 
of two thousand years; and if any of these have been transgressors of 
these rules, they are prohibited to present themselves at the altar, or to 
be partakers of any other of our purifications; and this is justly, or- 
rather necessarily done, because every one is not permitted of his own 
accord to be a writer, nor is there any disagreement in what is written; 
they being only prophets that have written the original and earliest ac- 
counts of things, as they learned them of God himself by inspiration; 
and others have written what hath happened in their own time, and that 
in a very distinct manner also: For we have not an innumerable multi- 

R. Fausset. D.D., St. Cuthberts, York, England ; and David Brown, D.D., Pro- 
fessor of Theology, Aberdeen, Scotland. It is one of the best works of its 
kind, and i-epresents the latest orthodox interpretations of the Scriptures, and 
while the Elders which make up oirr ministry may not accept the doctrinal 
interpretation of this or any other commentary, its historical and critical 
treatise are among the most recent and valuable. 


tude of books among us, disagreeing from and contradicting one another, 
(as the Greeks have,) but only twenty-two books, which contain the 
records of all the past times, which are justly believed to be divine. And 
of them, five belong- to Moses, which contain his laws and the tradi- 
tions of the origin of mankind till his death. This interval of time was 
little short of three thousand years; but as to the time from the death 
of Moses till the reign of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, who reigned after 
Xerxes; the prophets, who were after Moses, wrote down what was 
done in their times in thirteen books. The remaining four books con- 
tain hymns to God, and precepts for the conduct of human life. It is 
true, our history hath been written since Artaxerxes very particularly, 
but hath not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by 
our forefathers, because there hath not been an exact succession of 
prophets since that time; and how firmly we have given credit to these 
books of our own nation, is evident by what we do; for during so many 
ages as have already passed, no one hath been so bold as either to add 
anything to them, to take anything from them, or to make any change 
in them; but it is become natural to all Jews, immediately and from their 
very birth, to esteem these books to contain divine doctrines, and to 
persist in them, and, if occasion be, willingly to die for them. For it is 
no new thing for our captives, many of them in number, and frequent- 
ly in time, to be seen to endure racks and deaths of all kinds upon the 
theatres, that they may not be obliged to say one word against our laws 
and the records that contain them." (Antiquity of the Jews, Flavins 
Josephus Against Apion, Book 1, pp. 582-583.) 

2. The Effect of Recent Discoveries in Chaldea and Egypt on the 
Authorship of the Five Books in the Bible Ascribed to Moses: 

"The Assyrian inscriptions which have been recently recovered and 
•given to the English-speaking peoples by Layard, George Smith, Sayce, 
and others, show that in the ancient religions of Chaldea and Babylonia 
there was elaborated a narrative of the creation which, in its most im- 
portant features, must have been the source of that in our own sacred 
i)ooks. It has now become perfectly clear that from the same sources 
which inspired the accounts of the creation of the universe among the 
Chaldee-Babylonian, the Assyrian, the Phoenician, and other ancient civ- 
ilizations came the ideas which hold so prominent a place in the sacred 
books of the Hebrews. * * * * From this idea of creation was 
evolved in time a somewhat nobler view. Ancient thinkers, and especial- 
ly, as is now found, in Egypt, suggested that the main agency in creation 
was not the hands and fingers of the Creator, but his voice. Hence was 
mingled with the earlier, cruder belief regarding the origin of the earth 
and heavenly bodies by the Almighty the more impressive idea that "he 
spake and they were made" — that they were brought into existence by 
his word." (A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in 
Christendom, Vol. 1, pp. 2-3). 

Referring again to the work of the noted Archaeologists mentioned 
above, with others, Mr. White goes on to say that they "have deciphered 
a multitude of ancient texts, especially the inscriptions found in the 
great library of Assurbanipal at Nineveh, and have discovered 
therein an account of the origin of the world identical in its most im- 
portant features with the later accounts in our own book of Genesis. 
These men have had the courage to point out these facts and to con- 


nect them with the truth that these Chaldean and Babylonian myths, 
legends, and theories were far earlier than those of the Hebrews, which 
so strikingly resemble them, and which we have in our sacred books; 
and they have also shown us how natural it was that the Jewish ac- 
counts of the creation should have been obtained at that remote period 
when the earliest Hebrews were among the Chaldeans, and how the 
great Hebrew poetic accounts of creation were drawn either from the 
sacred traditions of these earlier peoples or from antecedent sources 
common to various ancient nations." (A History of the Warfare of 
Science with Theology in Christendom," Vol. 1, p. 20.) 

There can be no doubt but what the accounts of creation found in 
these Assyrian and Egyptian sources are earlier than those written by 
Moses, or that they are similar in import, but because of these facts is 
it necessary to discredit either the Mosaic authorship of the five books 
of the Bible accredited to that Prophet, or doubt the inspiration of these 
accounts? And yet this has been the result of these discoveries on 
many minds. The truth is, that the outlined facts of the creation have 
been known by our race from earliest times, from the days of Adam in 
fact. They were matters of common knowledge among the antidulivian 
patriarchs, and through the family of Noah were preserved for the 
families and races of men subsequent to the flood; and variously dis- 
torted these creation facts were preserved by all people. But all this 
did not prevent the Lord from revealing the creation history to Moses, 
nor does it require us to doubt the inspiration which rested upon him 
and that enabled him to weave into splendid coherent form the frag- 
mentary truths held among the ancient Egyptians and Assyrian peoples. 
That there were pre-Mosaic documents containing accounts of crea- 
tion and the history of God's hand-dealings with ancient peoples, we 
have abundant proof of in the Book of Abraham, which so strangely 
came into the possession of the Prophet Joseph Smith (See Church 
History, Vol. II, pp. 235-6, 348-350). Also that the Lord revealed the 
creation facts, and also the early history of our race to Moses, is 
confirmed by revelation to the Prophet of the nineteenth century, Jos- 
eph Smith (See Pearl of Great Price, Book of Moses, pp. 1-48, also 
History of the Church, Vol. I, 98 et seq.) 

The student will find a well written article by Professor A. H. 
Sayce, in '"The Bible Treasury," pp. 37-42, that bears upon this subject. 
The matter is also discussed at some length in Young Men's Manual for 
1903-4 (No. 7)., chap. I. 

Furthermore, it should be noted that the writers of the New Tes- 
tament bear emphatic testimony to the authenticity and divine author- 
ity of the Old Testament, since these writers so frequently quoted it as 
a work of divine authority. "Indeed," says an accepted authority in this 
class of literature, "the references are so numerous, and the testimonies 
so distinctly borne to the existence of the Mosaic books throughout 
the whole history of the Jewish nation, and the unity of character, design 


and stj'le pervading these books is so clearlj' perceptible, notwithstand- 
ing the rationalistic assertions of their forming a series of separate and 
unconnected fragments, that it may with all safety be said, there is im- 
mensely stronger and more varied evidence in proof of their being the 
authorship of Moses than of any of the Greek or Roman classics being 
the productions of the authors whose names thej^ bear." (Commentary 
on the Old and New Testaments, Jamieson-Fausset-Brown, preface.) 

3. Hagiographa: Hagiographa — the Greek name of the last of 
the three Jewish divisions of the Old Testament. They are variously 
reckoned, but usually comprise the Pslams, Proverbs, Job, Canticles, 
Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastices, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and 
Chronicles. (The Century Dictionary and Cyclopaedia," Vol. IX. 

4. The Subdivisions of the Old Testament — Its Dignity and Author- 
ity: The student will observe that the classification of the books in the 
several authorities cited, all vary somewhat in the grouping and sub- 
divisions of them; but I believe it will be found that the grouping in the 
analj'sis of the Seventies' Bible Dictionary will be found most com- 
plete and satisfactory. One thing should be borne in mind with ref- 
erence to this whole volume of ancient Hebrew scripture, and that is, 
whatever the sub-division may be, history, legislation, poetry, prophecy, 
biography, or proverbs, it is written under the inspiration of God. That 
does not mean that human elements are not to be found in it, but rather 
that a divine spirit is present in the midst of those human elements giv- 
ing forth light and truth and wisdom such as is to be found in no mere- 
\y human production. There is a divine spirit always present in these 
scripture narratives, prophecies and poetry that make the whole to 
contain a revelation of God, and an account of his methods of doing 
things among men, all of which gives to those writings an authority that 
does not pertain to the ordinary writings of men. 




I. The Apocrypha. — A Paper (b) 

II. Canon of the Old Testament. 

644-6; note 
Bible Diet. 
Vol I, pp, 


Seventy's Bible Dic- 
tionai*y Art. Aprocrapna, 
p. 9; also other Bible 
Helps. Same title. D^c. &. 
Cov. Sec. xci; Hist, of 
the Church, Vol. I, p. 
331. Bible Treasury, Ai-t. 
Aprocrypha, pp. 351-3. 
Kitto's Biblical Litera- 
ture, Vol. I, p. 176-17y. 

Note 1. Smith's Old 
Hist., pp. 
2; Smith's 
Art. Cannon, 
3o«-3T6; Bible 
Treasury, pp. 28-32. Sev- 
enty's Bible Dictionary. 
Art. "Cannon"; The 
Gospel, (Roberts), Chaps, 
vi, vii. Kitto's BibL^ 
Lit., Vol. I, pp. 376-.3a, 
and Vol. II, pp. 706-719. 

Seventy's Bible Dic- 
tionary, Art. Bible, Etng- 
lish; Bible Treasury, pp. 
15-19; Smith's Bible Dic- 
tionai-j-, Article "Ver- 
sion, Authorized," Vol. 
IV, pp. 3424-3414. See 
* note 9. "Encyclopaedia 

Britianica," Art. "Eng- 
lish Bible." 

SPECIAL TEXT: "He that hath my word, let him speak my word 
faithfully. What is the chaif to the zcheat, saith the Lord? — Jeremiah. 

III. The History of the English Bible. 

(a) It has already been suggested in our Introduction to these lessons 
that excuses for non-preparation should not be tolerated ; and we again call 
atatention of the quorums to this necessar}' attitude respecting thorough prep- 
aration of lessons ; and now emphasize our suggestions by applying them 
to these lectures. Those who are assigned to deliver the lectures can 
receive their appointment two or three weeks before they are called 
upon to deliver them, and it should be a matter of pride with those so 
appointed to come to their tasks thoroughly prepared. The lecturer is 
supposed to occupy about thirty minutes, and the assignments should 
be made with due regard to the difficulties of the subject. 

{b) No better mental exercise exists than that of writing. It leads 
to very definite thinking, and to exactness of expression, and is an art 
that should be cultivated by the Seventies. It is suggested, therefore, 
that at least one of the lectures, when the quorum session is devoted to 
such exercises, should be given in the form of a paper, a written treatise. 
The subject for the paper will be indicated as above. 



1. The Apocrypha. "The collection of books to which this term is 
popularly applied includes the following. The order given is that in 
which they stand in the English version. I. Esdras. II. Esdras. Tobit. 
Judith. The rest of the chapters of the Book of Esther, which are 
found neither in the Hebrew nor in the Chaldee. The Wisdom of Sol- 
omon. The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus. Ba- 
ruch. The Song of the Three Holy Children. The History of Sus- 
anna. The History of the Destruction of Bel and the Dragon. The 
Prayer of Manasseh, King of Judah. I. Maccabees. II. Maccabees. "(a) 

A brief treatise on each of the foregoing books of the Apocrypha 
will be found in the Seventy's Bible Dictionary, Art. Apocrypha, also in 
"Bible Treasury," pp. 351, 353; Tobias, Judith, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, 
Baruch, I and II Macabees will be found in the Roman Catholic Eng- 
lish version, known as the Douay Bible, the Roman Church regarding 
them as of equal authority with other books of the Old Testament. 

2. Definition of Apocrypha:. "The word Apocrypha means "secret" 
or "hidden," and is applied to a class of writings which have been defi- 
nitely rejected from the books of the Old and New Testaments; but the 
reason why they were called secret books, rather than private or sec- 
ondary books, is not clear. * * * * Probably every attempt to de- 
fine the limits of canonical or inspired books will result in the dis- 
tinction of three classes of books: (1) the Canonical Scriptures, about 
which every one is agreed; (2) the disputed books, about which there 
is no general agreement; (3) the books which are universally rejected. 
It is to the third class that the term Apocrypha properly applies, the 
intermediate class being more correctly known as Antilegomena, or dis- 
puted books. ***** It is commonly stated that the reason 
for the rejection of the books referred to from the Old. Testament [the 
Apocrypha] was that they were not found current in Hebrew, but only 
in Greek. It is quite possible that in some cases the reason why the 
books were not extant in Hebrew was that they had been previously 
judged uncanonical. A book soon disappears when it has been con- 
demned. Even the Greek text of some parts of the Apocrypha has per- 
ished — (e. g. II Esdras). We must not be surprised, therefore, if some 
of the apocryphal books should turn out to have been at one time ex- 
tant in Hebrew." (Bible Treasury, p. 351.) 

3. Attitude of the Roman Catholic Church Respecting the Apocry- 
pha: Some Catholic theologians previous to the Council of Trent, 
1545-1563), were in doubt as to the inspiration of some of the books of 
the Apocrypha admitted into the Catholic Canon; but Dr. Smith, in his 
Bible Dictionary, says: "The Council of Trent closed the question 
which had been left open, and deprived its theologians of the liberty 
they had hitherto enjoyed — extending the Canon of Scripture so as to 
include all the hitherto doubtful or deutero-canonical books, with the 

(a) Smith's Bible Dictionary. 


exception of the two books of Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh, the 
evidence against which seemed too strong to be resisted (Sess. IV. de 
Can. Script). In accordance with this decree, the editions of the Vul- 
gate, published by authority, contained the books which the Council had 
•pronounced canonical, as standing on the same footing as those which 
had never been questioned, while the three which had been rejected 
were printed commonly in smaller type and stood after the New Testa- 
ment." (Dictionary p, 122.) 

Catholics, however, insisted that the list of canonical books agree- 
ing "in substance with the list of divinely inspired books, held by Cath- 
olics to the present day," was authorized by the twenty-sixth statute of 
the Council of Hippo, held in Africa in the year 393, and the third 
Council of Carthage 397, A. D., and the sixth Council of Carthage 419, 
A. D., give the same list or canon of books as the Council of Hippo. 
"Although the inspiration of some of these books was held to be doubt- 
ful by a few of the Fathers, previous to these two Councils, the same 
Fathers ceased to have any doubt upon it after the decision of these 
Councils; so that, while some of the Apocrypha have been considered 
uninspired, as the third and fourth of Esdars, and third and fourth of 
Macabees, some other of these books have been recognized as inspired, 
and are called by Catholics Deutero-canonical. These have, therefore, 
the very same sanction and authority that all the books of the New Tes- 
tament have, in addition to the long-standing veneration of the Jewish 
Church for them." (Catholic Belief, Bruno, pp. 13-14.) 

Catholics will be compelled, however, to admit that several books 
of the Apocrypha now accepted by them and published in the Douay 
Bible, are not in the list given by the three Councils above mentioned. 
Moreover, in the list of General Councils published in Bruno's work, in 
enumerating the achievement of the Council of Trent, he says: "The 
Catholic doctrine regarding the Holy Scripture, Tradition, Original Sin, 
Justification, and the Seven Sacraments, was clearly explained." (Cath- 
olic Belief, Bruno, p. 130.) So that it was not until the Council of Trent, 
1545-1563, that the final word respecting the Catholic canon was spoken. 

4. The Protestant Attitude Toward the Apocrypha: "The Reform- 
ers of Germany and England * * * influenced in part by the revival 
of the study of Hebrew and the consequent recognition of the author- 
ity of the Hebrew canon, and subsequently by the reaction against this 
stretch of authority, [exercised by the Council of Trent], maintained 
the opinion of Jerome and pushed it to its legitimate results [which led 
to the rejection of the books of the Apocrypha as scripture]. "Luther spoke of 
individual books among those in question with a freedom as great as that of 
Jerome, judging each on its own merits, praising Tobit as a "pleasant 
comedy" and the Prayer of Manasseh as a "good model for penitents," 
and rejecting the two books of Esdras as containing worthless fables. 
The example of collecting the doubtful books in a separate group had 
been set in the Strasburg edition of the Septuagint, 1526. In Luther's 


complete edition of the German Bible * * * (1534) the books (Ju- 
dith, Wisdom, Tobias, Sirach, 1 and 2 Maccabees, Additions to Esther 
and Daniel, and the Prayer of Manasseh) were grouped together under 
the general title of "Apocrypha, i. e. 'Books which are not of like worth 
with Holy Scripture,' yet are good and useful to be read. In the history 
of the English Church, Wicliffe showed himself in. this as in other 
points the forerunner of the Reformation, and applied the term 'Apocry- 
pha' to all but the 'twenty-five' Canonical books of the Old Testament. 
The judgment of Jerome was formally asserted in the sixth Article. The 
disputed books were collected and described in the same way in the 
printed English Bible of 1539 (Cranmer's), and since then there has 
been no fluctuation as to the application of the word. The books to 
which the term is ascribed are in popular speech not merely apocryphal, 
but the Apocrypha." 

6. Attitude of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on 
the Apocrypha: See Doctrine and Covenants, sec. xci. 

7. Definition of the Term Canon: "The word Canon in classical 
Greek signifies properly a straight rod, as a carpenter's rule; and hence 
is applied metaphorically to a testing rule in ethics or in art, or in 
language (e. g. the canons of Grammar.) As applied to Scripture, the 
word indicates the rule by which the contents of the Bible must be de- 
termined, and thus, secondarily, an index of the constituent books. The 
canon of Scripture may be generally described as "the collection of 
books which "forms the original and authoritative written rule of the 
faith and practice of the Church." (Dr. Smith's Old Testament History, 
p. 645.) 

8. Arrangement of the Canon Ascribed to Ezra: "Among the 
achievements ascribed to Ezra is the collection, editing, and arrange- 
ment of the whole Jewish Scriptures in one canon, under the threefold 
division of the Law, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa. In perform- 
ing this work, he is assumed to have added those passages which can 
not have been written by the authors whose names the books bear; such 
as the allusion to kings of Israel in Gen. xxxvi: 31; the account of the 
death and burial of Moses in the last chapter of Deuteronomy; and the 
many references to the state of 'things at this day.' * * * * But the 
main question is, whether the present canon of the Old Testament was, 
in substance, the work of Ezra. It must be remembered that such a 
work involved much more than the collection into one volume of books 
already existing in a separate form; it included the selecticyn from the 
whole number of those which bore, and were to bear forever, the stamp 
of divine authority: for no one imagines that the Scriptures of the Old 
Testament form a complete collection of the ancient Hebrew literature. 
That such a work, having such authority, had been completed before the 
Christian era, is clear from the allusions to the Holy Scriptures in the 
New Testament; and it was most probably accomplished during the 
Persian domination, which ended B. C. 323. There is every reason for 


its having been performed at as early a period as possible. Ezra's care 
to make the people well acquainted with the word of God is as con- 
spicuous as his own knowledge of it. No man could be more qualified, 
as no time could be more fit, for a work which was most needful to 
establish the people in their faith. That the work must have been per- 
formed by an inspired man, is an axiom lying at the foundation of the 
■whole question, unless we believe, on the one hand, that the Church is 
endowed in every age with power to decide what Scriptures are can- 
onical, or unless, on the other hand, we give up a canon, in the proper 
sense of the word, and reduce the authority of Scripture to that which 
literary criticism can establish for its separate books. On this ground, 
none but Ezra can be the author of the canon; for no one has ever 
thought of ascribing the work to Nehemiah, the civil governor and man 
of action; and the only claim made for Malachi is the addition of his 
own prophecy to the canon already framed by Ezra, and even this sup- 
position we have seen to be unnecessary, as Ezra may have been the sur- 
vivor. The attempt to ascribe the work to some unknown inspired per- 
son later than Malachi is an example of the argnmentum ab ignorantia, 
which has no weight against the evidence of what is known." (Dr. 
Smith's Old Testament History, pp. 645-646.) 

9. The Authorized Version: The treatise on the Authorized Version in 
Smith's Bible Dictionary is full, and perhaps the best one extant ; and while 
praising highly the work of the English translators of the A. V., exhibits quite 
clearly some of its defects, and points out the necessity for a new version. How 
far the "Revised Version" of 1870-1885 corrected the defects of the A. 
V. may be known only to Hebrew and Greek scholars; but the fact that 
the work was undertaken and carried to a conclusion at the expense of 
so much time, and scholarly effort, justifies the qualified acceptance of 
our English Bible set forth in one of our Articles of Faith, viz., "We be- 
lieve the Bible to be the word of God, as far as it is translated cor- 


I. Authorship. 



Seventy'.s Bible Dic- 
tionary, Art. Pentateuch. 
The Oxford and other 
Bible Helps, same title; 
Bible Treasury, pp. 30, 
36, 52; Smith's Old Tes- 
tament History Appen- 
dix I, pp. 6.53-65S; Y. M. 
Manual, 1903-4, (No. 7), 
Chap. i. I Nephi v: 10-16. 
The aospel, (Roberts), 
Chap, vl. 

Read during- the con- 
sideratioia of this and 
the two following les- 
ons the books of Genesis, 
Exodus. Leviticus, Num- 
bers, Deuteronomy. See 
also Note 4; Sev- 
enty's Bible Dic- 
tionary and other Bible 
Helps, Bible Treasury, 
Books of the Penta- 
teuch; also Smith's Bible 
Dictionary, Articles on 
the Pentateuch, Old Tes- 
tament, andl the Separ- 
ate Books of it; Sruith's 
Old Testament Hist. Ap- 
pendix I; also Kitto's 
Biblical Literature, same 
Articles and Books. The 
Gospel; Josephus' An- 
tiquities Books I to IV 
inclusive. Also Pearl of 
Great Price, Bock of 
Moses; Ibid Bock of 
Abraham. Genesis, Chap, 
iii. Numbers xxi: 8, 
compare Helaman, viii: 
W-IS. Deut, xviii: 15, 16. 
Compare Acts iii: 22, and 
History of the Church, 
Vol I, pp. 12, 13. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "I will raise up a Prophet from among their breth- 
ren, like unto thee, and I will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak 
unto them all that I shall command him. And it shall come to pass that who- 
soever ivill not harken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will 
require it of him." — The Lord to Moses. 

II. Subject Matter of the Pentateuch: 

1. Historical: 

(a) Antediluvian History. 

(b) Postdiluvian History, Shem 
to Joshua. 

2. Prophetical : 

(a) Prophecy of the Christ . 

(b) Prophecy in relation to 

1. The Pentateuch: Definition: — "The Pentateuch is the Greek 
name given to the five books — commonly called the Five Books of 
Moses. In the time of Ezra and Nehemiah it was called "the Law of 


Moses," or "the Book of the Law of Moses," or simply "the Book of 
Moses." This was beyond all reasonable doubt our existing pentateuch. 
The book which was discovered in the Temple in the reign of Josiah, 
and which is entitled "the Book of the Law of Jehovah by the hand of 
Moses," was substantially, it would seem, the same volume, though it 
may afterward have undergone some revision by Ezra. The present 
Jews, as we have already seen, usually call the whole by the name of 
Torah, i. e., "the Law," or Torath Mosheh, "the Law of Moses." 
(Smith's Old Testament History, p. 654.) 

2. Greek Titles of the Books: "The division of the whole work 
into five parts was probably made by the Greek translators, for the 
titles of the several books are not of Hebrew, but of Greek origin. The 
Hebrew names are merely taken from the first words of each book, and 
in the first instance only designated particular sections, and not whole 
books. (Dr. Smith's Old Testament History, p. 654.) 

3. The Question of Authorship: "Till the middle of the last cen- 
tury (eighteenth) it was the general opinion of both Jews and Christians 
that the whole of the Pentateuch was written by Moses, with the ex- 
ception of a few manifestly later additions — such as the thirty-fourth 
chapter of Deuteronomy, which gives the account of Moses' death. The 
first attempt to call in question the popular belief was made by Astruc, 
doctor and professor of medicine in the Royal College at Paris, and 
court physician to Louis XIV. He had observed that throughout the 
Book of Genesis, and as far as the sixth chapter of Exodus, traces 
were to be found of two original documents, each characterized by a dis- 
tinct use of the names of God; the one by the name Elohim, and the 
other by the name Jehovah. Besides these two principal documents, he 
supposed Moses to have made use of ten others in the composition of 
the earlier part of his work. The path traced by Astruc has been fol- 
lowed by numerous German writers. ***** Jt is sufficient here 
to state that there is sufficient evidence for believing that the main bulk 
of the Pentateuch, at any rate, was written by Moses, though he prob- 
ably availed himself of existing documents in the composition of the 
earlier part of the work. Some detached portions would appear to be 
of later origin; and when we remember how entirely during some pe- 
riods of Jewish history, the Law seems to have been forgotten, and 
again how necessary it would be after the seventy years of exile to ex- 
plain some of its archaisms, and to add here and there short notes to 
make it more intelligible to the people, nothing can be more natural 
than to suppose that such later additions were made by Ezra and Ne- 
hemiah." ( Dr. Smith's Old Testament History, pp. 653-655.) 

The same conclusion is reached by James Robertson, D.D., in the 
Bible Treasury; and also by Prof. Samuel Colcord Bartlett, D.D., of 
the Theological Seminary, Chicago, in Smith's Bible Dictionary, Vol. 
IV, p. 243. The question is considered at some length in the Young 
Men's Manual, 1903-4 (No. 7), chap. I. 


4. Prophecy of Moses: "And when Moses had recapitulated what- 
soever he had done for the preservation of the people, both in their 
wars and in peace, and had composed them a body of laws, and procured 
them an excellent form of government, he foretold, as God had declared 
to him, 'That if they transgressed that institution for the worship of 
God, they should experience the following miseries: their land should 
be full of weapons of war from their enemies, and their cities should 
be overthrown, and their temple should be burnt; that they should be 
sold for slaves to such men as would have no pity on them in their af- 
flictions: that they would then repent, when that repentance would no 
way profit them under their sufferings. Yet (said he) will that God who 
founded your nation, restore your cities to your citizens, with their tem- 
ple also, and you shall lose these advantages not once only, but often." 
(Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, p. 97.) 

5. Suggested Readings: It is expected, of course, that the student 
will read all the books of the Pentateuch during the weeks which the 
lessons upon it will occupy; and in addition to that, so far as he may 
have access to them, read also the references given in the lesson analysis, 
which, in the main, give summaries, analyses, literary criticism, esti- 
mate theological and prophetical values of the separate books, etc. All 
the Bibles having "Helps," published in connection with the sacred text 
have analyses and comments upon the books of the Pentateuch; and 
these as far as possible should be read and compared. For their his- 
torical value the first four books of Josephus' Antiquities should also 
be read. 



II. Subject Matter of the Pentateuch. 

3. Mosaic Legislation : 

(a) Major Legislation — theTen 
Commandments ; 

(b) Minor Legislation — the He- 
brew Civil Code. 

4. The Pentateuch as Literature : 

(a) The Song of Moses and Mir- 
iam ; 
(b) The Story of Joseph in 

III. The Gospel in the Patriarchal Age 

— from Adam to Noah. 

IV. The Gospel in the Mosaic Dispensa- 

tion — Relation of the "Gospel' 
and the Law. 


All the references un- 
der subdivision II of 
Lesson III. 

Note 1. 2, 3. Exodus xv 
and Genesis xxxvi-xlviii. 
Commentary Critical and 
Explanatory on Exodus 
XV. Smith's Bible Dic- 
tionary, Art. "Law of," Vol. II, pp. ie02- 
1612. See Note 6. Pearl 
of Great Price, Chap, v- 
viii. Galatians iii. The 
Gospel, (Roberts), pp. 
228-235. Alma xii: 28-37; 
also Alma Chap. xiii. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "I charged your judges at that time, saying, Hear the 
causes between your brethren, and judge righteously between every man and 
his brother, and the stranger that is zvith him. Ye shall not respect persons 
in judgment; but ye shall hear the small as well as the great; ye shall not be 
afraid of the face of man; for the judgment is God's." — Moses. 


1. The Nature of Government Established by Moses: "Then came 

the law from Mount Sinai. God became the God of Israel, everything 
done to establish religion, tabernacle made for his residence. Defection 
from religion high treason. Hence complete separation from all na- 
tions. Moses was but a mediator between God and his people; proper 
title legislator of the Israelites and their deliverer from the Egyptians. 
* * * * Pqj. administration of justice Moses divided people in tens, 
fifties, hundreds, thousands, and placed judges over each. Mode taken 
from Egypt. Amongst the higher of these judges there was much po- 
litical power likewise. * * * * Each tribe had a sort of independ- 
ent government, with its own magistrates and representatives; some- 


times acted without aid or sanction of others, (e. g., tribe of Benjamin 
protected criminals of Gibeah and fought against others.) ***** 
Sometimes several tribes acted together without others. ***** 
What the influence of such a government? Exceedingly favorable to 
development of character and individual energies. Not favorable for har- 
mony or tranquility." (Ancient and Modern Nations, Dew, pp. 13-14.) 

2. The Law of Moses: "Though new in its general conception, it 
was probably not wholly new in its materials. Neither in his material 
nor his spiritual providence does God proceed per saltum. There must 
necessarily have been, before the Law, commandments and revelations 
of a fragmentary character, under which Israel had hitherto grown up. 
Indications of such are easily found, both of a ceremonial and moral na- 
ture; as, for example, in the penalties against murder, adultery, and for- 
nication (Gen. ix. 6; xxxviii. 8), in the distinction of clean and un- 
clean animals (Gen. viii. 20), and probably in the observance of the Sab- 
bath (Ex. xvi. 23, 27, 29.) But, even without such indications, our knowl- 
edge of the existence of Israel as a distinct community in Egypt would 
necessitate the conclusion, that it must hav« been guided by some laws 
of its own, growing out of the old patriarchal customs, which would be 
preserved with oriental tenacity, and gradually becoming methodized by 
the progress of circumstances. Nor would it be possible for the Israel- 
ites to be in contact with an elaborate system of ritual and law, such as 
that which existed in Egypt, without being influenced by its general 
principles, and, in less degree, by its minuter details. As they approached 
nearer to the condition of a nation they would be more and more likely 
to modify their patriarchal customs by the adoption from Egypt of laws 
which were fitted for national existence. This being so, it is hardly con- 
ceivable that the Mosaic legislation should have embodied none of these 
earlier materials. It is clear, even to human wisdom, that the only 
constitution, which can be efficient and permanent, is one which has 
grown up slowly, and so been assimilated to the character of a people. 
It is the peculiar mark of legislative genius to mold by fundamental 
principles, and animate by a higher inspiration, materials previously ex- 
isting in a cruder state. The necessity for this lies in the nature, not 
of the legislator, but of the subjects; and the argument therefore is 
but strengthened by the acknowledgement in the case of Moses of a di- 
vine and special inspiration. So far, therefore, as they were consistent 
with the objects of the Jewish law, the customs of Palestine and the 
laws of Egypt would doubtless be traceable in the Mosaic system." 
(Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 1602.) 

3. Basic Principle of the Law of Moses: "The basis of human so- 
ciety is ordinarily sought, by law or philosophy, either in the rights of 
the individual, and the partial delegation of them to political authorities; 
or in the mutual needs of men, and the relations which spring from 
them; or in the actual existence of power of man over man, whether 
arising from natural relationship, or from benefits conferred, or from 


physical or intellectual ascendency. The maintenance of society is sup- 
posed to depend on a "social compact" between governors and subjects; 
a compact, true as an abstract idea, but untrue if supposed to have been 
a historical reality. The IMosaic Law seeks the basis of its polity, first, 
in the absolute severeignty of God, next in the relationship of each in- 
dividual to God, and through God to his countrymen. It is clear that 
such a doctrine, while it contradicts none of the common theories, yet 
lies beneath them all, and shows why each of them, being only a sec- 
ondary deduction from an ultimate truth, cannot be in itself sufficient; 
and, if it claims to be the whole truth, will become an absurdity. It is 
the doctrine which is insisted upon and developed in the whole series 
of prophecy; and which is brought to its perfection only when applied 
to that universal and spiritual kingdom for which the Mosaic system 
was a preparation." (Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 1607). 

4. Israel and the Law: ''It was indeed often neglected [the Law] and 
even forgotten. Its fundamental assertion of the Theocracy was violated by 
the natural course of human selfishness (Jer. xxxiv. 12-17); till at last, 
in the reign of Josiah, its very existence was unknown, and its dis- 
covery was to the king and the people as a second publication; yet still 
it formed the standard from which they knowingly departed, and to 
which they constantly returned; and to it, therefore, all which was pe- 
culiar in their national and individual character was due. Its direct in- 
fluence was probably greatest in the periods before the establishment 
of the kingdom, and after the Babylonish captivity. The last act of 
Joshua was to bind the Israelites to it as the charter of their occupation 
of the conquered land (Josh. xxiv. 24-27); and, in the semi-anarchical pe- 
• lud of the judges, the Law and the Tabernacle were the only centers of 
anything like national unity. The establishment of the kingdom was 
aue to an impatience of this position, and a desire for a visible and per- 
sonal center of authority, much the same in nature as that which 
plunged them so often in idolatry. The people were warned (I Sam. 
xii. 6-25) that it involved much danger of their forgetting and rejecting 
ine main principle of the Law — that "Jehovah their God was their King." 
I'he truth of the prediction was soon shown. Even under Solomon, as 
soon as the monarchy became one of great splendor and power, it 
assumed a heathenish and polytheistic character, breaking the Law, 
both by its dishonor towards God, and its forbidden tyranny over man." 
(Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 1609.) 

5. The Gospel and the Law: "Abraham received the Priesthood 
from Melchisedek, who received it through the lineage of his fathers, 
even till Noah; * * * * This greater Priesthood administereth the 
gospel and holdeth the key of the mysteries of the kingdom, even the 
key of the knowledge of God. Therefore, in the ordinances thereof, 
the power of godliness is manifest; and without the ordinances 
thereof, and the authority of the Priesthood, the power of godliness is 
not manifest unto men in the flesh; for without this no man can see the 


face of God, even the Father, and live. Now this Moses plainly taught 
to the children of Israel in the wilderness, and sought diligently to 
sanctify his people that they might behold the face of God; but they 
hardened their hearts and could not endure his presence, therefore the 
Lord in his wrath (for his anger was kindled against them) swore that 
they should not enter into his rest while in the wilderness, which rest 
is the fulness of his glory. Therefore he took Moses out of their midst, 
and the Holy Priesthood also; and the lesser Priesthood continued, 
which Priesthood holdeth the key of the ministering of angels and the 
preparatory gospel." (Doc. & Gov. Sec. 84.) 

The above quotation from the 84th Section of the Doctrine and Gov- 
enants throws much light, not only upon the Pentateuch, but upon the 
whole of the Old Testament, the law of Moses, and the whole polity and 
history of Israel. In the light of the truth the said quotation reveals, 
it is to be seen that "when the Lord took the children of Israel from 
the land of Egypt to make of them a people for himself, he presented 
them first with the gospel of Ghrist, with all its mercy and inspiring love 
and gentleness; but they would not live in accordance with its high mor- 
al precepts, nor reflect in their lives its spiritual excellence. Accordingly, 
a less perfect law was given to Israel; a law which in the New Testa- 
ment is called "the law of carnal commandments;" a law more in keep- 
ing with the status of their moral development; a law which breathed 
less of mercy, forgiveness and love, and more of exacting, relentless jus- 
tice; demanding an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth — and this 
was to be their schoolmaster, to prepare them for the more excellent 
law of the gospel of Christ. Many things in that law of the Old Testa^ 
ment are confessedly imperfect, and must not be taken as reflecting the 
full glory and excellence of the Divine wisdom or goodness. On the 
contrary it is plainly stated, and that too by the voice of inspiration in 
the New Testament, that it was a law carnal and imperfect, and yet, 
withal, demanding a higher excellence than the people of those days 
seemed able to attain. 

In proof that the gospel was first offered to ancient Israel, and 
then because of transgression the law of carnal commandments, I in- 
vite the reader's attention to the following Scriptures: Heb., latter part 
of chap, iii, in connection with Heb. iv: 1, 2; I Cor. x. 1-4; and Gal. 
iii; also Doc. & Gov., sec. 84; see also the chapter on "History of the 
Gospel" in The Gospel (Roberts), pp. 86, 87. 

6. The Song of Moses: "This song is some hundred years the old- 
est poem in the world. There is a sublimity and beauty in the language 
that is unexampled. But its unrivalled superiority arises not solely from 
the splendor of the diction. Its poetical excellencies have often drawn 
forth the admiration of the best judges, while the character of the event 
commemorated, and its being prompted by divine inspiration, contribute 
to give to it an interest and sublimity peculiar to itself." (Commentary, 
Explanatory and Critical, p. 59.) 


I. Abraham. (Paper.) (a) 

II. Joseph, Son of Jacob — His Place in 

Ill* Moses, the Prophet and Lawgiver. 


Genesis xi-xxv. Pearl 
of Great Price, Book of 
Abraham, Chaps. i-v. 
Josephus' Antiquities, 

Book I, Chaps, vi-xvii. 
Note 1. 

Genesis, Chaps, xxxvii 
to L. Deut. xxxiii: 13-17. 
Young Men's Manual. 
1906-6 (No. 9). Chap, 
xxxv, pp. 329-338. See 
also Defense of the 
Faith Bjid the Saints, 
I Mormon Views of 
America-II America, The 
Land of Zion ajitd of 
Joi^eph. Smith's Bible 
Dictionary, Art. Joseph, 
Vol. II, p. 1462-1473. II 
Nephi, Chaps, iii-iv. 

Bible^beginning witli 
Exodus to Deuteronomy. 
Josephus- Antiquities of 
the Jews, pp. 31-79. 
Against Apion Bk. II, p. 
602 . Art. Moses. Ditto 
Smith's Bible Diction- 
ary. Kitto's Biblical Lit- 
erature. Pearl of Great 
Price. The Book of 
Moses, Chaps, i-v. Notes 
of this Lesson. 

SPECIAL TEXT : "And there arose not a prophet since in Israel like 
unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, in all the signs and the won- 
ders which the Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt to Pharoah, and to 
all his servants, and to all his land, and in all that mighty hand, and in all 
the great terror which Moses showed in the sight of all Israel." — Ezra 


1. Abraham: "He was a person of great sagacity, both for under- 
standing all things, and persuading his hearers, and not mistaken in his 
opinions; for which reason he began to have higher notions of virtue 
than others had, and he determined to renew and to change the opinion 
all men happened then to have concerning God; for he was the first that 
ventured to publish this notion, that there was but One God, the Creator 
of the universe; and that as to other (gods), if they contributed anything 
to the happiness of men, that each of them afforded it only according 
to his appointment, and not by their own power. This his opinion v/iit 

(a) See note b, p. 27. 


derived from the irregular phenomena that were visible both at land 
and sea, as well as those that happen to the sun, and moon, and all the 
heavenly bodies; thus, "if (said he) these bodies had power of their 
own, they would certainly take care of their own regular motions; but 
since they do not preserve such regularity, they make it plain that so far 
as they co-operate to our advantage, they do it not of their own abilities, 
but as they are subservient to him that commands them, to whom alone 
we ought justly to offer our honor and thanksgiving." For which doc- 
trines, when the Chaldeans, and other people of Mesopotamia, raised a 
tumult against him, he thought fit to leave that country; and at the com- 
mand, and by the assistance of God, he came and lived in the land of 
Canaan. And when he was there settled, he built an altar, and performed 
a sacrifice to God. Berosus mentions our father Abram without naming 
him, when he says thus: "In the tenth generation after the flood, there 
was among the Chaldeans a man, righteous and great, and skilful in the 
celestial science." But Hecatseus does more than mention him; tor he 
composed, and left behind him, a book concerning him. And Nicolaus 
of Damascus, in the fourth book of his history, says thus: 'Abram 
reigned at Damascus, being a foreigner, who came with an army out of 
the land above Babylon, called the land of the Chaldeans; but, after a 
long time, he got him up, and removed from that country also, with his 
people, and went into the land then called the land of Canaan, but now 
the land of Judea, and this when his posterity were become a multitude; 
as to which posterity of his, we relate their history in another work. 
Now the name of Abram is even still famous in the country of Damas- 
cus; and there is showed a village named from him, 'The habitation of 
Abram.' " (Antiquities of the Jews, Josephus, pp. 31-32.) 

2. The Restoration of Lands Made by Joseph: "However, the fam- 
ine increased among the Egyptians; * * * * gyj vvhen their money 
failed them, they bought corn with their cattle, and their slaves, and if 
s^y of them had a small piece of land, they gave up that to purchase 
vftem food, by which means the king became the owner of all their sub- 
■jtance; and they were removed some to one place, and some to another, 
that so the possession of their country might be firmly afforded to 
the king; excepting the lands of the priests for their country continued 
still in their own possession. And indeed this sore famine made their 
minds, as well as their bodies, slaves: and at length compelled them to 
procure a sufficiency of food by such dishonorable means. But when 
this misery ceased, and the river overflowed the ground, and the ground 
brought forth its fruits plentifully, Joseph came to every city, and 
gathered the people thereto belonging together, and gave them back 
entirely the land which, by their own consent, the king might have 
possessed alone, and alone enjoyed the fruits of it. He also exhorted 
them to look on it as every one's own possession; and to fall to their 
husbandry with cheerfulness; and to pay as a tribute to the king, the 
fifth part of the fruits for the land which the king when it was his own 

restored to them. These men rejoiced upon their becoming unexpected- 
ly owners of their lands, and diligently observed what was enjoined 
them. And by this means Joseph procured to himself a greater authority 
among the Egyptians, and greater love to the king from them. Now 
this Jaw, that they should pay the fifth part of their fruits as tribute, con- 
tinued until their latter kings." (Josephus, Antiquities, p. 52.) 

3. Character of Moses. "Now Moses lived in all one hundred and 
twenty years; a third part of which time, abating one month, he was 
the people's ruler; and he died on the last month of the year, which is 
called by the Macedonians 'Dystrus,' but by us 'Adar,' on the first day 
of the month. He was one that exceeded all men that ever were, in 
understanding, and made the best use of what that understanding sug- 
gested to him. He had a very graceful way of speaking, in addressing 
the multitude, and as to his other qualifications, he had such a full com- 
mand of his passions, as if he hardly had any such in his soul, and only 
knew them by their names, as rather perceiving them in other men 
than in himself. He was also such a general of an army as is seldom 
seen, as well as such a prophet as was never known, and this to such a 
degree, that whatsoever he pronounced you would think you heard the 
voice of God himself. So the people mourned for him thirty days: nor 
did ever any grief so deeply affect the Hebrews as did this upon the 
death of Moses; nor were those that had experienced his conduct the 
only persons that desired him, but those also that perused the laws he 
left behind him, had a strong desire after him, and by them gathered 
the extraordinary virtue he was master of. And this shall suffice for 
the declaration of the manner of the death of Moses. (Josephus, An- 
tiquities of the Jews, p. 98.) 

4. The Greatness and Influence of Moses. "Where shall we find 
one that combines in his personality so many greatnesses as Moses, if I 
may say so? He was the liberator of his people, but he spurned crowns 
and scepters, and did not, as many others after him did, put a new yoke 
on the neck from which he had taken the old one. ***** And 
his republic was not of short duration. It lasted through all the storms 
of barbaric wars and revolutions — hundreds of years, down to the days 
of Samuel, that all-stout-hearted republican who could endure no kings. 
* * * * gu^- ^jjg republic he founded stands unique in the history of 
the world, for it was altogether based upon an idea — the idea of the 
unity of God and the righteousness of his will. Think of it! Among a 
nation escaped from bondage, too degraded even to be led to war, that 
needed the education, the hammering, as it were, into a people for forty 
years, to go among them with the sublimest truth that the human mind 
ever can conceive and to say of them: 'Though you are now benighted 
and enslaved, any truth that I know is not too good for you nor any 
child of God." * * * * As a teacher of morality why need I praise 
him? As a teacher of statecraft in the highest and best sense, who sur- 
passed him? The great wonder is that that man speaks the language of 


today. The problems which we have not yet succeeded in solving were 
already present to his mind, and he founded a nation in which the dif- 
ference between the poor and the rich was almost abolished. The la- 
borer was not only worthy but sure of his hire. No aristocrat could 
rule over his subjects and no priesthood could ever assume the gov- 
ernment which, alas! according to history, means the opposition 6f the 
nation. How did that man of that vast mind, how did he combine all 
these great talents? And yet that man, how tender his heart was! Why, 
friends, it is a thousand pities that you cannot hear the deep sorrow, the 
sadness that is to be heard in his original words. When an over-zealous 
disciple came to him and told that they were prophesying in his name, 
and they said: 'Hinder them, master, hinder them. Why, if they prophesy 
what will become of thine own authority?' I fancy I see his venerable 
head sink upon his breast and he saying: 'Indeed art thou zealous for 
me? Would that all the people of God were prophets, and that God 
gave his Spirit to them." (Rabbi Gottheil, The World's Parliament of 
Religions, (Barrows), pp. 674-5.) 



I. The Pentateuch, (a) 
II. Book of Joshua — The Hexateuch. 
Historical Events : 
I. The Invasion of Canaan. 

2. The Conquest of Canaan. 

3. Distribution of the Land by Lot. 

4. Literary Character of the Book — 
Select passages that illustrate lit- 
erature of beauty or power — one 
of each. 

5. Authorship. 

III. Book of Judges. 

1. Period of History Covered by the 
Reign of the Judges. 

2. General Character of the Govern- 
ment Under the Judges. 

3. Discuss the Three Most Promi- 
nent Judges in Israel, and name 
Their Specific Achievements. 

IV. Book of Ruth. 

1. General Character, and Historical 

2. Literary Beauty, Illustrated by 
Selected Passages. 

Joshua 1-xxiv; Seven- 
ty's Bible DicUonarv-; 
Oxford and other Bible 
Helps. Bible Treasury. 
Art. Book of Joshua, p. 
52. All the Bible Dic- 
tionaries before quoted 
under Art. "Book cf 
Joshua," and notes 1, 2, 
3, 4, 5, 6. Same authorit ea 
above cited on the term 

Judges i-xxi. 

All the Bible Diction- 
aries and Helps cited 
in Previous Lessons in 
Part II under the Title 
"Judg-es" and "Book of 
Judges." Note 7. 

Ruth I: iv. All Bible 
Dictionaries and Helps 
cited in previous lessjns 
a in Part II, under titles 
"Ruth and Book of 

SPECIAL TEXT : And Joshua, the Son of Nun, was full of the spirit 
of wisdom, for Moses had laid his hands upon him; and the children of Israel 
harkened unto him, and did as the Lord commanded Moses." — Ezra {sup- 

(a) The Pentateuch Historically has already been considered in 
Lesson III of Part II; and its historical character considered under sub- 
division II. (a) Anti-diluvian History, (b) Postdiluvian History, bring- 
ing its historical events down to the death of Moses. It is here written 
into the analysis only that the student may be reminded that the Pentateuch 
is recognized as being classed with the historical books of the Bible. 



1. The Hexateuch: The Book of Joshua is sometimes associated 
with the five books of Moses and the collection is then called the Hexateuch, 
a term meaning "the six books." The union is made on the ground that the 
Book of Joshua is the proper continuation and consummation of the former 
five books as recording the Conquest of the Land of Canaan, in ful- 
fillment of the promise contained in the Pentateuch; the subject of the 
whole six books being "the election of Israel as a people to the service 
of Jehovah, and their settlement for this purpose in the Land of Prom- 

2. Israel tJnder Joshua: "Israel served the Lord all the days of 
Joshua." The high and commanding character of this emixient leader 
had given so decided a tone to the sentiments and manners of his con- 
temporaries, and the memory of his fervent piety and many virtues con- 
tinued so vividly impressed on the memories of the people, that the sa- 
cred historian has recorded it to his immortal honor, 'Israel served the 
Lord all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders that overlived 
Joshua.' " (Commentary, Explanatory and Critical, p. 158.) 

3. Contemporaneous Notices of Joshua: There occurs some refer- 
ences to the deeds of Joshua in other historians besides those of the Bi- 
ble. Procopius mentions a Phoenecian inscription near the city of Tingis 
in Mauritania, the sense of which in Greek was: "We are those who fled 
before the face of Joshua the robber, the son of Nun." Again Suidas 
says: "We are the Canaanites whom Joshua the robber persecuted." In 
a letter of Shaubech, king of Armenia Minor, in the Samaritan book of 
Joshua (chapter 26), styles Joshua "the murderous wolf; or, according 
to another reading, "the evening wolf." (Condensed from Kitto's Bibli- 
cal Literature, Vol. II, p. 154.) 

4. Authorship of the Book of Joshua: "Viewing all the circum- 
stances together, we consider it highly probable that the whole book of 
Joshua was composed by himself up to the twenty-eighth verse of the 
last chapter; to which a friendly hand subjoined some brief notices, con- 
tained in verses 29-33, concerning the death, age, and burial of Joshua; the 
continuance of his influence upon the people; the interment, in Schechem, 
of the bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel had brought from 
Egypt; and the death and burial of Eleazar, the son of Aaron, whom his 
son Phinehas interred in his allotment on Mount Ephraim." (Cyclo- 
paedia of Biblical Literature, Kitto, Vol. II, p. 156.) 

5. Roman Catholic View of Authorship: "This book is called 
Josue, because it contains the history of what passed under him, and 
according to the common opinion was written by him. The Greeks call 
him Jesus; for Josue and Jesus in the Hebrew are the same name, and 
have the same signification, viz., a savior." (Introduction to the Book 
of Josue.) 

6. Character of Joshua: "So Joshua, when he had thus discoursed 
to them [upon their obligations and duty to God], died, having lived a 
hundred and ten years; forty of which he lived with Moses, in order to 


learn what might be for his advantage afterward. He also became their 
commander after his death for twenty-five years. He was a man that 
wanted not wisdom nor eloquence to declare his intentions to the peo- 
ple, but very eminent on both accounts. He was of great courage and 
magnanimity, in action and in dangers; and very sagacious in procuring 
the peace of the people, and of great virtue at all proper seasons. He 
was buried in the city of Timnah, of the tribe of Ephraim. About the 
same time died Eleazar, the high priest, leaving the high priesthood to 
his son Phineas. His monument also and sepulchre are in the city of 
Gabbatha." (Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews, p. 104.) 

7. Literature of Power: By "literature of power" is here meant 
that class of utterance that rests upon its own inherent strength for its 
influence or acceptance as truth. An American popular writer (Hub- 
bard) in giving an illustration of this class of literature quoted this pas- 
sage from the Bible: 

"The Lord is in his holy temple: let all the earth keep silence before 

Explanation, comment upon such a passage, he argues, would but 
mar it. One feels a force, a strength in it that admits of no doubt about 
its power, or truth. A still better example of the literature of power is 
Psalms xix, also Doctrine and Covenants, Sec. Ixxxiv: 99-102. It is 
such a passage in Joshua that the student is directed to find. 

7. Book of Ruth: "The Book is called Ruth, from the name of 
the person, whose history is here recorded: who being a Gentile, be- 
came a convert to the true faith, and marrying Boaz, the great-grand- 
father of David, was one of those from whom Christ sprung, according 
to the flesh, and an illustrious figure of the Gentile church. It is thought 
this book was written by the prophet Samuel." (Douay Bible, Introduc- 
tion to the Book of Ruth, p. 303.) 




I and II Samuel. Sev- 
enty's Bible Dictionary, 
Art. "Samuel Books of"; 
Ibid Articles "Samuel," 
"Saul," "David." All 
other Bible Helps and 
Dictionaries cited in Pre- 
vious lycssons in. Part II 
on above topics. Also on 
Character of Samuel, 
also notes 1, 2, 3. 


Book of Samuel I and II. 
1. Historical Period. 

Events : Transition from Reign of 

Judges to Monarchy ; Reigns of 

Saul and David. 

Contrast of the Government of 

Judges and Monarchy. 

Authorship and Date of the 


II. The Books of Kings I and II. 

1. Historical Period — Rebellion of 

Adonijah to Final Captivity of Ju- 
dah— 1015 B. C.-587 B. C. 

2. Historical : (a) Solomon's Reign 
and Death. 

(b) The Division of the King- 

(c) Rise and Fall of the King- 
dom of Israel — Captivity of 
the Ten Tribes. 

(d) The Kingdom of Judah af- 
ter the Division — Captivity 
of Judah. 

3. Authorship and Literary Charac- 


SPECIAL TEXT : "And Samuel said, Hath the Lord as great delight in 
burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the Lord? . Behold, to 
obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams." — /. Samuel 
XV : 22. 

I and II King;s. All the 
Bible Dictionaries, Help^; 
and Commentaries cited 
in Previous Lessons in 
Part II, Articles on I and 
II Kings, also Articles in 
E^me work on "Samuel," 
"Saul," "David," "Solo- 
mon," etc. 


1. The Historic Period Covered by the Books of Samuel: "The 
•Story embraces a period of over one hundred years, and extends from 
the end of the time of the Judges to the close of the reign of David, 1015 
B. C, the connecting link being found in the civil judgeship of Eli and 


Samuel. The object of the narrative is to exhibit the kingdom as it re- 
alized itself in view of a divine ideal; and the prominence given to the 
lives of Samuel and David would seem to be due to a design to portray 
the one as the type of the prophetic, and the other as the type of the 
kingly character — the king's counselor, in this case, selecting the king, 
and not, as was the rule afterwards, the king his counselor." (Cam- 
bridge Teacher's Bible Helps, p. 19.) 

2. Books of Samuel, I and II. Protestant View: "The two were, 
by the ancient Jews, conjoined, so as to make one book, and in that 
form could be called the Book of Samuel with more propriety than now, 
the second being wholly occupied with the relation of transactions that 
did not take place till after the death of that eminent judge. Accord- 
ingly, in the Septuagint and the Vulgate, it is called the First and 
Second Book of Kings. The early portion of the First Book, down to 
the end of the twenty-fourth chapter, was probably written by Samuel; 
while the rest of it, and the whole of the Second, are commonly ascribed 
to Nathan and Gad, founding the opinion on I Chronicles xxix: 29. 
Commentators, however, are divided about this, some supposing that 
the statements in I Samuel ii: 26; iii: 1, indicate the hand of the judge 
himself, or a contemporary; while some think, from I Samuel vi: 18; xii: 
5; xxvii: 6, that the composition must be referred to a later age. It is 
probable, however, that these supposed marks of an after period were 
interpolations of Ezra. This uncertainty, however, as to the authorship 
does not affect the inspired authority of the book, which is indisputable, 
being quoted in the New Testament (Acts xiii: 22; Hebrews i: 5). as well 
as in many of the Psalms." (Commentary, Explanatory and Critical, 
p. 8.) 

3. Catholic View of the Books of Samuel: This [I Samuel] and 
the following book [II Samuel] are called by the Hebrews the books of 
Samuel, because they contain the history of Samuel, and of the two 
kings, Saul and David, whom he anointed. They are more commonly 
named by the Fathers the first and second book of kings. As to the 
writer of them, the common opinion is that Samuel composed the first 
book as far as the twenty-fifth chapter; and that the prophets Nathan 
and Gad finished the first, and wrote the second book. See I Chroni- 
cles xxix: 29.)" (Introduction to the First Book of Samuel, Douay Bible, 
p. 308.) 

4. The First and Second Books of Kings. Protestant View: "In 
the ancient copies of the Hebrew Bible, First and Second Kings constitute one 
book. Various titles have been given to them ; in the Septuagint and the Vul- 
gate they are called the Third and Fourth Books of Kings. The authorship of 
these books is unknown ; but the prevailing opinion is that they were compiled 
by Ezra, or one of the later prophets, from the ancient documents that 
are so frequently referred to in the course of the history as of public 
and established authority. Their inspired character was acknowledged 
by the Jewish church, which ranked them in the sacred canon; and, be- 
sides, is attested by our Lord, who frequently quotes from them (cf. I 
Kings xvii: 9; II Kings v: 14 with Luke iv: 24-27; I Kings x: 1 with 
Matthew xii: 42)." (Commentary, Explanatory and Critical, p. 8.) 

5. Catholic View of Books of Kings: "This [the first Book of 
Kings] and the following [the second Book of Kings] book are called 
by the holy fathers the third and fourth book of Kings; but by the He- 
brews the first and second Malachim, that is Kings. They contam the 
history of the kingdoms of Israel and Juda, from the beginning of the 
reign of Solomon, to the captivity. As to the writer of these books, it 
seems most probable they were not writen by one man, nor at one 


time; but as there was all along a succession of prophets in Israel, who 
recorded, by divine inspiration, the most remarkable things that hap- 
pened in their davs, these books seem to have been written by these 
prophets." (Douay Bible, pp. 381-2.) 

6. Historical Period of the Books of Kings: "The Books of Kings 
narrate the history from the rebellion of Adonijah to the final captivity 
of Judah, including the whole history of the northern kingdom from the 
separation till its disappearance in B. C. 721. The succession of events 
will be found under Chronology. The books were compiled by some 
unknown writer from a variety of written documents, including the 
state chronicles." (Seventies' Bible Dictionary, p 94.) 

7. Literary Features of the Books of Samuel and of Kings: "The 

literary form of the books of Kings is quite different from that of the 
books of Samuel. There is an almost stereotyped framework, resem- 
bling that of the book of Judges, within which the events of the succes- 
sive reigns are placed. When the name of a new king is introduced, it is 
stated how old he was when he came to the throne, how many years he 
reigned, and, in regard to the kings of Judah, what was his mother's 
name. Then a general character is pronounced upon his reign, the events 
are recorded at greater or less length, and at the close a reference is usu- 
ally given to another authority for fuller details. When the divided 
monarchy is to be treated, the usual proceeding is to give the record of 
the northern kingdom first, and then the corresponding record for the 
southern, the history thus falling into periods longer or shorter. And 
this course is followed so closely that sometimes the same event is 
twice related, if it concerns the two kingdoms. These features make it 
probable that the book is composed from other written materials, or at 
least largely based upon them. And the frequent references to books of 
chronicles of the kings of Judah or of Israel favor the inference that 
state records of the respective kingdoms, containing lists of officials, 
statistical matters, and memoranda of events in the different reigns were 
available for the purpose. There were also, in all probability, narratives 
of the doings of Elijah, Elisha, and other prophets, preserved in the 
prophetic circles, which would furnish information of another kind. A 
work extending over so long a period could not be the expression of 
the direct personal knowledge of any one writer, and could only be com- 
posed in the way indicated." (Cambridge Bible, p. 63.) 




Chronicles I and II. 

1. Historical Period. (Note i.) 

2. General Character of the Books. 

3. Importance of in Biblical Con- 

4. Consider Importance of Special 
Text as Fixing the Place of Jos- 
eph in Israel. 


The Books of Chroni- 
cles. Notes 1, 2, 3. 4. 
Also all Bible Dicticn- 
aries and Helps cited in 
previous lessons in Part 
II, under titles of 
"ChronicI°s" and Books 
of Chronicles. 

Topic 4. See Y. M.'s 
Manual 1905-19C6, pp. 330- 
338. Defense of the Faith 
and the Saints, Title, 
"America the Land of 
Zion and of Joseph." 

SPECIAL TEXT: "Now the sons of Reuben, the -firstborn of Israel, 
(for he zvas the firstborn; but, forasmuch as he defiled his father's bed, his 
birthright was given unto the sons of Joseph, the son of Israel; and the gene- 
alogy is not to be reckoned after the birthright [i. e. of the first born, Reuben]. 
For Judah prevailed above Ills brethren, and of him came the chief ruler; 
but the birthright was Joseph's)". I Chronicles v: i, 2. 


1. Books of Chronicles: "The two Books of Chronicles counted as 
one in the Hebrew canon. They give a short history of events from the 
creation down to the proclamation of Cyrus, allowing the Jews to re- 
turn to Palestine. The books contain several references to the sources 
whence information was derived, e. g., "the book of Nathan the prophet, 
the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and the visions of Iddo the seer," 
(II Chron. ix: 29; cf. also II Chron. xii: 15; xiii: 22; xx: 34; xxvi: 22; 
xxxii: 32; xxxiii: 18.) These passages make it clear that, from the earliest 
times of the kingdom, writers living amid the events described, and gen- 
erally of the prophetic order, recorded the history of their own times. 
These records along with Samuel and Kings, formed the materials out 
of which our Books of Chronicles were compiled, the compilers choosing 
such portions as suited the purpose of their composition. Though sec- 
ular events are not excluded from the compilations thus formed, the 
writers dwell with most satisfaction upon the ecclesiastical and religious 


aspects of the history, and the progress of temple worship in Jeru- 
salem. The date of composition cannot be fixed with certainty; it 
was probably between 300 and 250 B. C." (Cambridge Bible Helps, p. 32.) 

2. Catholic View of Chronicles: "These books are called by the 
Greek interpreters Paralipomenon, that is. 'of things left out, or omit- 
ted,' because they are a kind of a supplement of such things as were 
passed over in the book of the Kings. The Hebrews call them Dibre 
Hajamim, that is, 'The words of the days,' or The Chronicles. Not that 
they are the books which are so often quoted in Kings, under the title 
oi the 'Words of the Days of the Kings of Israel, and of the Kings of 
Juda;' for the Books of Paralipomenon were written after the Books 
of Kings; but because in all probability they have been abridged from 
those ancient 'Words of the Days,' by Esdras or some other sacred 
writer." (Introduction to Chronicles, Douay Bible.) 

3. Controversial Value of the Books of Chronicles: "The constant 
tradition of the Jews, in which they have been followed by the great 
mass of Christian commentators, is that these books were for the most 
part compiled by Ezra; and the one genealogy, that of Zerubbabel, which 
comes down to a later time, is no objection to this statement, without 
recurring to the strange notion broached by the old commentators, and 
even sanctioned by Dr. Davidson (in Kitto's Cyclo. of Bibl. Lit., art. 
Chronicles), that the knowledge of these generations was communicated to 
Ezra by inspiration. In fact, the internal evidence as to the time when 
the book of Chronicles was compiled, seems to tally remarkably with 
the tradition concerning its authorship. Notwithstanding this agree- 
ment, however, the authenticity of Chronicles has been vehemently im- 
pugned by De Wette and other German critics, whose arguments have 
been successfully refuted by Dahler, Keil, Movers, and others. It has 
been clearly shown that the attack was grounded not upon any real 
marks of spuriousness in the books themselves, but solely upon the de- 
sire of the critics in question to remove a witness whose evidence was 
fatal to their favorite theory as to the post-Babylonian origin of the 
books of Moses. If the accounts in the books of Chronicles of the 
courses of priests and Levites, and the ordinances of divine service as 
arranged by David, and restored by Hezekiah and Josiah, are genuine, 
it necessarily follows that the Levitical law, as set forth in the Penta- 
teuch, was not invented after the return from the captivity. Hence the 
successful vindication of the authenticity of Chronicles has a very im- 
portant bearing upon many of the very gravest theological questions." 
(Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 429.) 

4. Compilation and Spirit of the Books of Chronicles: "Though 
the latest of all the canonical writings, it represents the workmanship 
of many generations. It resembles the structure of an ancient cathedral, 
with fragments of every style worked into the building as it proceeded, — 
here a piece of the most hoary antiquity, there a precious relic of a lost 
hymn or genealogy of some renowned psalmist or warrior, — but all pre- 
served, and wrought together, as by the workmen of mediaeval times, 
under the guidance of the same sacerdotal mind, with the spirit of the 
same priestly order. Far below the prophetic books of the Kings in 
interest and soliditv. it yet furnishes a useful counterpart by filling up 
the voids with materials which none but the peculiar traditions and feel- 
ings of the Levitical caste could have supplied. It is the culminating 
point of the purely Levitical system, both in what it relates, in what it 
omits, and the manner of its relations and omissions." (Dean Stanley, 
quoted in Smith's Bible Dictionarj^, p. 432.) 


5. The Birth Right to Joseph: "It should be remembered that to Jos- 
eph, the son of Jacob, a double portion of honor was granted in Israel. While 
no tribe is especially called by his name, yet two tribes are his through 
his sons, viz., the tribe of Ephraim and the tribe of Manasseh. This came 
about in the following manner: Reuben, the first born of Jacob 
defiled his father's wife Bilhah. For which awful crime he lost 
his place as a prince in the house of Israel, which place was given indirectly 
to Joseph, the son of Jacob, by his wife Rachel. Why I say indirectly is be- 
cause Ephraim, Joseph's younger son, was the one who received the blessing 
of the first born from the patriarch Jacob, and it is for this reason that the 
Lord was wont to say, "I am a father to Israel, and Ephraim is my first born." 
In proof see Special Text of lesson; also Y. M. M. I. A. Manual 1905-6, 
p. 330. 




I. The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah. 
Historical Period. 

1. Book of Ezra. 

(a) Authorship. 

(b) Character of Contents. 

2. Book of Nehemiah. 

(a) Authorship. 

(b) Contents. 

II. The Book of Esther. 

1. Authorship. 

2. Historical Character. 

3. The Feast of Purim as Witness of 
Its Historical Character. 

4. Its omission of the name of God. 


Books of Ezra and 
Nehemiali; Note 1. Also 
all Bible Dictionaries 
and Helps cited in pre- 
vious lessons in Pa" t II, 
under titles of "Ezra," 

"Esther," and "Purim," 
Book of Esther, Chaps. 
I to X. 

SPECIAL TEXT : "Remember, I beseech thee, the word that thou com- 
mandest thy servant Moses, saying. If ye transgress, I will scatter you abroad 
among the nations: But if ye turn unto me, and keep my commandments, and 
do them; though there were of you cast out unto the uttermost part of the 
heaven, yet will I gather them from thence, and will bring them unto the 
place that I have chosen to set my name there." — Nehemiah. 


1. Historical Period of Ezra and Nehemiah: "The time covered by 
the two books of Ezra and Nehemiah together is about a century; for 
the narrative of Ezra begins in the first year of the reign of Cyrus, 538 
B. C, and that of Nehemiah stops soon after the thirty-second year of 
Artaxerxes, 432 B. C. A great part of this space, however, is left with- 
out record; and we may distinguish three periods: 1. The period 
that elapsed from the first return of exiles to the completion of the 
temple; 2. the time of Ezra's activity as leader of the second colony 
of returned exiles; and 3, the period when Ezra and Nehemiah 
are seen together in the work of reformation at Jerusalem. The 


first two periods are embraced in the book of Ezra; the last, in the book 
of Nehemiah." (Bible Treasury," p. 69.) 

2. Book of Ezra.. Protestant View: "The Book of Ezra contains 
records of events occurring about the termination of the Babylonian ex- 
ile. It comprises accounts of the favors bestowed upon the Jews by 
Persian kings; of the rebuilding of the temple; of the mission of Ezra to 
Jerusalem, and his regulations and reforms. Such records forming the 
subject of the Book of Ezra, we must not be surprised that its parts are 
not so intimately connected with each other as we might have expected if 
the author had set forth his intention to furnish a complete history of 
his times. * * * * -phe beginning of the book of Ezra agrees ver- 
batum with the conclusion of the second book of Chronicles, and ter- 
minates abruptly with the statement of the divorces affected by his au- 
thority, by which the marriages of Israelites with foreign women were 
dissolved. Since the book of Ezra has no marked conclusion, it was, 
even in early times, considered to form part of the book of Nehemiah, 
the contents of which are of a similar description. As, however, the book 
of Ezra is a collection of records of remarkable events occurring at the 
conclusion of the exile and in the times immediately following it, at- 
tempting no display of the art of book-making, the mere want of an 
artificial conclusion cannot be considered a sufficient reason for regard- 
ing it as the first portion of Nehemiah. It is, however, likely that the 
similarity of the contents of the books of Ezra and Nehemiah was the 
cause of their being placed together in the Hebrew Bible." (Cyclo- 
paedia of Biblical Literature, Kitto, p. 690.) 

3. Catholic View of the Books of Ezra and Nehemieih: 

(a) Ezra, called by Catholics "Esdras:" This book taketh its name 
from the writer: who was a holy priest, and doctor of the law. He is 
called by the Hebrews Ezra." 

(b) Nehemiah— Catholic form of name, "Nehemias:" "This book 
takes its name from the writer, who was cup-bearer to Artaxerxes (sur- 
named Longimanus) king of Persia, and was sent by him with a com- 
mission to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem. It is also called the Second 
Book of Esdras; because it is a continuation of the history, begun by 
Esdras, of the state of the people of God after their return from cap- 
tivity." (Introductions in Douay Bible to First and Second Book of 

4. Book of Esther: "Esther derives its name from the Jewish lady, 
who, having become wife of the king of Persia, employed her royal in- 
fluence to effect a memorable deliverance for the persecuted Church of 
God. Various opinions are embraced and supported as to the authorship 
of this book, some ascribing it to Ezra, to Nehemiah, and to Mordecai. 
The preponderance of authorities is in favor of the last." (Commentary, 
Critical and Explanatory, p 8.) 

5. Historical Character: "The historical character of the book of 
Esther is undoubted , since, besides many internal evidences, its authenticity is 
proved by the strong testimony of the feast of Purim, the celebration of 
which can be traced up to the events which are described in this book. 
Its claim, however, to canonical authority, has been questioned on the 
ground that the name of God does not once occur in it. But the uni- 
form tradition both of the Jewish and the Christian churches supports 
this claim, which nothing in the book tends to shake; while it is a 
record of the superintending care of divine providence over his chosen 
people, with which it is of the utmost importance the church should be 


furnished. The name of God is strangely enough omitted, but the pres- 
ence of God is felt throughout the history; and the whole tone and ten- 
dency of the book is so decidedly subservient to the honor of God and 
the cause of true religion that it has been generally received by the 
Church in all ages into the sacred canon." (Commentary, Critical and 
Explanatory, p. 8.) 

6. Purim: "A celebrated Jewish festival instituted by Mordecai, 
at the suggestion of Esther, in the reign of Ahasuerus, king of Persia, 
to commemorate the deliverance of the Jews from the designs of Haman. 
It derived its name from the lots cast every day for twelve months in 
presence of Haman, with the view of discovering an auspicious day for 
the destruction of all the Jews in the Persian dominion; when the lot 
fell on the 13th day of Adar (February and part of March)." (Kitto's 
Biblical Literature, p. 588.) 

"The fact that the feast of Purim has come down to us from time 
almost immemorial," says Prof. Stuart, "proves as certainly that the 
main events related in the book of Esther happened, as the Declaration 
of Independence and the celebration of the Fourth of July prove that we 
separated from Great Britain, and became an independent nation. The 
book of Esther was an essential document to explain the feast of Purim." 
(Quoted in Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 778.) 

7. Omission of the Name of God in Esther. "In respect to the 

omission of the name of God in the book, Mr. Baumgarten remarks that 
it is the less surprising, because it occurs in a history which is so full 
of interpositions, revealing the actual presence of him who presides over 
the destiny of men and nations, and also the power of that faith in the 
unseen One, which made the actors in this drama so hopeful, enduring, 
and triumphant. The historical credibility of the events related in the 
book is well attested, and at present generally acknowledged." (Smith's 
Bible Dictionary, p 778.) 




I. Status of Israel Under Ezra's and ,^^°^\^ ^ ''''.^^"^?^ ^^^ 

-T , • 1 » T-. I- Maccabees, (a) Chrono- 

Nehenuan S Polity. kgical Tables, seventy's 

Bible Dictionary. jo- 

II. Palestine Under Persia. s e p h u s' Antiquities 

Books XI, XII, xin. 

III. Palestine Under Macedonia, i. e., xiv, xv; Bibie Treas- 

A 1 J ury. pp. 189, 190. Oxford 

Alexander. and other Bible Help^. 

.,.,^ _, , . TT ■• 1-. g-enerally give summary 

IV. Palestine Under Egypt. of this period. Note i. 
V. Revolt of the Maccabees. 

VI. Palestine Under the Romans. 

VII. Birth of Messiah. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "M. K. B. I." (Maccabees) "Mi-Kamoka Baelim, 
Iliovah" — "who is like unto Thee, O Lord, among the gods?" — Moses. 


1. History from Ezra to Messiah: "While the Historical Books of 
the Bible close with Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther, it is thought proper 
to carry the historical period through to the birth of Messiah by this 
tenth lesson. This for completeness in the outlines of the history of 
Israel given in the historical books of the Bible, plus the Apocrypha. 
Also because of the importance of this too much neglected historical 
period, without a knowledge of which very much of the New Testament 
may not be understood. 'The New Testament,' says Prof. J. V. Bartlett, 
in the "Bible Treasure," "takes much for granted. Hence, in reading the 

(a) The Books of the Maccabees are to be found in the Douay Bible with 
this explanatory note : "It is not known who was the author of these books. 
But as to their authority : though they are not received by the Jews, saith St. 
Augustine, City of God, I. 18. c. ^6, they are received by the church : who, in 
settling her canon of the scriptures, chose rather to be directed by the 
tradition she had received from the Apostles of Christ, than by that of 
the Scribes and Pharisees." (Introduction to the First Book of Macca- 
bees, Douay Bible, p. 1128.) 


Gospels, one is often forced to ask: What is the exact point of so and so? 
We want, in fact, to become as one of Christ's fellow-countrymen; and 
this means steeping our thought in the story of the long years which lie 
between the times of Ezra and those of Jesus the Christ. They must 
cease to be to us 'ages of silence,' if we are to see just what is meant by 
'the tradition of the elders/ or to feel the full force of much that is found 
in the Sermon on the Mount. The whole period of more than four cen- 
turies falls into four epochs — the Persian, the Greek, the Maccabean and 
the Roman." (Bible Treasury, p. 189.) 

2. Historical Summary of Interval Between Old and New Testa- 
ment: The following notes are abridged from Oxford Bible Helps, 
Summary of this Historical Period (p. 15), which summary itself is tak- 
en chiefly from Josephus' Antiquities and the Books of the Maccabees. 

3. The Persian Period— 537-330 B. C: "Ezra and Nehemiah left a 
settled form of government in Palestine, the center of which was Jeru- 
salem. Here was established a council of elders and priests, who formed 
an ecclasiastical court, interpreting the law, and enforcing its observance. 
These w£re called the "Great Synagogue." They were to the new settle- 
ment after the captivity what the 'elders that overlived Joshua' (Josh, 
xxiv: 31) were to the Israelites who came out of Egypt. It was the 
Jewish theory that the law was given in a two-fold form, viz., the written 
and the oral; the former consisting of brief official enactments, the lat- 
ter of more copious details. With the former code, immutably formal- 
ized by God, they said the latter was orally taught to Moses on Mount 
Sinai by the same Divine Author, as the authoritative interpretation 
thereof, with the command to commit the one to writing, but to trans- 
mit the other only by word of mouth. This oral law was repeated by 
Moses to Joshua, who handed it on to the elders who suceeded him, and 
they to the prophets, who, in their turn, passed it from one to another 
till it reached Jeremiah, who, through the medium of Baruch, conveyed 
it to Ezra, and he to the Great Synagogue, whom Nehemiah also sup- 
plied with a library of all the sacred books he could collect (II Mac. 
ii: 13). This body of elders lasted about 150 years, when it expired in 
its last survivor, the High Priest Simon the Just (B. C. 291). * * * * 
Ezra and Nehemiah also set up synagogues in country towns, as places 
of worship on the Sabbath, and schools of instruction and for theologi- 
cal discussion during the week. Attached to each was a body of 'rulers,' 
who were both civil magistrates and ecclesiastical presbyters. During all 
this time [two hundred years] Palestine was subject to Persia, and 
formed only part of a province under the Satrap of Syria, these elders 
administering the government with the high priest as their responsible 

4. Greek Period — 330-167 B. C. : "After the victories of Alexander 
the Great over Persia, he took possession of Syria, allowing the Jews to 
retain self-government and their own religion; and when he built Alex- 
andria, he invited thither many Jews, giving them equal rights with the 
rest of his subjects. On Alexander's death ,at an early age, his empire 
was divided amongst his four generals, and Syria was allotted to Egypt 
under Ptolemy Lagos, who transplanted many more Jews to the new 
colony at Alexandria (B. C. 320), and gave them many privileges, so that 
they built a temple [at Jerusalem], and restored the ritual of Solomon's time, 
until Alexandria became the cenetr and metropolis of those Jews who had mi- 
grated to Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy, and who are called in the Acts of the 
Apostles "Grecians"( Hellenists). They were more Jax in morals, liberal 
in views, and less exclusive than the "Hebrews" of Jerusalem. They used 
the Greek language, and eventually (B. C. 285) accepted as their scrip- 


ture the Septuagint translation, instead of the Hebrew original. It was 
at this period that Simon the Just was high priest at Jerusalem, and by 
his wise administration strengthened their position, and brought them 
peace and prosperity." 

5. The Maccabees— B. C. 198: "After a series of contests Palestine 
was taken from Egypt by Antiochus the Great, annexed to Syria, and 
divided into five provinces, viz., Judea, Samaria, Galilee (W. of Jordan), 
Persea, and Trachonitis (E. of Jordan). From this time, owing to its 
position between the two great powers Egypt and Syria, this country 
became a frequent prey to both, until Antiochus Epiphanes took Jeru- 
salem (B. C. 170), foully polluted the temple, and compelled the Jews to 
sacrifice to idols. He erected the statue of Jupiter on the altar of burnt- 
oflfering, committed all books of scripture to the flames, and prohibited 
the worship of God. The high priests, corrupted by Greek licentious- 
ness, prepared the way for declension, and encouraged the adoption of 
foreign customs. But the attempt to finally stamp out Judaism pro- 
duced a recoil. It culminated in the attempt of Antiochus to force the 
Jews publicly to eat the flesh of swine sacrificed on God's altar to the 
honor of Jupiter. One aged scribe refused, was followed by a mother 
and her seven sons, who all suffered martyrdom with the extremes of 
torture. This was followed by Mattathias, a priest of the Asmoaean 
family, who killed both a renegade Jew, when about to offer idolatrous 
sacrifice, and the royal officer who presided. Aided by his five sons, he 
rallied the faithful round him, threw down the heathen altars, fled to the 
mountains and raised the standard of liberty, on which were inscribed 
M. K. B. I., the initials of their Hebrew war-cry, ]\Ii-Kamoka Baelim, 
Ihovah, 'Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the gods?" (Exodus 
xv: 11), from which the insurgents got the name of 'Maccabees,' whence 
the eldest son and successor of Mattathias is known in history as Judas 
Maccabaeus. Under him they were victorious. Antiochus died of a 
loathsome disease, stricken by God. The Maccabees recovered Jerusa- 
lem, purified the temple, and restored its worship, holding for eight days 
(in December, B. C. 165) the first "Feast of Dedication," which con- 
tinued to be annually observed to our Lord's time (John x: 22.)" 

6. The Roman Period: "The Maccabean family continued to hold 
the main sway over the people, who retained their local customs, but 
were obliged to make terms with the Romans, under whose protection 
they retained considerable freedom. Although the Israelites were scat- 
tered over many countries, Jerusalem was still their religious and politi- 
cal center, and in its temple alone were sacrifices offered, and to it 
flowed the poll-tax of half a shekel from Jews all over the world. The 
Roman government acknowledged and confirmed their independent lo- 
cal administration, as a peculiar "imperium in imperio" by the following 
decrees: (B. C. 47.) Julius Caesar (for services in Alexandrine war) 
gave to Hyrcanus and his heirs all rights accorded to high priests by 
law or courtesy; all doubtful questions to be referred to him personally. 
Also, to Hyrcanus, his heirs and Ethnarch, the privilege of being patroni 
of all Jews that were aggrieved; hence all Jews throughout the world 
had a direct appeal to Caesar through the high priest, whose ambassa- 
dors had everywhere a free passage. Also, exemption from all tribute 
every seventh year, 'because they neither sow nor reap.' Also, peculiar 
liberty to 'meet and assemble together, and comport themselves accord- 
ing to the custom of their fathers, and their own laws.' (B. C. 44). On 
the death of Caesar and Hyrcanus, all the edicts of the former, whether 
recorded in the Treasury or not, were confirmed by the senate, in the 
Consulate of Dolabella and Anton^^ Thus the Jews, wherever they lived, 


were exempt from taxation at certain times, free from military service, 
allowed to maintain their peculiar customs, and looked to their high 
priest in Jerusalem as their ecclesiastical and civil superior in all that 
related to religious or ceremonial observances. But, for maintenance of 
order and general political government, a Roman official, supported by 
military organization, presided over all Syria. This official at first was 
one allied to both interests, and to whom was delegated the nomination 
to the high priesthood, viz., Herod the Great (B. C. Z7), an Idumaean 
by birth, but descended from a Philistine slave. By aid of Roman troops 
he deposed the last Asmonaean prince, Antigonus, married his niece Mar- 
iamne (granddaughter of Hyrcanus, the high priest), and became a nom- 
inal sovereign, subject to Roms." (Oxford Bible Helps, p. 15.) 


I. Samuel, the Prophet. 

II. David, the King. 

III. Maccabees, the Patriots, their Times 
and Achievements, (a) 


I Samuel Cha^s. 1 to 
XXV. Josephus' An- 
tiquities BcMjk. V, 
Chaps. X and XI, also 
Book VI. 

I aajTiuel Ciiap. js.v'i- 
XXXl; also ii rf .muel 
Chaps. l-.vXl\ . i 
'^haps. I-Ii. I Cnron.c.v-S 
Chaps. X-XXI.A.. ihe 
Psalms ut" DaviJ, Jo- 
s e p h u s' Antiquities, 
Books VI and VII. 

Books of the Macca- 
bees I and II (found in 
Douay Bible). Josip .us' 
Antiquities, Book XII, 
Chaps. VI-XI. 

SPECIAL TEXT : "I exhort yon, especially, to agree with one another; 
and in what excellency any one of you exceeds another, to yield to him so far, 
and by that means to reap the advantage of everyone's owm virtues." — Matta- 
THiAS, Father of the Maccabees, to his sons. 


1. Suggestions in the Formation of an Unwritten Lecture: "The 
simplest formal address that can be constructed has three distinct parts. 
They may be named as follows: 

1. The Introduction. 

2. The Discussion. 
2. The Conclusion. 

On this framework a speech-plan can be constructed simple enough 
for any child. And it is at the same time true that even a child, with 
such a plan, might speak appropriately who would otherwise not be able 
to begin at all. 

The Introduction: "This is at once important and embarrassing. 
First words are nearly always heard attentively, and they do much to de- 
termine the degree of attention that will be bestowed on the remainder 
of the speech. The young speaker should select something as an intro- 
duction upon which his mind can fasten, instead of dwelling upon the 

(a) Paper. 


frightful generality of the naked theme. * * * * The introduction 
should be simple, and, above everything else, easy for the speaker to 
comprehend and remember. If there is anything in the vi^hole world 
which he is sure he can talk about for a few moments, and which can 
be made to have a moderate degree of connection with his subject, let 
that be chosen for an opening. =*=*** When the introductory topic 
is selected it should be turned over in the mind until the speaker knows 
just what he is going to say about it. This process will have a wonder- 
fully quieting effect upon his nerves. He has fairly mastered something, 
and knows that at all events he can begin his speech. It is well to make 
a note of this introduction in a few simple words, which will strongly 
fasten themselves in the memory. No effort toward elaboration should 
be made, for that would naturally lead to a memorized introduction, and 
either require the whole speech to be written, or produce a painful and 
difficult transition. 

The Discussion: "This should deal directly with the subject or 
central idea of the discourse. Here a clear statement of at least one 
thought which the speaker can fully grasp should be made. The pen (or 
pencil) may be used in preparation without impropriety. If but one idea 
is thought of, let that be written in the fewest and strongest words at 
the students' command. While doing this it is likely that another and 
related thought will spring into mind which can be treated in the same 
mananer. With diligent students there may even be a danger of getting 
down too many seed-thoughts. When this central division is com- 
pletely wrought out, two other points claim attention. How shall the 
transition be made from the introduction to the discussion? A little re- 
flection will show how to glide from one to the other, and that process 
should be conned over, without writing, until it is well understood. It is 
wonderful how many outlines of ideas the memory will retain without 
feeling burdened; and this power of retention grows enormously through 
exercise. After this, the mode of gliding from the discussion to the con- 
clusion may be treated in the same manner, and with equal profit. 

The Conclusion: "The conclusion itself is scarcely less material 
than the introduction; but there is much less range of choice in the 
manner of closing than in that of beginning. The subject is before the 
audience, and any wide departure from it seems like the beginning of 
a new speech — something not usually well received. There is this dis- 
tinction between the relative value of introduction and conclusion; a 
good introduction adds most to a speaker's ease, confidence, and power 
during the moment of speech; but a good conclusion leaves the deepest 
permanent impression upon the audience. It is usually remembered 
longer than any other part of the address." (Extempore Speech, Pit- 
tenger, pp. 46-49.) 



I. The Greater Prophets — Four. "V^t^'^^^. Dictionaries 

T-1T -iT-i-iT-N-i ^^^ Help.s (including Bi- 

I. isaiah, Jeremiah, iizekiel, Daniel. ble Treasury, Hereto- 

IL The Minor Prophets-Twelve: ^r^eot^p^Xt^^ 

I. Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jo- Notes, i, 2. 
nab, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, 
Zephamiah, Haggai, Zechariah, 

III. The Prophetic Calling. see the 

,T-^-.-,- 1, • / , and Heipa her^t^iore 

1. Distinction between major (great- cited, as also or..i a > 
er) and minor prophets. Dictionaries on ••mspira- 

{. V^i ^^° "' Revelation, 

2. Mission of the Prophets. '-Prophecy," "Proph- 

3. Schools of the Prophets. ^ Notes^s,' 4. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "And if thou say i\i tliinc heart, Hozu sliall zvc kiiozv 
the word zvhich the Lord hath not spoken? When a prophet speak eth in the 
name of the Lord, if the thing follozv not, nor come to pass, that is the thing 
zvhich the Lord hath not spoken, but the prophet hath spoken it presumptuous- 
ly: thou shalt not be afraid of him." — Dcut. xviii: 22. 


1. Of the Term Prophet. "The Hebrew word "Nabi" is uniformly 
translated in our English Bible by the word "Prophet." In classical 
Greek, it is said by highest authority, to signify 'one who speaks for an- 
other, especially one who speaks for a God and so interprets his will to 
man.' (Liddell and Scott.) Hence, its essential meaning is "an inter- 
preter." In fact, the English word 'prophet,' like the word 'inspiration,' 
has always been used in a larger and in a closer sense. 'In the larger 
sense our Lord Jesus Christ is a 'prophet,' Moses is a 'prophet,' Mahomet 
is a 'prophet.' The expression means that they proclaimed and pub- 
lished a new religio^is dispensation. In a similar though not identical 
sense, the church is said to have a 'prophetical,' i. e., an expository and 
interpretative office. But in its closer sense the word, according to 
usage, though not according to etymology, involves the idea of fore- 
sight. And this is and always has been its more usual acceptation. The 
different meanings, or shades of meaning, in which the abstract noun is 
employed in scripture, have been drawn out by Locke as follows: 'Proph- 
ecy comprehends three things: prediction: singing by the dictate of the 
Spirit; and understanding and explaining the mysterious, hidden sense of 
scripture, by an immediate illumination and motion of the Spirit.' " 
(Smith's Bible Dictionary, Vol. Ill, pp. 2591-2.) 

2. School of the Prophets, or the Prophetic Order: "Samuel, him- 
self a Levite, of the family of Kohath (I Chron. vi: 28), and almost cer- 
tainly a priest, was the instrument used at once for effecting a reform 
in the sacerdotal order (I Chron. ix: 22), and for giving to the prophets 


a position of importance which they had never before held. * * * * 
Samuel took measures to make his work of restoration permanent, as 
well as effective for the moment. For this purpose he instituted com- 
panies, or Colleges of Prophets. One we find in his lifetime at Ramah 
(I Sam. xix: 19, 20); others afterwards at Bethel (II Kings ii: 3), Jericho 
CII Kings ii: 5), Gilgal (II Kings iv: 38), and elsewhere (II Kings i). 
Their constitution and object were similar to those of Theological Col- 
leges. Into them were gathered promising students, and here they were 
trained for the office which they were afterwards destined to fulfill. So 
successful were these institutions, that from the time of Samuel to the 
closing of the canon of the Old Testament, there seems never to have 
been wanting a due supply of men to keep up the line of official prophets. 
The apocryphal books of the Maccabees (I, iv: 26: ix: 27, xiv: 41) and 
of Ecclesiasticus (xxvi: 15) represent them as extinct. The colleges ap- 
pear to have consisted of students differing in number. Sometimes they 
were very numerous (I Kings xviii: 4; xxii: 6; II Kings ii: 16). One 
elderly, or leading prophet, presided over them (I Sam. xiv: 20), called 
their father (I Sam. x: 12), or master (II Kings ii: 3), who was appar- 
ently admitted to his office by the ceremony of anointing (I Kings xix: 
16; Isaiah Ixi: 1; Psalms cv: 15). They were called his sons. Their 
chief subject of study was, no doubt, the Law and its interpretation; oral, 
as distinct from symbolical, teaching being henceforward tacitly trans- 
ferred from the priestlv to the prophetical order." (Smith's Bible Dic- 
tionary, Vol. III. pp. 2o92-3.) 

3. The Prophetic Gift: "We have been speaking of the Prophetic 
Order. To belong to the prophetic order and to possess the prophetic 
gift are not convertible terms. There might be members of the proph- 
etic order to whom the gift of prophecy was not vouchsafed. There 
might be inspired prophets, who did not belong to the prophetic order. 
Generally, the inspired prophet came from the College of the Prophets, 
and belonged to the prophetic order; but this was not alwaj^s the case. 
In the instance of the Prophet Amos, the rule and the exception are 
both manifested. When Amaziah, the idolatrous Israelitish priest, 
threatens the prophet, and desires him to 'flee away into the land of Ju- 
dah, and there eat bread and prophesy there, but not to prophesy again 
any more at Bethel,' Amos in reply says, 'I was no prophet, neither was 
I a prophet's son; but I was an herdsman, and a gatherer of sycamore 
fruit; and the Lord took me as I followed the flock, and the Lord said 
unto me. Go prophesy unto my people Israel' (vii: 14). That is, though 
called to the prophetic office, he did not belong to the prophetic order; 
and had not been trained in the prophetical colleges; and this, he indi- 
cates, was an unusual occurrence." (Smith's Bible Dictionary, Vol. Ill, 
p. 2593.) 

4. Revelation and Inspiration Defined: "The word 'revelation' stands 
for the act of God in making truth known to men, and then, in a sec- 
ondary sense, for the truth itself, which is thus made known. Inspira- 
tion is the name of the special divine influence under which the writers 
of the Bible worked. We speak of the 'revelation' of God in the Bible, 
and of the 'inspiration' of the writers of the Bible. In order to under- 
stand the questions which have been raised on these two subiects it is 
important that we should discriminate between them in thought, but in 
fact thcA^ are closely connected. It is the association of the two that gives 
its supreme value to the Bible. This is recognized as a book of unique 
character, because, as we have seen, it is an inspired record of divine 
revelation." (Teacher's Bible Helps, Bagster's Bible, p. 2.) The whole 
article, comprising several pages, should be studied. Also the article, 
"Prophets," in the Seventy's Bible Dictionary.) 



I. The Book of Isaiah. 

1. Historic Period of Isaiah. 

2. General Outline of His Proph- 

3. His Prophecies of the Messiah. 

4. Select Readings from Isaiah. 

II. The Book of Jeremiah. 

1. Historic Period. 

2. General Nature of His Warnings 
to Israel. 

3. Propecies yet to be fulfilled — es- 
pecially on the restoration of 

Isaiah I-LXVI. Notes 
1. 2. Seventy's B bl=> 
Dictionary. Art. "Isiiah," 
Bible Treasury Ditto. 
Other Bible He'ps and 
Dictionaries. under 

same title. 

"Messianic Prophecies." 
Chap. IX: 6. 7; XLIX: 
1-1.3; LIII: 1-12; KXI: 1-3. 

Select Reading's — Fall 
of Lucifer, Chap. XIV: 
12-29. The Apostasy. 

XXIV: 1-6. Book rf Mor- 
mon, XXIX: 1-21. The 
Gathering- of Israel, XI: 

Bible DiCa^narits and 
Helpd as auove, .a.i t. 
"Jeiemian," •■±jO0K of, 
etc. W'arning-s: Jeremiah 
XIV: X-Z-Z, and XV: 1-3. 
(Head as if is in one 
chapter), XVII and 
XVIII; also XXI ana 

Prophecies (in course 

of fulfillment and those 

yet future). Chap. Ill: 

12-19; XVI: 14-16; 

XXXIII: 1-14. 

SPECIAL TEXT : "And though the Lord give you the bread of adversity, 
and the water of affliction, yet shall not thy teachers be removed into a corner 
any more, but thine eyes shall sec thy teachers; and thine ears shall hear 
a zuord behind thee, saying, This is the zvay, walk ye in it, when ye turn to the 
right hand, and when ye turn to the left." — Isaiah. 


1. Isaiah, (i. e., the Lord is Salvation), son of Amoz, a prophet 
in Jerusalem during 40 years, (B. C. 740-701.) He had great religious 
and political influence dnring the reign of Hezekiah. whose chief adviser 
he v^as. Tradition states that he was "sawn asunder" during the reign of 
Manasseh; for that reason he is often represented in art, holding a saw." 
(Cambridge Bible, p. 82.) 


2. Character of Isaiah's Prophet Writings: "In Isaiah we see pro- 
phetic authorship reaching its culminating point. Everything conspired 
to raise him to an elevation to which no prophet either before or after 
could as a writer attain. Among the other prophets, each of the more im- 
portant ones is distinguished by some one particular excellence, and 
some one peculiar talent: in Isaiah, all kinds of talent and all beauties of 
prophetic discourse meet together so as mutually to temper and qualify 
each other; it is not so much any single feature that distinguishes him 
as the symmetry and perfection of the whole. * * * * p^g jg ^ot 
the especially lyrical prophet, or the especially elegiacal prophet, or 
the especially oratorical and hortatory prophet, as we should describe 
a Joel, a Hosea, a Micah, with whom there is a greater prevalence of 
some particular color; but, just as the subject requires, he has readily 
at command every several kind of style and every several change of de- 
lineation; and it is pracisel}' this that, in point of language, establishes his 
greatness, as well as in general forms one of his most towering points 
of excellence." (Smith's Bible Dictionary, pp. 1162-3.) 

3. Isaiah as a Messianic Prophet: The following are the outlines 
of IMessianic prophecies in the book of Isaiah: A scion of David, 
springing from his family, after it has fallen into a very low estate, but 
being also of divine nature, shall, at first, in lowliness, but as a prophet 
filled with the Spirit of God, proclaim the divine docrtine, develope the 
law in truth, and render it the animating principle of national life; he 
shall, as high priest, by his vicarious sufifering and his death, remove 
the guilt of his nation, and that of other nations, and finally rule as a 
mighty king, not only over the covenant people, but over all nations 
of the earth who will subject themselves to his peaceful sceptre, not by 
violent compulsion, but induced by love and gratitude. He will make 
both the moral and the physical consequences of sin to cease; the whole 
earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the Lord, and all enmity, 
hatred, and destruction shall be removed even from the brute creation. 
This is the survey of the Messianic preaching by Isaiah, of which he 
constantly renders prominent thoes portions which were most calcu- 
lated to impress the people under the then existing circumstances. * * 
* * Jesus Sirach (xlviii: 22-5) bestows splendid praise upon Isaiah, 
and both Philo and Josephus speak of him with great veneration. He 
attained the highest degree of authority after the times of the New Tes- 
tament had proved the most important part of his prophecies, namely, 
the IMessianic, to be divine. Christ and the Apostles quote no prophecies 
so frequently as those of Isaiah, in order to prove that he who had 
appeared was one and the same with him who had been promised. The 
fathers of the Church abound in praises of Isaiah. (Kitto's Biblical 
Literature, pp. 49-50.) 

4. The First Nephi on Isaiah as the ]\Iessianic Prophet. "And now 
I, Xeph, write more of the words of Isaiah, for my soul delighteth in his 
words. For I will liken (apply) his words unto my people, and I will send 
them forth unto all my children, for he verily saw my Redeemer, even as I 
have seen him. And my brother Jacob also has seen him as I have seen him : 
wherefore I will send their words forth unto my children, to prove unto them 
that my words are true. Wherefore, by the words of three, God hath 
said, I will establish my word." (II Nephi ii: 1 3.) 

5. Jeremiah, Book of. Arrangement: "The absence of any chron- 
ological order in the present structure of the collection of Jeremiah's 
prophecies is obvious at the first glance; and this has led some writers 
(Blayney, Pref. of Jeremiah) to the belief that, as the book now stands, 


there is nothing but the wildest confusion — "a preposterous jumbling 
together' of prophecies of dififerent dates. Attempts to reconstruct the 
book on a chronological basis have been made by almost all commen- 
tators on it since the revival of criticism; and the result of the labors 
of the more recent critics has been to modify the somewhat hasty judg- 
ment of the English divine (Blayney). Whatever points of difference 
there may be in the hypothesis of Movers, Hitzig, Ewald, Bunsen, Na- 
gelsbach, and others, they agree in admitting traces of an order in the 
midst of the seeming irregularity, and endeavor to account, more or less 
satisfactorily, for the apparent anomalies. The conclusion of the three 
last-named is that we have the book substantially in the same state as 
that in which it left the hands of the prophet, or his disciple Baruch." 
(Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 1261.) 

5. Jeremiah: "The author of the prophecies of this book was the 
son of Hilkiah, a priest, and a native of the priestly city of Anathoth, 
situated three miles north of Jerusalem. He was early called to the 
prophetic office (chap, i: 6), and began his career as a prophet in his 
native place. This he soon left, to prosecute his calling in Jerusalem; 
and here, in the exercises of it, he spent the greater part of his life. His 
ministry commenced seventy years after the close of Isaiah's, and ex- 
tended from the thirteenth year of Josiah's reign to the eleventh of 
Zedekiah's, i. e., from 629 to 588 B. C, thus embracing a period of forty- 
one years. It was a life-long protest against the iniquity and folly of 
his countrymen, and conceived in bitter foreboding of the hopeless ruin 
they were bringing down upon their heads." (Bagster's Bible Helps, p. 37.) 

6. Jeremiah and His Contemporaries: "Jeremiah was contempor- 
ary with Zephiniah, Habakkuk, Ezekiel, and Daniel. None of these, how- 
ever, are in any remarkable way connected with him, except Ezekiel. The 
writings and character of these two eminent prophets furnish many very 
interesting points both of comparison and contrast. Both, during a long 
series of years, were laboring at the same time and for the same object. 
The representations of both, far separated as they were from each other, 
are in substance singularly accordant; yet there is at the same time a 
marked difference in their modes of statement, and a still more striking 
diversity in the character and natural disposition of the two. No one 
who compares them can fail to perceive that the mind of Jeremiah was of 
a softer and more delicate texture than that of his illustrious contem- 
porary. His whole history convinces us that he was by nature mild and 
retiring." (Cycl. of Biblical Literature, Vol. II, p. 83.) 






Book of Ezekiel. All 
the Dictionaries, Bible 

I. Ezekiel, the Prophet of the Cap- 

tivity. Helps, Bible Treasury, 

T~> 1 • • . T 1 J Kitto's Biblical Litera- 

1. Prophecies against Jerusalem and ature previously quotei, 
the Nation, chaps, i-xxiv. ^^t. "Ezekiel." Note i. 

2. Prophecies of the Restoration of 
Israel, chaps, xxv-xxxix. 

3. Visions of the Reconstruction of 
the Temple, chaps, xl-xlviii. 

4. Prophecy of the Resurrection, 

chap. XXXvi: I-I4. Book of Daniel I-XII. 

II. Daniel, Book of ah the above Dictlon- 

TT- J. • 1 • • aries and Bible Helps, 

1. nistoricai — l-Vl. Encyclopaeaias, etc. 

2 Prophetical— the Rise and Fall of f'^^X^ ^^l^"^- ,^''t. "Dan- 

^ . .. .. lel." Church History 

JimpireS, Vll-Xll. Vol. I, introduction, pp. 

Note 2. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "Son of man, I have made thee a watchman unto the 
house of Israel; therefore hear the word at my mouth, and give them warn- 
ing from me. When I say unto the wicked, Thou shalt surely die; and thou 
givest him not warning, nor speakest to warn the wicked from his wicked way, 
to save his life; the same wicked man shall die in his iniquity; but his blood 
will I require at thine hand. Yet if thou warn the zvickcd, and he turn not 
from his wickedness, nor from his wicked zvay, he shall die in his iniquity; but 
thou hast delivered thy soul." — Ezekiel. 


1. Ezekiel: "The author of this book was a native of Jerusalem, 
and, like Jeremiah, of priestly descent, a member of a family of some 
standing in the city. When, as would appear, about twenty-five years of 
age, and after he had seen some service as a priest, he was carried away 
captive to Babylon along with Jehoiachin and other noble Jews in 599 
B. C, and before the destruction of Jerusalem (II Kings xxiv: 15). He 
must have been a witness of the plundering of the temple by Nebti- 
chadnezzar, as recorded in II Kings xxiv: 13, and his prophecies give 


evidence of a familiar acquaintance with its structure (chap, viii: 5-16, 
etc.). His place of banishment was Tel-Abib, on the banks of the river 
Chebar, about 200 miles north of Babylon. Here he settled with his 
family, and here he established himself as the prophet of the captivity, 
his house being the rendezvous of all who mourned over the dispersion 
and sought for the restoration of Israel." (Bagster Bible Helps, p. 39.) 

2. The Book of Daniel. Perhaps no book of prophecy is more bit- 
terly criticised than the Book of Daniel, and certainly no book is of more 
prophetic value. Its prophecies concerning the rise and fall of empires, 
with the final supremacy of the kingdom of God as a universal empire, 
renders it at once one of the most important of prophetic books. 

"Porphyry, the assailant of Christianity in the third century, asserted 
that the book of Daniel was a forgery of the time of the Maccabees (170- 
164 B. C. ), a time when confessedly there were no prophets, written after 
the events as to Antiochus Epiphanes, which it professes to foretell; so 
accurate are the details. A conclusive proof of Daniel's inspiration, if his 
prophecies can be shown to have been before the events. Now we know, 
from Josephus, that the Jews in Christ's days, recognized Daniel as in 
the canon. Zachariah, Ezra, and Nehemiah, centuries before Antiochus, 
refer to it. Jesus refers to it in his characteristic designation, 'Son of 
man,' Matthew xxiv: 30; Daniel vii: 13); also expressly by name, and as 
a prophet, in Matthew xxiv: 15 (cf. Matthew xxiv: 21, with Daniel xii: 1, 
etc.); and in the moment that decided his life (Matthew xxvi: 64) or 
death, when the high priest adjured him by the living God. Also, in 
Luke 1: 19-26, 'Gabriel' is mentioned, whose name occurs nowhere else 
in scripture, save Daniel viii: 16; ix: 21. Besides the references to it in 
Revelation, Paul confirms the prophetical part of it, as to the blasphe- 
mous king (Daniel vii: 8, 25; xi: 36), in I Corinthians 6: 2; II Thessa- 
lonians ii: 3, 4; the narrative part, as to the miraculous deliverances from 
'the lions' and 'the fire,' in Hebrews xi: 33, 34. Thus the book is ex- 
pressly attested by the New Testament on the three points made the 
stumbling block of neologists — the predictions, the narratives of miracles, 
and the manifestations of angels." (Commentarv, Explanatory and 
Critical, p. 620.) 

A Sample Scripture Reading. At this lesson we introduce the scrip- 
ture reading exercise referred to in our introduction, and as an illustration of 
what is meant we give the following as an example of such reading: 

The Reader says : "I have selected for this reading the first nine verses 
of the 19th Psalm of David, universally conceded, I think, to be one at least 
of the most beautiful psalms of this very remarkable collection of Hebrew 
poet-ry. (Reading) : 

"The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth 
his handywork. Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night 
sheweth knowledge. There is no speech nor language where their 
voice is not heard. Their line is gone out through all the earth, 
and their words to the end of the world. In them hath he set a tab- 
ernacle for the sun, which is as a bridegroom coming out of his charn- 
ber, and rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race. His going forth is 
from the end of the heaven, and his circuit unto the ends of it; and 
there is nothing hid from the heat thereof. 

The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul; the testimony 
of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple. The statutes of the Lord 


are right, rejoicing the heart; the commandment of the Lord is pure, 
enlightening the eyes. The fear of the Lord is clean, enduring forever; 
the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether." 

Let us contemplate a little so much of this Psalm as we have read. 

"The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament shevi'eth 
his handywork. Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night shew- 
eth knowledge." 

If that could be said of the heavens in the days of David, how much 
more abundantly can it be said now, when the few thousand stars visi- 
ble to David's unaided vision, our modern telescopes have to our vision in- 
creased to more than forty millions of such stars ! Each, as is supposed, a sun, 
the center of a planetary system — when thus we contemplate the heavens, truly 
they "declare the glory of God, and the firmament sheweth his handywork!" 
and "day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge!" 

Mark how David notes that the heavens speak a universal language : — 
"there is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard. Their 
line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the 
world." The special revelation to the Hebrews might be locked up from 
some parts of our human race for centuries in the mystery of the He- 
brew language ; but in the heavens, as David contemplted them, there 
is a universal language, a world book — spread out in glory for all men to 
read, and somehow or other, all men have read it with more or less 
clearness, and have arrived at the same conclusion with the Hebrew 
prophet, — "the heavens declare the glory of God." Paul must have felt 
something of this when he exclaimed, "The invisible things of him 
from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the 
things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead." So that 
he concludes that the ungodly are without excuse, by reason of this 
revelation found in the creations of God — the heavens that declare God's 
glory. Then notice how David glides from the contemplation of the 
heavens to the contemplation of the law of the Lord — "perfect, convert- 
ing the soul;" the "testimony" of the Lord which is "sure, making wise 
the simple." The "statutes of the Lord that are right, rejoicing the 
heart;" the "commandment of the Lord" that is "pure, enlightening the 
eyes." The "fear of the Lord" that is "clean, enduring forever;" the 
"judgments of the Lord" that "are true, and righteous altogether." Such 
a scripture prepares the mind for devotion, and is a worthy introduction 
to the act of worship. (End of reading.) 

This kind of exercise is intended to run through the remainder of 
the lessons of this year, and every week someone should be appointed to 
come to the following week's lesson prepared with a scripture reading, 
which should be delivered as above, that is, read with reflections, and com- 
ments, to which it gives rise. 





I. The Twelve Minor Prophets. 

I. Historical Period of their minis- 
II. Select Readings from Zechariah: 

1. Repentance. 

2. Prophecies Yet Future. 
III. Select Readings from Malachi: 

1. His Arraignment of Israel for Un- 

faithfulness. The Promise of 
God's Returning Favor. 

2. The Coming of Messiah's Mes- 

3. Destruction of the Wicked — Eli- 
jah's Mission. 

Note 1 and 2. Each, of 
the books of the 12 
prophets should be read. 
See also the summary of 
each book in the Bible 
Helps. Dictionaries, Bi- 
ble Treasury, quoted in 
previous lessons. 

Readings. Zeeh. 1: 1-7. 
Chaps. vii and vlii. 
Chaps, xii, xiii, xiv. 

Mai. lii: 7-lS. 

Mai. iii: 1-6. 
Mai. iv: 1-6. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "Execute true judgment, and shew mercy and com- 
passions every man to his brother; and oppress not the widow, nor the fath- 
erless, the stranger, nor the poor; and let none of you imagine evil against his 
brother in your heart." — Zechariah. 


1. The Greater and Minor Prophets: "A. review of the books as 
they stand in our Bible gives us first the Greater Prophets, and second- 
ly the Minor Prophets. It should be understood that this arrangement 
is determined by the length of the books, not by the comparative rank 
of the writers. The minor prophets are not to be regarded as neces- 
sarily less important persons than the greater prophets. Amos may 
have been a grander man than Ezekiel — yet Amos is classed with the 
minor and Ezekiel with the greater prophets. This simply means that 
we have less of the writings of Amos preserved than of those of Ezekiel 
— and so of the other minor prophets." (Cambridge Bible Helps, p. 34.) 

2. The Historic Period of the Minor Prophets: "The Minor Proph- 
ets form in the Hebrew canon one whole, and go collectively under the 


name of the Book of the Twelve Prophets. They cover a period of 
four hundred years, from the ninth to the fifth centuries before Christ, 
but they are not arranged in the order of the time of their production." (Cam- 
bridge Bible Helps, p. 41.) 

3. Passages from the Prophets Quoted by Moroni to Joseph Smith: 

'"After telling me these things, (concerning the Book of Mormon) he 
commenced quoting the prophecies of the Old Testament. He first 
quoted part of the third chapter of Malachi, and he quoted also the 
fourth or last chapter of the same prophecy, though with a little varia- 
tion from the way it reads in our Bibles. Instead of quoting the first 
verse as it reads in our books, he quoted it thus: 

"For behold,' the day cometh that shall burn as an oven, and all 
the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly shall burn as stubble; for 
they that come shall burn them, saith the Lord of hosts, that it shall 
leave them neither root nor branch. 

"And again, he quoted the fifth verse thus: 

" 'Behold, I will reveal unto you the Priesthood, by the hand of 
Elijah the prophet, before the coming of the great and dreadful day of 
the Lord.' 

"He also quoted the next verse difTerently: 

" 'And he shall plant in the hearts of the children the promises made 
to the fathers, and the hearts of the children shall turn to their fathers; 
if it were not so, the whole earth would be utterly wasted at his coming.' 

"In addition to these, he quoted the eleventh chapter of Isaiah, say- 
ing that it was about to be fulfilled. He quoted also the third chapter of 
Acts, twenty-second and twenty-third verses, precisely as they stand in 
our New Testament. He said that that Prophet was Christ, but the day 
had not yet come when "they who would not hear his voice should be 
cut ofT from among the people," but soon would come. He also quoted 
the second chapter of Joel, from the twenty-eighth verse to the last. He 
also said that this was not yet fulfilled, but was soon to be. And he 
further stated that the fullness of the Gentiles was soon to come in. He 
quoted many other passages of Scripture, and offered many explana- 
tions which cannot be mentioned here." (History of the Church, Vol. 
1, pp. 12, 13.) 



I. Poetical Books: Btook of Psaim, La- 

„ , T- ^ . ^, ^ mentations! and Siong of 

I. rsalms ; Lamentations, ine bong songsi. 

of Solomon, (a) 

II. Didactic Books: ^^1 "^e Dictionaries 

Bble Helps cited in 
I. Job, dramatic. previous lessons may be 

mrj_„' _,4.' 1 . consulted on the separate 

. oapienuai. books mentioned in this 

1. Proverbs, gnomic. (b) ^^Re°"'rence 

2. Ecclesiastes, Speculative, (e) 

(a) Sometimes called the Canticles — the "Song of Songs," a super- 
lative meaning — "the Matchless Song." 

(b) "Sapiential: "Marked by or consisting of Sapience — w^isdom — 
profound knowledge. 

(c) "Gnomic — Expressed in maxims — "gnomic poetry consists of 
observations on human life and society or generalizations respecting 
conduct and character." 

1. Psalms, Book of: "This collection of sacred poetry received its 
name, in consequence of the lyrical character of the pieces of which it 
consists, as intended to be sung to stringed and other instruments of 
music. The word is thus aptly defined by Gregory of Nyssa. The He- 
brew title signifies hymns or praises, and was probably adopted on ac- 
count of the use made of the collection in divine service, though only 
a part can be strictly called songs of praise, not a few being lamenta- 
.tions and prayers. (Cycl. of Biblical Literature, Kitto, p 377.) 

2. Authors of the Psalms: "Many of the ancients, both Jews and 
Christians, maintained that all the Psalins were written by David; 
which is one of the most striking proofs of their uncritical judgment. 
So the Talmudists; Augustine, who is never a good critic; and Chrys- 
ostom. But Jerome, as might be expected, held the opinion which now 
universally prevails. The titles and the contents of the PsaJms most 
clearly show that they were composed at different and remote periods, 
by several poets, of whom David was only the largest and most emi- 
nent contributor." (Cycl. of Biblical Literature, Kitto, p. 580.) 


3. Character of the Psalms. "The distinguishing feature of the 
Psalms is their devotional character. Whether their matter be didactic, 
historical, prophetical, or practical, it is made the ground or subject of 
prayer, or praise, or both. The doctrines of theology and precepts of 
pure morality are here inculcated. God's nature, attributes, perfections, 
and works of creation, providence, and grace, are unfolded." (Com- 
mentary, Critical and Explanatory, p. 345.) 

4. Song of Solomon, or Canticles, called in Hebrews the Song 
of Songs (i. e. the Song of supreme excellence). Some regard it as a 
beautiful romance in glorification of true love. Tennyson called it "the 
most perfect Idyll of the faithful love of a country girl for her shep- 
herd, and of her resistances to the advances of a great king, that ever 
was written." Others see in it a parable of singular depth, a revela- 
tion of the future of the Church to the end of the world." (Seventy's 
Bible Dictionary, p. 144.) 

6. The Age when Job Lived: "Eusebius fixes it two ages before 
Moses, (i. e., about the time of Isaac): eighteen hundred years before 
Christ, and six hundred after the Deluge." (Commentary, critical and 
Explanatory, p. 308.) 

6. Job a Real Person: "It has been supposed by some that the 
Book of Job is an allegory, not a real narrative, on account of the arti- 
ficial character of many of its statements. Thus the sacred numbers, 
three and seven, often occur. He had seven thousand sheep, seven sons, 
both before and after his trials; his three friends sit down with him 
seven days and seven nights; both before and after his trials; he had 
three daughters. So also the number and form of the speeches of the 
several speakers seem to be artificial. The name of Job, too, is derived 
from an Arabic word signifying repentance. But Ezekiel 14: 14 (cf. 
V. 16, 20) speaks of "Job" in conjunction with "Noah and Daniel," real 
persons. St. James (5: 11) also refers to Job as an example of "pa- 
tience," which he would not have been likely to do had Job been only 
a fictitious person. Also the names of persons and places are specified 
with a particularity not to be looked for in an allegory." (Commen- 
tory. Critical and Explanatory, p. 308.) 

7. Design of the Book: "It is a public debate in poetic form on 
an important question concerning the divine government; moreover 
the prologue and epilogue, which are in prose, shed the interest of a 
living history over the debate, which would otherwise be but a contest 
of abstract reasoning. * * * * Xhe question to be solved, as ex- 
emplified in the case of Job is. Why are the righteous afflicted consis- 
tently with God's justice? The doctrine of retribution after death, no 
doubt, is the great solution of the difficulty. And to it Job plainly re- 
fers in chapter 14: 14, and chapter 19: 25. The objection to this, that 
the explicitness of the language on the resurrection in Job is incon- 
sistent with the obscurity on the subject in the early books of the Old 
Testament, is answered by the fact that Job enjoyed the divine vision 
(chapter 38: 1; 42:5), and therefore, by inspiration, foretold these truths." 
(Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, p. 309.) 

8. Proverbs: "The Hebrew title of this book is the 'Mishele,' 
(i. e., the maxims) 'of Solomon,' and it was in early ages, sometimes 
along with other similar portions of the Bible, often referred to as 

"Wisdom," in one instance specifically defined as the "wisdom that 
respects virtuous conduct" — as summarizing the teachings of wisdom 
in their bearing on the conduct of life. Though ascribed to Solomon, 
these maxims are obviously not all of his composition, or even his col- 
lection, being of very varied authorship, and the vintage of the observa- 
tion and experience of many wise men at different periods of Jewish 
history." (Cambridge Bible Helps, p. Z2.) 

9. Ecclesiastes: "This title, which we receive through the Vul- 
gate, is the translation into Greek by the LXX of the Hebrew title 
"Koheleth," a word which is, agreeably to Jewish tradition, rendered 
'preacher,' but meant originally 'gatherer, or summoner together,' and 
means here one who, personifying Wisdom (for the word is feminine, 
as that for wisdom is), gathers men together to listen to her verdict." 

10. Authorship and Date of Ecclesiastes: "This book was for long 
accepted as the production of Solomon, written in his old age, and in- 
tended as a warning to others against sundry delusions of which he had 
himself been the victim; but it is now, from internal evidence, and by 
almost universal consent, allowed to be the work of one who wrote 
about the time of Malachi (i. e., about 400 B. C), though in the name 
of Solomon, and dramatically personifying the famous king." (Cam- 
bridge Bible Helps, p. 33.) 


A Study of the Christian Scriptures. — The 
New Testament, (note 1) 






Notes 2, 3. Also all the 
Bible I>ictionaries, Helps 
and Bible Treasury here- 
tofore cited in previous 
lessons— Art. "New Tes- 
tament," "Bible"'— "Can- 
on," etc. 

Notes 5, 6, 7, 8. 


I. Institutional and Historical: 

1. The Gospels: (a) The Synoptic 
Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke ; 
(b) The Supplemental Gospel, 


2. The Acts of the Apostles. 

II. Didactic: (a) 

1. The Pauline Epistles, viz: (a) 
Doctrinal, (Addressed to 
Churches) : Romans, Corinthians, 
Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, 
Colossians, Thessalonians, He- 
brews: (b) Pastorial, (addressed 
to individuals) : Timothy and Ti- 

2. Special: Philemon. 

3. Catholic Epistles (i. e., addressed 
to the Church at large) ; one of 

James, two of Peter, three of 
John, one of Jude. 

III. Prophetic, The Book of Revelation. 

SPECIAL TEXT : "Fear not; for, behold, I bring yon good tidings of 
great joy, zvhich shall be to all people. For unto you is born this day, in the 
city of David, a Savior, zuliich is Christ, the Lord. — The Angel to the Shep- 

(a) "Pertaining to or of the nature of teaching; intended to instruct 
or edify." (Dictionary.) 


1. The New Testament— Definition : "This is the name given in 
the Western Church, ever since the days of Tertullian [second century 
A. D.] to the collection of sacred books that were written by certain 
disciples of Christ at different periods after the planting of the Christian 
Church, and that were afterwards accepted by the Church as the inspired 
record of the new dispensation of the grace of God to the world. The 
expression New Testament is the Latin translation of the expression 
New Covenant." (The Comprehensive Teacher's Bible Helps, p. 57.) 

2. Origin of the New Testament as Scripture: "The institution of 
the Christian Church was, of course, prior to any record of it. That in- 
stitution was founded at first, and for long rested, on the merely oral 
testimony of those who had witnessed, or were otherwise assured of, the 
life, death, and rising again of its founder, Jesus the Sou of God and 
Savior of the world (Acts ii: 22 seq.; xiii: 31, 32). Except this oral tes- 
timony, as confirmed, moreover, by signs and wonders [and the testi- 
mony of the Holy Ghost], the first Christian churhces had no other ev- 
idences of the character and certainty of the events on which their faith 
was grounded, unless we add the surprising correspondence between 
these events and the predictions of prophecy — which, in point of fact, 
we find to be the chief argument insisted on by the Apostles in persuad- 
ing their countrymen to accept Jesus of Nazareth as the promised Mes- 
siah. It was only when controversies arose aiTecting the first principles 
of the faith, and misapprehensions and irregularities began to show 
themselves in certain sections and quarters of the Church, that it was 
found necessary to have recourse to a literary vehicle in the statement 
of the facts and doctrines of the gospel." (Comprehensive Teacher's 
Bible Helps, p. 57.) 

3. The Gospels. The Gospel narratives record in writing what had 
previously been propagated by oral teaching respecting the sayings and 
doings of Christ; and this history appears to have continuel to be so 
propagated till the time when the original ear and eye witnesses were 
beginning to die out, and some uncertainty to attach to the traditional 
oral accounts. ***** From all this we are not to conclude that 
the early Christian Church had no sacred scripture; for they had and 
read the Old Testament scripture, the authority, as well as the signifi- 
cance and importance of which was so enhanced to them by the ful- 
filment it had received [in part] in the facts of Christianity. (Compre- 
hensive Teacher's Bible Helps, p. 57.) 

4. Origin of the New Testament: The twentj^-seven books collect- 
ed in the New Testament were written by a number of authors, eight at 
least (nine, in case the Epistle to the Hebrews was not written by Paul). 
For each book there was some special occasion, each had its distinct 
purpose, and between the writing of the earliest and latest parts nearly 
half a century intervened. The agreement, under these circumstances, is 
truly wonderful, and the adaptation of a volume, thus penned, for all 
ages and classes is not less so. Nothing will account for such agreement 
and adaptation save a supernatural element in the composition; but we 
are now concerned with the human conditions which called forth these 
writings. Christ wrote nothing; but is himself the book of life to be 
read by all. He is written on the world's history and on men's hearts, 
and furnishes an unending theme of holy thoughts, discourses, and songs 
of praise. So, too, the Lord chose none of his Apostles, Paul excepted, 
from among the learned; he did not train them to literary authorship, 
nor expressly command them to perform such labor. They were to 
preach the glad tidings of salvation. Personal oral teaching was the 


means used for first propagating the gospel and founding the Church; 
as it is today the indispensable instrumentality. No book of the New 
Testament was written until about twenty years after the resurrection of 
Christ, and more than half a century had passed before John wrote the 
fourth Gospel." (International Commentary, Introduction, (b) p. 8.) 

5. The Language in Which the New Testament was Written: The 
New Testament was written in Hellenistic Greek, i. e., in that idiom 
of Macedonian Greek spoken by the Jews of the Dispersion (called Hel- 
lenists) at the time of Christ. It has a Greek body, a Hebrew soul, and 
a Christian spirit." (International Commentary, Introduction to Mat- 
thew, p. 9.) 

6. The Character of the New Testament: The Apostles all drew 
their doctrine from personal contact with the divine human history of 
the crucified and risen Savior, and from the inward illumination of the 
Holy Spirit, revealing the person and work of Christ in them, and open- 
ing to them his discourses and acts. This divine enlightenment is inspi- 
ration, governing not onlj^ the composition of the sacred writings, but 
also the oral instructions of their authors; not merely an act, but a per- 
manent state. The Apostles lived and moved continuallj^ in the •element 
of truth. They spoke, wrote, and acted from the Spirit of truth; and 
this, not as passive instruments, but as conscious and free agents. For 
the Holy Spirit does not supercede the gifts and peculiarities of nature, 
ordained by the Lord: it sanctifies them to the service of the kingdom 
of God. ***** While the New Testament forms one harmo- 
nious whole, it was written by different men, inspired indeed, and yet 
free and conscious agents. The peculiar character, education, and sphere 
of the several writers, therefore, necessarily show themselves in their 
writings." (International Commentary and Introduction, p. 9.) 

7. The Chronological Order of the Books: This cannot be deter- 
mined with absolute certainty, as no dates are given in the books them- 
selves. Some of the Epistles of Paul, especially that to the Romans, 
contain indications and allusions which enable us to assign them to a 
particular year. The Epistle of James, and the Epistles to the Thessa- 
lonians were probably writen first, the writings of John last. The three 
Snyoptic Gospels must have been composed before the destruction of 
Jerusalem (A. D. 70), which by them is predicted as a future event. The 
Acts were written after 63, j^et before the death of Paul, (which is sup- 
posed to have occurred 68 A. D.), as they suddenly close with his im- 
prisonment in Rome." (Ibid, pp. 10, 11.) 

8. Unity of the New Testament: The New Testament is a collec- 
tion of twentj'-seven distinct writings, from eight (or nine) different 

{b) The above and some of the following notes of this lesson are 
taken from the "International Revision Commentary," on the New Tes- 
tament. The comments are based upon the revised version of the New 
Testament of 1881 by English and American scholars. The International 
Commentaries were considered necessary, owing to the Anglo-American 
revision of the New Testament. For this revision it is claimed that it is 
bosed upon a much older and purer text, and corrects several thousand 
f-rors and inaccuracies which mar the excellence of the version of 161 .•. 
It also claims to put "the English reader as nearly as possible into the 
position of the student of the Greek Testament." We shall have occa- 
sion now and then to quote this work, and it will always be done under 
the title, "International Commentary," and must not be confounded with 
the "Commentary, Critical and Explanatory," by Messrs. Jamieson- 
Faussett-Brown, already frequently quoted, and still to be quoted in sub- 
sequent lessons. 


hands. Of these writers, four were Apostles — St. Matthew, St. John, St. 
Paul, and St. Peter; two were companions of the Apostles — St. Mark 
and St. Luke; two were our Lord's brothers, probably not Apostles- - 
St. James and St. Jude. The books are usually classed as Historical 
(five). Didactic (twenty-one). Prophetical (one), though the writings of 
the first class include much more than one-half of the entire matter. The 
unity of the whole is remarkable; all the books find their center in Jesus 
Christ our Lord. The four Gospels narrate his life on earth; the fiitli 
historical book tells how the new life, that came from Him through tne 
Holy Spirit, passed from Jerusalem to Rome. The epistles, written by 
men of varied personal character and temperament, set forth the sig- 
nificance of the gospel facts, as revealed to them, according to our 
Lord's promise (John xvi: 12, 13). The single prophetical book, how- 
ever it is to be interpreted, shows the Lamb as King, to become Victor 
on earth, where his church is preparing through conflict to share his tri- 
umph. (Bible Treasury, p 123.) 

9. Order: In our English Bible the order is not chronological. In 
ancient manuscripts there was much variation in position; the seven 
General Epistles were usually placed immediately after Acts, the Gos- 
pels coming first, though not always in the order now universal. The 
Pauline Epistles seem to have been arranged according to length, so that 
the earliest and the latest stand together, viz., I and II Thes. with I and 
II Timothy, and Titus." (Bible Treasury, p. 123.) 





I. The Gospel According to St. Mat- Notes i, 2, 3. 

1. Author. 

2. Date. 

3. The Language and Aim of the 

II. The Gospel According to St. Mark. 

1. Author. 

2. Date. 

3. Purpose and style of the Book. 

III. The Gospel According to St. Luke. 

1. Author. 

2. Date. 

3. Purpose and style. 

SPECIAL TEXT: After these things the Lord appointed other Seventy 
also, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, 
whither he himself would come. Therefore said he unto them, the harvest 
truly is great, but the laborers are few; pray ye therefore the Lord of the har- 
vest, that he "would send forth laborers into his harvest." — St. Luke. 

Notes 4, 5, 6. 

All the Bible Helps, 
Dictionaries, Encyclope- 
dias, Biblical Litera- 
ture, Bible Treasuries, 
Commentaries, etc., be- 
fore cited may be con- 
sulted under the title of 
the Books of this les- 

Notes 7, 8, 9. 

Notes 10, 11, 12. 


1. The Name "Gospels" Defined: "The word "gospel" (God's spell, 
good spell, or story, message) is the nearest English equivalent for the 
Greek 'evangelion,' and means 'good news,' 'glad tidings' of salvation by 
Jesus Christ. It is also applied to the four books of the New Testament, 
which contain the fourfold authentic record of the one gospel of Christ, 
according to Matthew Mark, Luke, John (not the Gospel of Matthew, 
etc.)." (International Commentary, Intro. 12.) 

2. Character and Aim of the Gospels: "The canonical Gospels do 
not asume to be full biographies of Jesus, but give only a selection of 
the characteristic features of his life and work, for the practical purpose 


of leading the reader to a saving faith in Jesus as the promised Messiah 
and Son of God (John xx: 31). They are not photographs which repre- 
sent the momentary image in a single attitude, but living pictures from 
repeated sittings, which represent a combination of the varied expres- 
sions and aspects of Christ's person." (International Commentary, In- 
tro, p. 12.) 

3. St. Matthew: "Matthew (or Levi; see Mark ii : 14; Luke 
v: 27, 29) was a publican, or tax-gatherer, called by our Lord from 
the toll-booth, near the Sea of Galilee, where he was performing his sec- 
ular duty (Matt, ix: 9-13). The name is derived from the same word as 
Matthias (Acts i: 23, 26), or Theodore, meaning "gift of God." It was 
probably adopted as his new Christian name (which Jesus was wont to 
give his disciples. See Simon Peter-Cephas, etc.). His former avoca- 
tion was regarded by the Jews with contempt, but gave him an exten- 
sive knowledge of human nature and accurate business habits, which 
tended to fit him for his great work as an evangelist. The topical ar- 
rangement of his gospel may be largely due to the influence of his pre- 
vious occupation. The New Testament is silent in regard to his special 
labors. Tradition says he was murdered in Ethiopia, while at prayer; 
but according to the earlier statement of Clement of Alexandria, he died 
a natural death. The first Gospel is his immortal monument. If he had 
done nothing else, he must be ranked among the most useful servants 
of Christ. In this book he still preaches the gospel to all nations. 
(xxviii: 19.) (International Cominentary, Intro., pp. 15, 16.) 

4. Time of Writing the Book of Matthew: "From the Gospel itself 
it is plain that it was written before the destruction of Jerusalem, but a 
number of years after the resurrection (xxvii: 7; xxviii: 15). Irenaeus 
says it was written, 'when Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome,' 
which was certainly after 61 A. D.; though most of the fathers think it 
was the first one written. The very early date often assigned (45 A. D.) 
may be correct if applied to an Aramaic original; but the Greek Gospel, 
which we have should probably be assigned to a later date, since, on the 
theory that the Synoptic Gospels are independent of each other, this one 
could not have preceded by many years the two others. All were prob- 
ably written between 60 and 64 A. D., and that of St. Matthew may have 
been written about 60 A. D." (Bible Treasury, p. 124.) 

5. The Language of the Original Text Book of Matthew: There 
is some controversy as to the language in whcih Matthew first wrote 
his book. The status of the controversy is well stated in the following 

"Papias and Irenaeus, both of whom lived in the second century, 
state that Matthew wrote in the Hebrew dialect (Aramaic). The former 
uses the word 'logia,' or oracles, which was certainly used of writings 
containing more than discourses, and applied very early to books of 
Scripture. But the earliest citations from the Gospels, some of them in 
works of the earlier half of the second century, give the exact words of 
the Greek Gospel we now have. No certain traces of a previous Aramaic 
Gospel have been discovered, nor does the Greek Gospel show any 
marks of being a translation. It is therefore probable either that there 
was no Aramaic original, or that it was superseded very soon by a Greek 
narrative which the Apostle made, or caused to be made. As Greek was 
extensively spoken in Palestine, and a publican would necessarily be fa- 
miliar with that language, a Greek original is not improbable. At all 
events, we now have a well-attested Greek Gospel; and we are not 
likely to discover in it, or anterior to it, traces of an Aramaic original 
written by St. Matthew." (Bible Treasury, p. 124.) 


6. Apparent Aim of Matthew: "The aim of this Gospel is to show 
that the Messiah promised in the Old Testament has appeared in Jesus 
of Nazareth— in a form, however, which led to his rejection by the Jews 
and their consequent rejection by him, to the eventual emancipation and 
salvation of the Gentile nations (chap, xxviii: 19, 20). It is the author's 
justification, as it was that of the Apostles generally, for missionary 
work among the heathen to the neglect of his own countrymen, who 
had spurned his message." (Bagster Bible Helps, p. 60.) 

7. St. Mark and His Book: "The author of this Gospel is the John 
Mark spoken of in the Acts, and who accompanied first Paul and then 
Barnabas in their missionary journeys among the Gentiles (Acts xii: 
12 et seq., xiii. 5). He was the son of Mary, Barnabas' sister, apparently 
a woman of some standing, and of high repute among those that minis- 
tered to Christ, and at whose house in Jerusalem the Apostles used fre- 
quently to assemble after the death and resurrection of their Master. He 
appears, from I Peter v: 13, to have been a convert or spiritual child of 
St. Peter, who there calls him Mark, my son; and tradition alleges, with 
great probability, that the material for his Gospel was furnished him by 
that Apostle. His Gospel is certainly written from the standpoint of the 
Apostle who most clearly recognized the divinity of Christ (Matt, xvi: 
16); and it is an expanded narrative of the facts in Christ's life empha- 
sized in Peter's own preaching, e. g., in his speech at the house of Cor- 
nelius at Caesarea (Acts x: 36-41). According to ecclesiastical tradition 
Mark went as a missionary to Egypt and other parts of Africa, where he 
suffered martyrdom for Christ in 62 or 66 A. D." 

8. Date of St. Mark: "The Gospel was, according to Iraneaus, com- 
posed by Mark after the death of Peter and Paul. It was probably writ- 
ten after the year 62, when Mary appears only as a relative of Barnabas 
(see Col. iv: 10), and before the destruction of Jerusalem, and is alleged 
to have been written in Rome. The language, however, in which it was 
written was Greek, and not Latin, as some have supposed." (Bagster 
Bible Helps, p. 61.) 

9. Literary Character of St. Mark: "The presence in this Gospel 
of Latin terms and also of Aramaic words, which are translated into 
Greek, points to a Gentile circle of readers, probably in Rome, as is 
generally held. It exhibits Christ in his power, as a worker of miracles, 
producing amazement and fear. The discourses are reported very 
briefly; events are noted in their exact sequence; many vivid details of 
gesture and action are introduced. All these peculiarities suggest that 
an eye-witness was the source of information. From the days of Papias 
it has been believed that St. Peter was this source, and internal phen- 
omena favor this view. No direct supervision by that Apostle can be 
affirmed, though Eusebius asserts, on the authority of Clement of Alex- 
andria, that it was submitted to him for approval. This Gospel contains 
few passages (two miracles, one parable, and the story of the young man 
near Gethsemane) peculiar to itself, but many details are mentioned 
which are not found elsewhere. Our Lord's gestures are noted; promi- 
nence is given to his power over evil spirits; the withdrawals are more 
frequently indicated. The style is vivacious; the present tense is often 
used in narrative; the word "straight way" (variously rendered in the 
authorized version) occurs more than forty times. This Gospel could 
not have been an abridgement of that of St. Matthew, since it bears all 
the marks of originality." (Bible Treasury, p. 125.) 

10. Book of St. Luke: "Luke was probably of Gentile extraction 
(Col. iv: 10-14), born at Antioch, and a faithful colleague of Paul. His 
superior education is proved by the philological excellence of his writ- 
ings (viz. the Gospel and Acts of Apostles, which are but two volumes 


of one work). His preface, in pure Greek, implies previous careful 
study of documentary and other evidence. He speaks of 'other attempts' 
to write a Life of Christ, which were unsatisfactory. Though it is the 
same Gospel, it is narrated with peculiar independence, containing addi- 
tional matter, more accuracy in preserving the chronological order of 
events, and complying with the requirements of history. He tested tra- 
dition by documentary records (e. g., i: 5; ii: 2; iii, 1); by comparing the 
oral testimony of living witnesses (i: 2, 3); and only when he had 'per- 
fect understanding of all things from the very first,' ventured to compile 
a 'Life of Christ' as a perfect man, restoring human nature, and offering 
himself a sacrifice for all mankind." (Oxford Helps, p. 26.) 

11. Date of St. Luke: "Luke's Gospel can be proved to have been 
in use and familiarly known about 120 A. D., and to have been written 
prior to the year 63 A. D., since it is at that date that the Acts, which 
continues the Gospel narrative by the same author, closes. It is not 
known where it was written, though the Acts was probably written at 
Rome." (Bagster Bible Helps, p. 62.) 

12. Purpose and Literary Style: "Luke's Gospel is written, in the 
first instance, to confirm the faith of Theophilus, a native, it is thought, 
of Italy, and probably of Rome, and a man of some social position, in 
whose spiritual edification and Christian steadfastness, as in all likeli- 
hood a convert of his own, he took especial interest; and its aim is to 
represent the Gospel of Christ as destined to bless all mankind, and 
Jesus as the Savior at once of Jew and Gentile. The literary style is 
better than that of the other Gospels, as befits the writing of an edcuated, 
professional man. This Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles approach 
more nearly to the 'classic' Greek than the other New Testament narra- 
tives." (Bagster Bible Helps, p. 63.) 





I. The Gospel According to St. John. ^°t^^> i- 2 and 3. 

1. The Author. 

2. Time of Writing. 

-7 Clfirlp onrl Piii-r>/->cA -A^H Bible Dictionaries', 

J. :5iyie anu i urpose. Helps, etc., previously 

cited nave articles on 

n'x'u A >. r .1.1- A J.1 St. John and the Acts, 

. The Acts of the Apostles. which should be con- 

1. Authorship. ^""ed. 

2. The Historical Period Covered by ^e'tspeciaiiy seventy's 

Its Narrative. Bible Dictionary Art. 

Acts of the Apostles. 

SPECIAL TEXT : "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was 
with God, and the Word zvas God. The same was in the beginning with God. 
All things were made by him; and zvithout him zvas not any thing made, that 
was made. In him zvas life; and the life zvas the light of men. And the 
light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not. * * * * 
And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and zve beheld his glory 
the glory as of the only begotten of the Father), full of grace and truth." — 


1. Authorship of the Gospel of St. John: "It is the almost unani- 
mous tradition of the church that the Apostle John wrote this Gospel. 
Our earliest authorities for the fact are Theophilus of Antioch (A. D. 
175), Irenaeus (A. D. 130-200), the Muratorian Fragment (A. D. 170- 
180), and Clement of Alexandria (A. D. 160-220). The accounts of these 
writers' differ slightly from each other; but all agree in distinctly at- 
tributing our present Gospel to John; while the fourth, who is clearly 
independent of the other three, draws a remarkable distinction between 
it and the earlier Gospels, the later being spoken of as containing 'the 
bodily things,' the former as 'a spiritual Gospel.' " (International Com- 
mentary, Intro., p. xiv.) 

2. The Apostle St. John: This Apostle was the son of Zebedee and 
Salome, and younger, as there seems every reason to think, than his 
brother James. Of Zebedee we know little. He was a fisherman upon 
the Sea of Galilee, who pursued his occupation in common with his 
sons, and who continued it even after they had obeyed the summons of 
their Lord to follow him (Matt, iv: 21). Of Salome we fortunately know 


more. From John xix: 25, it would seem probable that she was a sister 
of the Virgin Mar}^ (International Commentary, p. 8.) 

"It is probable that he (John) was born at Bethsaida, on the lake of Gali- 
lee. His parents appear to have been in easy circumstances ; at least, we find 
that Zebedee employed hired servants (Mark i: 20), and that Salome 
was among the number of those women who contributed to the main- 
tenance of Jesus (Matt, xxvii: 56). We also find that John received 
Mary into his house after the death of Jesus. Since this house seems to 
have been situated at Jerusalem it would appear that he was the owner 
of two houses. John's acquaintance, also, with the high priest (xviii: 
15) seems to indicate that he lived at Jerusalem, and belonged to the 
wealthier class." (Cycl. of Biblical Literature, Kitto, pp. 130, 131.) 

3. The Pre-Ordained Mission of St. John: Of all the Apostles St. 
John is the most interesting to the Latter-day Saints, and this because 
of the light that is thrown upon his career and character by the Book of 
Mormon. In the great vision that was granted to the first Nephi con- 
cerning the birth, life and mission of Jesus, he comes to the point where 
he beheld a man dressed in a white robe: 

"And the angel said unto me, Behold one of the Twelve Apostles of 
the Lamb! Behold, he shall see and write the remainder of these things; 
yea, and also many things which have been; and he shall also write con- 
cerning the end of the world; wherefore the things which he shall write, 
are just and true; and behold they are written in the book which thou 
beheld [in previous part of vision] proceeding out of the mouth of the 
Jew; ***** And behold, the things which this Apostle of the 
Lamb shall write, are many things which thou hast seen; and behold, 
the remainder shalt thou see; but the things which thou shalt see here- 
after, thou shalt not write; for the Lord God hath ordained the Apostle 
of the Lamb of God, that he should write them. ***** And I, 
Nephi, heard and bear record, that the name of the Apostle of the 
Lamb was John, according to the word of the angel. And behold, I, 
Nephi, am forbidden that I should write the remainder of the things 
which I saw and heard." (I Nephi xiv.) 

From the above, it appears that John, the beloved disciple, was fore- 
ordained to write the things we have in the Jewish Scripture from his 
pen. And so jealously guarded was the mission assigned to him in his 
pre-existent state, that a man living upOn another continent and six cen- 
turies before John's time, was not permitted to trespass upon that divine 
appointment. And when the peculiar importance of the Gospel accord- 
ing to St. John is taken into account; how that Gospel more specifically 
than any of the others that have been written, testifies not only to the di- 
vinity of Jesus, but to the deeper fact that he is Deity in his own right 
and person; and how that same Gospel supplies so much in its account 
of the earth career of the Messiah that was omitted by the other evange- 
lists, it must be conceded that the character of John's work bears out 
the idea of a specific appointment which the Book of Mormon declares was 
given to him before he was born in the flesh. 

4. Date and Style of St. John: This Gospel would appear to have 
been written at Ephesus, at the instance, Jerome alleges, of the bishops 


of the Asiatic churches, with a view to confirm the faith of the Church 
in the divinity of Christ, of which he was the special witness. Its date 
must be long after the writing of the other Gospels and towards the 
end of the first century. It is one of the latest books of the New Testa- 
ment — much later than the 'Revelation.' On this calculation, it must 
have been composed after the destruction of Jerusalem." Bagster Bible Helps, 

"The time and place of writing was at Ephesus, as is generally held, 
not long before the death of the Apostle, and probably at the request of 
Christians in that city, Ch. xxi: 24 ('And we know that this testimony is 
true') suggests that others desired to attest the truth of the record as 
comng from the Apostle. This late date, nearly a generation after 
the writing of the other Gospels, shows that the leading facts about 
Jesus were already known to Christians. This Gospel is therefore, in a 
certain sense, supplementary; but there is no evidence that it was in- 
tended to supply omissions in the other narratives. The design is stated 
in the book itself, and the many events and discourses found only in this 
Gospel are in accordance with it." (Bible Treasury, p. 129). 

5. The Purpose of John's Gospel: Contradictory opinions obtain 
concerning the purpose for which the Apostle John wrote his account 
of the gospel. Eusebius quotes Clement of Alexandria as saying that 
John, perceiving that the bodily influence of Jesus had been made known 
in the Gospels, (i. e., supposedly Matthew, Mark and Luke), and being 
at the same time urged by his friends and borne along by the spirit, 
wrote a spiritual Gospel (third century). A still earlier authority, the 
unknown author of the so-called Muratorian Fragment (See Apostolic 
Fathers, Rev. George A. Jackson, p. 186), which most scholars agree be- 
longs to the second century and probably not later than A. D. 170, so 
far agrees with the idea that John's Gospel was intended to supplement 
the other Gospels as to say, that when John's fellow-disciples and 
bishops exhorted him to write, he said: "Fast along with me three days 
from today, and let us relate the one to the other whatever has been re- 
vealed to us. The same night it was revealed to Andrew, the Apostle, 
that "John should in his own name, write down the whole, and that they 
all should revise" what he wrote. Another contention is, and this is 
based on the authority of Irenaeus (third century) that John wrote to 
controvert the errors of the Nicholaitanes and Cerinthus, in other words, 
that "his aim was not so much supplementary as polemical." In the 
midst of the conflicting theories it is just as well that we accept the 
simple and straight-forward statement of St. John himself in the last 
chapter but one of his famous Gospel as to the purpose for which he wrote 
his Gospel, namely, "And many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence of 
his disciples which are not written in this book; but these are written, that 
ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God ; and that, believing, 
ye might have life through his name." 

6. The Acts of the Apostles: "The Acts of the Apostles is an ac- 
count of the conflicts and conquests of Christianity from the ascension 
of our Lord to the imprisonment of Paul in the city of Rome (33-63 A. 
D.) It is the earliest manual of Church History, and the only one treat- 


ing of the age of the Apostles which has come down to us from the 
first century. Its loss would leave a wide chasm between the Gospels 
and the Epistles, and involve the student in great ignorance of the pro- 
gress of events in the history of the Church during the period interven- 
ing between the close of our Lord's earthly activity and the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem (70 A. D.), which the direct statements and the im- 
plications of the Epistles of the New Testament and the Apocah^pse 
would only partially illumine. He, in this case, would know nothing of 
the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost, the testi- 
monj' and death of Stephen, the conversion of Cornelius, the miracu- 
lous manifestation making Saul a Christian, or the stages in the advance 
of the Church from Jerusalem to Rome and other occurrences hardly less 
important." (Acts of the Apostles, Intro., p. ix.) 

7. Authorship of the Acts: "This book, according to internal and 
external evidence, was writen by Luke, and forms the sequel to his 
Gospel. It is the history of the foundation and spread of the Christian 
Church — the former under Peter (i-xii), the latter under Paul (vii-xxviii). 
It was founded on the Day of Pentecost; its first sons were Jews (hence 
it appeared only a Jewish sect in Judea), and the former part of the book 
is occupied with its establishment there, with argumens in its favor, and 
with challenges to disprove the fundamental fact of Christ's resurrec- 
tion. Its first development into an organized community, with official 
staff, provoked the first persecution and martyrdom, which precipitated 
its extension to Samaria and Syria, caused a new and more independent 
center of operations to be planted at Antioch, whence under Paul (the 
first converted persecutor) it spread to Asia Minor, Greece, Rome, and 
various parts of the Gentile world. The motive influence was the direct 
impulse of the Holy Spirit, not any preconceived plan of the Apostolic 
body (ii: 4; xv: 6, 7, 9). (Oxford Bible Helps, p. 26.) 

The Completeness of the Four Gospels: Much is made of the dif- 
ferences between John and the first three Gospels, not only as to the 
facts related, but also with reference to the style of Jesus' addresses. 
But the difficult)^ disappears when we remember that Matthew, INIark, 
and Luke present the scenes of Christ's Galilean ministry among the 
rude peasantry who were less acquainted with the law than their 
southern brethren, and who needed simple and direct teaching; on the 
other hand, John sets forth mainly Christ's Judean ministry among 
those who were conversant with the law and were accustomed to elab- 
orate discussions. The ministry of one year implied by the Synoptists, 
considered by themselves, does not exclude the three years' ministry 
which is derived from John's Gospel, for the four taken together sup- 
plement each other. (Date of Our Gospels, p. 35-6.) 




Illustrations : 

(a) Observance of the "Lord's Day." 

(b) Honor thy Father and thy mother. 

(c) Thou shalt not bear false witness. 

(d) Thou shalt not steal. 

(e) Thou shalt not covet. 

(f) "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, 

and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. * * * 
Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." 

SPECIAL TEXT: "Let us hear the conclusion of the zvliole matter: 
fear God and keep his commandments; for this is the whole duty of man." 


1. Suggestions in the Formation of a Lecture: In a previous les- 
son on lectures, I made some suggestions in relation to the construction 
of a lecture (Lesson XI, Part II), quoting from a little work by William Pit- 
tenger on "Extempore Speech," calling attention to the simple framework 
of a lecture, consisting of, 1. The Introduction; 2. The Discussion; 3. The 
Conclusion. I now give from the same work an example in outline of 
such a speech. 

"Subject — The Ocean. 
"1. Introduction — The vastness of the ocean. No one nerson has 
seen more than a small part of it. Power evidenced by storm and ship- 

(a) Note to Teacher. — It would be well for the sake of giving variety 
to our exercises, as also for the excellence of the exercise itself, to make 
no assignments of the sub-divisions of the subject of these special lessons 
to individual members, but let it be a subject for general consideration 
by all the quorum during the week preceding its treatment in the class; 
and then call upon the members to speak to the subject without previous 
warning or notification. In a word, let it be an exercise in extempora- 
neous speaking. (See suggestions in the Introduction.) 

87 • 

2. DisctissLon.— Five great divisions of the ocean. Use in nature, wa- 
tering and tempering the land; in commerce, as a highway; in history, 
by dividing and uniting nations; its mystery, etc. 

3. Conclusion.— Prooi of the Creator's power and wisdom found in 
the ocean. 

"the same plan condensed. 

"Subject — The Ocean. 
"1. P^astness and Pozuer. 
"2. Parts, Use, and Mystery. 
"3. Evidence. 

"dean swift's sermon. 
"(Illustrating above plan.) 

"This eccentric clergyman once preached a sermon shorter than its 
own text, yet having all the three parts of which we have spoken. The 
text was Prov. xix: 20: "He that pitieth the poor lendeth to the Lord; 
and that which he hath given will he pay him again.' 

"The sermon was: 

"'Brethren, you hear the condition; if you like the security, down 
with the dust.' 

"The collection is said to have been munificent. 

"In this short sermon the text with the word 'Brethren' constitutes 
the introduction; the phrase, 'you hear the condition,' is a good transi- 
tion to the discussion contained in the next member, 'if you like the se- 
curity,' which assumes the truth of the text, makes its general declara- 
tions present and personal, and prepares the way for the forcible and 
practical, if not very elegant conclusion, 'down with the dust.' " (Ex- 
tempore Speech, pp. 53, 54.) 

Extempore Speech: Extempore speech does not lose its special 
character, though some scattered quotations be read or repeated from 
memory. To pick up a book, in the midst of a speech, and read a theme 
or argument, or the statement of another's position, does not make 
the discourse composite in character, unless such reading be the prin- 
cipal part of it. * * * * Unwritten speech does not preclude the 
fullest preparation. The plans advocated in this volume will enable a 
speaker to gather materials as widely, arrange them as systematically, 
and hold them as firmly in hand, as if every word was written; while 
at the same time he may have all the freedom and play of thought, the 
rush of passion, and the energy of delivery that comes in the happiest 
moment of outgushing words. (Extempore Speech, Pittenger, p. 25-6.) 

Preparation for Extempore Speech: On all ordinary occasions a 
good speech must result from a previous ingathering of materials — the 
formation of a mental treasury in connection with a special subject. 
The speaker works for days or weeks in collecting from all sources and 
arranging in the happiest manner that which his hearers are to re- 
ceive in an hour with no other labor than that of listening. The great 
advantage of writing is supposed to lie in this preparation. Today 
an orator may write everything he knows about a subject; tomorrow, 
by means of reading, conversation, or further thought, he may Iiave 
more ideas to record: and he may thus continue to widen and record 
his knowledge, until his time, or the subject itself, is exhausted. Then 
he may revise, select what is most appropriate, refine and polish his 
language, and finally come before an audience confident that he holds 
in his hand the very best that he can give them. (Extempore Speech, 
Pittenger, pp. 27-8.) 





I. The Epistles of Paul, — General 
Grouping, (a) 

1. Doctrinal, Addressed to Churches. 

2. Pastoral, Addressed to Individu- 

3. Special, Addressed to Philemon. 
II. General Character of the Epistles. 

1. The Author. 

2. General Purpose. 

3. Form and Literary Style. 
III. Doctrinal Epistles — Romans. 

1. When and Where Written. 

2. Outline of Its Purpose and Doc- 

3. Select Readings from Romans. 

Notes 1 and 2. 

All Bible Dictionaries 
and Helps before quoted, 
Art. "Pduline" Epistles. 

Coneybeare and How- 
son's I^ife and Epistles 
of St. Paul. 

Notey 3, 4, 5, 6. 

Students required to 
read the whole of the 
Epistles to the Romans. 

Notes 7, 8, 9, 10. 

Reading, State of the 
Pagan World; Chap, i: 
13-32 and Chap, ii: 1-1.3. 
(The passage should be 
read without noting 
chapter division. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "Whatsoever things were zvritten afore time were 
written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scrip- 
ture, might have hope." — Paul. 


1. Chronological Order: The arrangement of the Epistles as found, 
in our Bibles and a.s followed in these lessons, is not one of chronological 
order. As far as the chronological order can be followed at all, it is 
generally conceded to be about as follows: 

(a) See Seventy's Bible Dictionary, Art. "Pauline Epistles." There is 
a fine analysis and history of each Epistle; they are grouped chronologi- 
cally and the student would do well to read them in that order. 


1. I and II Thessalonians, A. D. 50, 51. 

2. I and II Cor., Gal., Rom., A. D. 55, 56. 

3. Phil., Col., Eph., Philemon, A. D. 60, 61. 

4. 1 and 2 Tim., Titus, A. D. 64, 65. 

As implied above, there is some variation in these dates among au- 
thorities on the Epistles. 

2. The Epistles of St. Paul: "St. Paul contrived, in a remarkable 
degree, to maintain a connection v^ith the churches he founded. The 
care of all the Gentile churches (II Cor. xi: 28) he exercised not merely 
by occasional revisiting them, but by letter. Of the letters thus pro- 
duced we possess thirteen. The originals have indeed naturally disap- 
peared; they were written by amanuenses, and authenticated by the ad- 
dition of a paragraph in St. Paul's own writing (Gal. vi: 11), or by his 
signature (II Thes. iii: 17). With the exception of the' three pastoral 
epistles to Timothy and Titus, which are still questioned by some crit- 
ics, the epistles ascribed to St. Paul in our New Testament are generally 
and justly received as his. These thirteen epistles all belong to the later 
half of St. Paul's ministry. The first eighteen years after his conversion 
give us not one epistle. In the year 52 or 53 A. D. the two epistles to the 
Thessalonians were written. Then follows another blank period till 58, 
when, within the space of one year, the four great epistles to the Cor- 
inthians, Galations, and Romans were produced. Again there occurs an 
interval of five years till 63, when the four 'Prison Epistles' appeared; and 
finally, 3'et another gap, until 66-68 A. D., when he sent the pastoral let- 
ters to Timothy and Titus. In the character of these groups there is 
a marked difference, while within each group the epistles belonging to it 
resemble one another. In the earliest group there is a reflection of St. 
Paul's preaching to the heathen, in which the second coming and the 
kingdom of Christ are in the foreground. The second group exhibits 
the doctrines of grace in conflict with Judaism, and also shows us in 
detail the difficulties Christianity had to overcome in the social ideas 
and customs of the Roman world. The third group is characterized by 
a calmer spirit, a higher reach of Christian thought, more construc- 
tive statements regarding Christ's person. In the fourth group we have 
chiefly instructions regarding church order, interspersed with passages 
of remarkable beauty and richness." (Bible Treasury, p. 135). 

3. The Pastoral Epistles: The Epistle to Timothy and Titus are 
called pastoral because they give directions for the training and govern- 
ing of the churches, the proper treatment of individual members, old 
and young, official and unofficial, back-sliders and heretics. They treat 
of practical wisdom, warning and encouragement, rather than of doc- 

4. Their Author: "Paul, originally called Saul, was born in Tar- 
sus, the capital of Cilicia, of parents who were Jews, apparently of a 
strict type, but he had the rights of Roman citizenship. He was sent 
when young to Jerusalem, where he studied at the feet of a great Jew- 
ish doctor, Gamaliel, and wrought at the trade of a tent-maker. Here 
he became zealous for the law, and distinguished himself by his enmity 
against those Jews who had apostatized from the faith of their fathers. 
He went about persecuting the Christians everywhere, and dragging 
them before the Sanhedrim, that they might be put to death, till, on 
the road near Damascus, whither he was bound, under commission from 
the Sanhedrim, in the work of persecution, he was arrested in his course, 
and suddeny converted, by an apparition of the glorified Christ himself, 


into a disciple and preacher of the faith he had been seeking to crush." 
(Bagster Bible Helps, p. 69.) 

5. The General Purport of the Epistles: The general purport of 
these epistles is to teach that salvation is not possible by the works of 
the law, but is the free gift of God by and in Jesus Christ; and that ev- 
ery man, Jew as well as Gentile, is equally in need, as he is equally cap- 
able of this salvation, which is represented as experienced by faith in 
Christ crucified leading to death with Christ, rising again with Christ, 
and living with Christ in the inner life. This is the burden of the epistles 
as it is the sum of Paul's gospel, and it is the exact opposite of the 
Pharisaic creed in which he had been brought up; his antagonism to 
that creed now not only enabled him to define better the character of 
the new faith, but to become the apostle of it to all nations as a religion 
deriving its inspiration direct from Christ, and alone adequate to the 
exigency of Jew and Gentile alike, seeing 'all had sinned and come 
short of the glory of God.'" (Bagster Bible Helps, p. 69.) 

6. The Style of the Epistles: The style of these letters shows a 
man of an eager and impetuous temper, who, on that account, as well 
as through the fulness of his matter, is impatient of dialectic restraint. 
The theme is a pressing one, and the writer is to intent to gain his end 
to study his steps. In his hurry to carry his thought forward he some- 
times forgets what he has been saying, and passes on to another point, 
more urgent perhaps, leaving the original sentence unfinished; while 
in his eagerness to express himself he is often careless of the coherence 
of his thought. [May it not be that the defect here pointed out can be 
accounted for b}^ some of the passages being lost?] He has no time 
to adjust himself to any formulae: he must make his way at any ex- 
pense. All forms are alike to him, and he will use any or use none, if 
only he can thereby gain his point." (Bagster Bible Helps, p. 69.) 

7. Date of the Epistle to the Romans: Although this epistle 
stands first among the Pauline letters, this position has been accorded 
to it, not because it is the earliest in point of time, but partly owing to 
its doctrinal importance, and mainly on account of its being addressed 
to the metropolis of the world. Its probable date is the early spring of 
the year 58 A. D." (Bible Treasury, p. 135.) 

8. Its Purpose: St. Paul's primary purpose in writing to the Ro- 
mans was to explain why during the many j'ears of his missionary jour- 
neyings he had never j-et reached Rome, and to pave the way for his in- 
tended visit. He had many friends among the Christians of Rome (ch. 
16), and it is likely that in a friendly way they had been chiding him 
with attending so much to others, and so little to them. He assures 
them that this was due to no oblivion of the claims of Rome, nor to 
any intentional neglect on his part. On the contrary, he, himself a 
Roman citizen, had intensely felt the attraction of Rome, and had 'often- 
times' (i: 13) proposed to visit it, and had only been hindered by work 
from which he could not escape." (Bible Treasury, p. 135.) 

9. The Gospel According to St. Paul Expounded in Romans: "St. 
Paul takes the opportunity of presenting an exposition of his 'gos4)er 
more systematic than we have in any other of his letters. Why, if he 
expected so soon to see his friends in Rome? Possibly because it was 
said that he shrank from bringin<T his bare and simple gospel into the 
trying light of the metropolis. It is not this, he says, that hinders him 
from coming to Rome. 'I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ.' 
(i: 16). And having good reason to know the precariousness of life, and 
the delays which may hinder and retard the best intentions, he at once 
proceeds to give the main outline of his habitual teaching. It was natural 
that, while proposing greatly to extend his mission, he should wish to 


make clear to the church of the imperial city, the center of the Gentile 
world, what his gospel was, and that it was applicable to Gentiles as well 
as to Jews, to metropolitans as well as to provincials. The letter is a 
justification of his mission to the Gentiles." (Bible Treasury, p. 135.) 

10. The Church at Rome: "The name of the original founder of the 
Roman Church has not been preserved to us by history, nor even cele- 
brated by tradition. This is a remarkable fact, when we consider how 
soon the Church of Rome attained great eminence in the Christian world, 
both from its numbers, and from the influence of its metropolitan rank! 
Had any of the Apostles laid its first foundation, the fact could scarcely 
fail to have been recorded. It is, therefore, probable that it was formed, 
in the first instance, of private Christians converted in Palestine, who 
had come from the eastern parts of the Empire to reside at Rome, or 
who had brought back Christianity with them, from some of their peri- 
odical visits to Jerusalem, as the 'Strangers of Rome,' from the great 
Pentecost. Indeed, among the immense multitudes whom political and 
commercial reasons constantly attracted to the metropolis of the world, 
there could not fail to be'representatives of every religion which had es- 
tabilshed itself in any of the provinces. On this hypothesis, the earliest 
of the Roman Christians were Jews by birth, who resided in Rome, 
from some of the causes above alluded to. By their efforts, others of 
their friends and fellow countrymen (who were very numerous at Rome) 
would have been led to embrace the Gospel. But the Church so founded, 
though Jewish in its origin, was remarkably free from the predomi- 
nance of Judaizing tendencies. This is evident from the fact that so 
large a proportion of it at this early period were already of Gentile 
blood; and it appears still more plainly from the tone assumed by St. 
Paul throughout the Epistle, so different from that in which he ad- 
dresses the Galatians, although the subject-matter is often nearly identi- 
cal." (The Life and Epistles of St. Paul (Con3'beare & Howson), p. 

A Pen Picture of Paul: Paul was small in size, and his personal 
appearance did not correspond with the greatness of his soul. He was 
ugly, stout, short, and stooping, and his broad shoulders awkwardly 
sustained a little bald head. His sallow countenance 'was half hidden 
in a thick beard; his nose was aquiline, his eyes piercing, and his eye- 
brows heavy and joined across his forehead. Nor was there any- 
thing imposing in his speech, for his timid and embarrassed air gave 
but a poor idea of his eloquence. He shrewdly, however, admitted his 
exterior defects, and even drew advantage therefrom. The Jewish 
race possesses the peculiarity of at the same time presenting types of 
the greatest beauty, and the most thorough ugliness; but this Jewish 
ugliness is something quite apart by itself. Some of the strange 
visages which at first excite a smile, assume, when lighted up by emo- 
tion, a sort of deep brilliancy and grandeur. (The Apostles, Renan, 
pp. 165-6.) See also description of Paul, Richards & Little's Com- 





Doctrinal Epistles — I Corinthians. 

1. The City of Corinth. 

2. Character of Paul's Converts. 

3. Subject Matter of the Epistles. 

II. II Corinthians. 

1. When and Where Writen. 

2. Purpose and Character of the 

3. Selected Passages for Readings. 

III. Galatians. (a) 

1. To Whom Addressed. 

2. Galiatia and Its People. 

3. Object of the Epistle. 

4. The Nature of the Controversy of 
Which It Treats. 


I Corinthians. The 
whole epistle for Home 
reading-. Notes. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

All Bible Helps and 
Dictionaries before quot- 
ed, Art. 1 and II Cor- 
inthians, and the other 
Epistles oi this lesson. 

Notes 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Coneybeare and How- 
son's Life and Epistles 
of St. Paul. 

Notesi 3, 6. 


Against Schisms in the 
Chuich. I Cor. Chap. 1: 

Spiritual Gifts and 
Churcn Organization, I 
Cor. xii: 1-31. 

Char.ty, I Cor. xiii: 1-13. 

Et)istle tO' the Gala- 
tians— All of it should be 

Notes 1, 2, 3, 4. 

All the Bible Helps and 
Dictionaries before cited 
Art. "Galatians," "Ephe- 
sians," etc. 

SPECIAL TEXT : "Do ye not know that they zvhich minister about holy 
things live of the things of the temple? and they zvhich wait at the altar are 
partakers tvith the altar? Even so hath the Lord ordained that they which 
preach the gospel should live of the gospel" — Paul. 


1. Corinth — the City: "Corinth was the great center of commer- 
cial traffic on the overland route from Rome to the East; and also be- 
tween Upper and Lower Greece. Possessing the only good harbor in 
that quarter, and being the shortest and safest route, small vessels were 
dragged across the isthmus, larger ones transhipped their cargoes, and 
hence all the trade of the Mediterranean flowed through it, so that 'a per- 

(a) This could well be classed as a controversial epistle, for it is, 
one may say, fiercely controversial in spirit throughout. Renan refers 
to it as Paul's "terrible epistle." 


petual fair was held there from year's end to year's end;' to which were 
added the great annual gatherings of Greeks at the 'Isthmian Games' 
(to which Paul alludes, I Cor. ix: 24-27). Hence it was proverbial for 
wealth, luxury, and profligacy. Its population, and that of Achaia, was 
mainly foreign, formed of colonists from Caesar's army, and of manu- 
mitted slaves, settlers from Asia Minor, returned exiles from the islands, 
and at this time a large influx of Jews latelv expelled from Rome (Acts 
xviii: 2.)" (Oxford Bible Helps, p. 27.) 

2. Character of Paul's Disciples at Corinth: "Paul's disciples were 
mostly of the lower order, partly Tews, but mainly Roman freedmen and 
heathen Greeks, who became enthusiastic admirers of the Apostle. Here he 
wrote the latter or both of his two epistles to the Thessalonians, and 
one to the Romans; immediately after which he returned to Ephesus, 
and was suceeded in his mission by Apollos, who also made many con- 
verts. The latter was imperfectly instructed in Christianitj% but was well 
versed in the Jewish Scriptures, and very eloquent." (Oxford Bible 
Helps, p. 27.) 

3. Cause of Writing the First Epistle to the Corinthians: "There 
arose two factions, in Corinth, a Jewish, clinging to a Pharisaic at- 
tachment to the law; a Gentile, prone to push evangelical freedom to 
license; while keeping the right faith, claiming to indulge in even heathen 
licentiousness. They joined freely in heathen sacrificial feasts; de- 
graded the Holy Communion into a festive banquet; women threw off 
the usual eastern veil of modest attire; and the Greek love of intellec- 
tual speculation and discussion ran riot on sacred subjects, till appeals 
on Christian disputes were brought before heathen tribunals and mor- 
ality was scandalized by even incestuous intercourse. Under such cor- 
ruption, during three years, factions attained a formidable height. Paul 
was defamed by the Jewish party, and rumors of alarming disputes 
reached him, followed by a letter full of inquiries on matters of morality 
and doctrine, brought by a deputation of freedom. Under such circum- 
stances the first epistle was written." (Oxford Bible Helps, p. 27.) 

4. The Character of the First Epistle to the Corinthians: "The 
letter is, in its contents, the most diversified of all St. Paul's epistles; 
and in proportion to the variety of its topics, is the depth of its interest 
for ourselves. For by it we are introduced, as it were, behind the scenes 
of the Apostolic Church, and its minutest features are revealed to us 
under the light of daily life. We see the picture of a Christian congre- 
gation as it met for worship in some upper chambers, such as the house 
of Aquila, or of Caius, could furnish. We see that these seasons of 
pure devotion were not unalloyed by human vanity and excitement; yet, 
on the other hand, we behold the heathen auditor pierced to the heart 
by the inspired eloquence of the Christian prophets, the secrets of his 
conscience laid bare to him, and himself constrained to fall down on his 
face and worship God; we hear the fervent thanksgiving echoed by the 
unanimous Amen; we see the administration of the Holy Communion 
terminating the feast of love. Again we become familiar with the per- 
plexities of domestic life, the corrupting proximity of heathen immor- 
ality, the lingering superstition, the rash speculation, the lawless per- 
version of Christian liberty; we witness the strife of theological factions, 
the party names, the sectarian animosities. We perceive the difficulty 
of the task imposed upon the Apostle ,who must guard from so many 
perils, and guide through so many difficulties, his children in the faith, 
whom else he had begotten in vain; and we learn to appreciate more 
fully the magnitude of that laborious responsibility under which he de- 
scribes himself as almost ready to sink, 'the care of all of the churches,'" 
(The Life and Epistles of St. Paul, Coneybeare & Howson), p. 424.) 


1. The Persons Addressed in Galatians: "This alone among the 
Pauline epistles is addressed, not to an individual or to a single church, 
but to a group of churches; 'unto the churches of Galatia' (i: 2)." 

2. Galatia: "The name 'Galatia,' however, is ambiguous. Original- 
ly it was restricted to the region possessed and inhabited bv the de- 
scendants of the invading Gauls; a tract of country separated from the 
Black Sea by Bithynia and Paphlagonia, and bounded on the east by 
Pontus and Cappadocia and on the south by Phrygia. This country 
had been known as Galatia since the beginning of the third century B. 
C., when three tribes of Gauls (Galatinas, Celts), who had attempted 
to overrun Greece, were driven back, and finally found a footing in this 
part of Asia Minor. In 189 B. C., Galatia became a Roman dependency, 
and in 25 B. C. Augustus added to it Lycanonia, Pisidia, Pamphylia, and 
a large part of Phrygia, and constituted the whole into a Roman prov- 
ince, under the name 'Galatia.' And it is not easy to determine whether 
we are to seek for the churches here addressed among the northern 
Galatians, or in Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. Perhaps, on the 
whole, the evidence is somewhat in favor of the belief that St. Paul ad- 
dresses the last-named churches. Of the founding of these we have a 
full account in Acts xiii: 13-14, 24." (Bible Treasury, p. 139.) 

3. Object of the Epistle: During the absence of St. Paul from 
the churches of Galatia, Judaizing teachers had found access to them. 
These persistent enemies of the Apostle of the Gentiles taught his 
young churches that it was only through the gate of Judaism any one 
could enter the Christian fold. They demanded that the Gentile con- 
verts should be circumcised, and should keep the whole law. And they 
had much that was plausible to advance in favor of the idea. The law 
was a divine institution, and could not be abrogated. The promises had 
been made to Abraham and to his seed. The Messiah was the Mes- 
siah of the Jews. Jesus himself had been circumcised and had kept the 
whole law. The original apostles followed his exampli. Besides, if the 
Gentiles were not enjoined to keep the law, how were they to escape 
from the immoralities in which they had been reared? And who was 
Paul, that he should presume to introduce this novel doctrine? He had 
not known Christ while on earth. He was merely the messenger of the 
church at Antioch, and had no commission from the apostolic circle at 
Jerusalem. And vehemently as he declaimed against circumcision, he 
enjoined it when it suited him; witness the case of Timothy. The very 
speciousness of these arguments convinced St. Paul that a great crisis 
had arrived, and that, if Christianity was to become the universal re- 
ligion and not a mere Jewish sect — if religion was to be spiritual and 
not mere ritual — if union with Christ really meant emancipaiton from 
bondage of every kind, then it was time that he should, once for all, 
make clear the relation of Christ to the law" hence the epistle. (Bible 
Treasury, p. 139.) 

4. The Case of the Judaizing Party against Paul: "It is remark- 
able, therefore, that the Judaizing emissaries should so soon have gained 
so great a hold over a church consisting mainly of Gentile Christians; 
and the fact that they did so proves not only their indefatigable activity, 
but also their skill in the arts of conciliation and persuasion. It must 
be remembered, however, that they were by no means scrupulous as to 
the means which they employed to efifect their objects. At any cost 
of falsehood and detraction, they resolved to loosen the hold of St. 
Paul upon the affection and respect of his converts. Thus to the Gala- 
tians they accused him of want of uprightness in observing the Law 
himself whilst among the Jew^s, yet persuading the Gentiles to renounce 


it; they argued that his motive was to keep his converts in a subordi- 
nate state, excluded from the privileges of a full covenant with God, 
which was enjoyed by the circumcised alone; they declared that he was 
an interested flatterer, 'becoming all things to all men,' that he might 
make a party for himself; and above all, they insisted that he falsely 
represented himself as an Apostle of Christ, for that he had not, like the 
Twelve, been a follower of Jesus when he was on earth, and had not re- 
ceived his commission; that, on the contrary, he was only a teacher sent 
out by the authority of the Twelve, whose teaching was only to be re- 
ceived so far as it agreed with theirs, and was sanctioned by them; 
whereas his doctrine (they alleged) was now in opposition to that of 
Peter and James, and the other 'Pillars' of the Church. By such repre- 
sentations they succeeded, to a great extent, in alienating the Galatian 
Christians from their father in the faith; already many of the recent 
converts submitted to circumcision, and embraced the party of their 
new teachers with the same zeal which they had formerly shown for 
the Apostle of the Gentiles; and the rest of the Church was thrown 
into a state of agitation and division" — hence the Epistle to the Galations. 
(The Life and Epistles of St. Paul, Conybeare and Howson, p. 522.) 





I. Doctrinal Epistles — Ephesians. 

1. The City of Ephesus. 

2. Occasion and Object of the Epis- 

11. Philippians. 

1. The Cit}- of Phillippi. 

2. Occasion and Character of the 

III. Colossians, 

1. The City of Colossae. 

2. Character of the Epistle. 

IV. Thessalonians I and 11. 

1. Thessalonica, the City. 

2. Summary of the Epistles I and II. 
V. Epistle to the Hebrews. 

1. Authorship. 

2. Character of the Epistle. 

3. Doctrinal Outline. 


Eipistle to the Ephe- 

Notes 1, 2. 

Coneybeare and Hotv- 
son's Life and Epistles 
of St. FauJ. Bible Helps 
and Dictionaries under 
Titles ^[ Ephesiarls, and 
all the epistles of this 
lesson. Epistle to the 

Notes 3, 4, 5. 

Colossians . 
Tb'=>spalonians.I and II. 
Note 10. 

Hebrews, the whole 
epistle. A fine treatise 
on the subject is found 
on the Life and Epistles 
of St. Paul (Coneybeare 
and Howson), Chap, 

Notes 6, 7. 8. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "God * * * hath in these last days spoken unto 
us by his Son, zvhom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he 
made the ivorlds ; zuho being the brightness of his glory, and the express image 
of his person, and upholding all things by the zvord of his pozver, zvhen he had 
by himself purged our sins, sat on the right hand of the Majesty on 
high." Paul. 


1. Ephesus: Capital of the Roman province of Asia and a great 
commercial center. The province was governed by 'proconsuls,' while 
Ephesus, as a 'free city,' had its town clerk, or keeper of the records, 
its 'asiarchs,' or officers appointed to preside over the public games: its 
court days, and its popular assembly, was three miles from the sea, and 


was on the banks of the navigable ri> -t r;iycter. It was an important 
business center, much of the commer> r ' etween east and west passing 
along the great highway which connected Ephesus with the Euphrates. 
It thus became a natural center for the Chrrstian Church in Asia Minor. 
The city was celebrated as the guardian of the image of Artemis or Di- 
ana, and there was a large manufacture of silver shrines of the goddess. 
The magnificence of her temple was proverbial. A large part of the site 
was excavated by Mr. J. T. Wood, 1863-71, who also discovered the site 
of the theater, a huge building capable of seating 24,500 people. Some 
of the inscriptions are to be seen in the British Museum." (Cambridf"> 
Bible Helps, p. 53.) 

2. Occasion and Object of the Epistle: The occasion oi v\ riting this 
letter was the opportunity that offered in the mission of Tychicus and 
Onesimus to the Church at Colossas, and the object is to show that the 
Gentiles had a standing in Christ as well as the Jews; that their call into 
the Church was no mere accident, that it was the eternal purpose of 
God to gather all into oneness, or one body, in Christ, and that except 
in this oneness the fulness of Christ would not be revealed. Thus the 
epistle sets before us, as has been said, Paul's doctrine of the Church, 
the Church in its unity, 'the completion of an edifice whose foundations 
had been laid in a past eternity, and which was to stand forever." (Cam- 
bridge Bible Helps, p. 73.) 

3. The Church at Philippi: "Philippi was a place of great impor- 
tance. Surrounded by a fertile district, and possessing valuable mines, 
it also commanded the great highway from east to west, and was on this 
account attractive to St. Paul. The town which originally occupied the 
site was known as Krenides ('Fountains'); but Philip II of Macedonia 
having improved it, named it after himself. In St. Paul's time it was a 
Roman 'colony' (Acts xvi: 12), e. g., a settlement of veterans who had 
served their time in the army." (Bible Treasury, p. 142.) 

4. Occasion of the Epistle: "Epaphroditus had been the bearer of 
some pecuniary aid sent to St. Paul by the Philippians, and had thrown 
himself so vigorously into the work of Christ in the metropolis that he 
became alarmingly ill (Phil, ii: 30). On recovering, and hearing how 
anxious his friends in Philippi were, he proposed to return to them; 
and St. Paul felt that he could not allow him to go without putting in 
his hands a written acknowledgement of their kindness. Hence this 
letter was intended to be a simple letter of friendship." (Bible Teas- 
ury, p. 142.) 

5. Colossae and its Church: "Colossae was situated in southwestern 
Phrygia, but within the proconsular province of Asia. It lay on the 
south bank of the river Lycus, and on the main road from Ephesus to 
the great plateau of Asia Minor. In the fifth century B. C, it was known 
as a great and prosperous city, but the still more advantageous position 
of its neighbor Laodicea, a few miles down the river, gradually told on 
Colossae; and in the time of St. Paul, although a large number of Jews 
had been introduced into it, and although the city had become rather 
Greek than Phrygian, it yet had somewhat fallen from its former gran- 
deur and importance. Since the twelfth century, only the ruins of the 
great church of St. Michael have marked its site. So completely was 
Colossae forgotten, that the idea arose that the Colossians to whom St. 
Paul wrote his epistle were Rhodians, so called from their famous Col- 
ossus." (Bible Treasury, p. 143.) 

6. Authorship of Hebrews: "The origin and history of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews was a subject of controversy even in the second cen- 
tury. There is no portion of the New Testament whose authorship is 
so disputed, nor any of which the inspiration is more indisputable. The 


early Church could not determine whether it was writen by Barnabas, 
by Luke, by Clement, or by Paul. Since the Reformation, still greater 
diversity of opinion has prevailed. Luther assigned it to Apollos, Cal- 
vin to a disciple of the Apostles. The Church of Rome now maintains 
by its infallibility the Pauline authorship of the Epistle, which in the sec- 
ond, third, and fourth centuries, the same Church, with the same infalli- 
bility, denied. But notwithstanding these doubts concerning the origin 
of this canonical book, its inspired authority is beyond all doubt. It is 
certain, from internal evidence, that it was written by a contemporary of 
the Apostles, and before the destruction of Jerusalem; that its writer 
was the friend of Timotheus; and that he was the teacher of one of the 
Apostolic churches. Moreover, the Epistle was received by the Oriental 
church as canonical from the first. Every sound reasoner must agree 
with St. Jerome, that it matters nothing whether it were written by Luke, 
by Barnabas, or by Paul, since it is allowed to be the production of the 
Apostolic age, and has been read in the public service of the Church 
from the earliest times. Those, therefore, who conclude with Calvin, 
that it was not written by St. Paul, must also join with him in thinking 
the question of its authorship a question of little moment, and in 'em- 
bracing it without controversy as one of the Apostolical Epistles." (Life 
and Epistles of St. Paul, Conybeare and Howson, p. 848.) 

7. Summary Respecting Hebrews: The sum of all the controversy 
respecting the Epistles to the Hebrews, I think is well set forth in the 
following quotation from the Oxford Bible notes on the New Testa- 
ment : 

"The great weight of testimony favors the opinion that Paul was the 
author (though probably Luke was the writer) of this Epistle. It was 
probably composed by the former when in very strict custody, either at 
Csesarea, or at Rome (A. D. 62-64), just before his martyrdom (II Tim- 
othy iv: 26), when denied writing materials, and dictated by him to 
Luke, who then committed it to writing from memory. Some think we 
have only a Greek translation of an original Hebrew text. It was ad- 
dressed specially to those Aramaic Christians of Palestine, who were 
exposed to severe persecution from their fellow-countrymen, who ad- 
hered to the expected return of visible glory to Israel. Brought up in 
fond reminiscence of the glories of the past, they seemed in Christianity 
to be receding from their peculiar privileges of intercommunion with 
God, as a favored people, Angels, Moses, the High Priest, were super- 
seded by Jesus, the peasant of Nazareth; the Sabbath of the Lord's Day, 
the Old Covenant by the New; while temple and sacrifices were obso- 
lete What, they asked, did Christianity give in their place? And Paul 
answers, Christ; i. e., God for their Mediator and Intercessor: superior 
to Angels, because nearer to the Father; to Moses, because a Son, not 
a servant; more sympathizing than the High Priest, and more powerful 
in intercession, because he pleads his own blood. The Sabbath is but a 
type of rest in heaven, the New Covenant is the fulfillment of the Old." 
(Oxford Bible Helps, p. 28.) 





I. Paurs Pastoral Epistles, (a) 

1. General Character. 

2. I Timothy. 

3. II Timothy. 

4. Titus. 

II. Special Epistle. 
I. Philemon. 

III. The Catholic Epistles. 

1. James. 

2. I and II Peter. 

3. I, II and III John. 

4. Jude. 

IV. The Apocalypse. 

I. The Name and Author, 


Note 1. 

I and II Timothy Titus; 
Bible Helps and Diction- 
aries previously cited. 
Articles, the Eplstlei of 
this lesson. 

Notes. Philemon, 
Note 6. 


All the Epistles named 
in the Analysis. Notes 
and Bible Helps and Dic- 

The Book of Revela- 
tion. Doc. & Gov., Sec. 
77: 1-2. Y. M. I. A. Man- 

SPECIAL TEXT: "Behold, I stand at the door and knock; if any nan 
hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup t\ith 
him, and he with me. To him that overcometh zmll I grant to sit with me 
in my throne, even as I also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his 
throne." — St. John. 


1. Pastoral Epistles: "The Pastoral Epistles are three in number — 
viz., I Timothy, II Timothy, and Titus. They are so called because they 
bear upon pastoral duties. From the earliest times they have been as- 
cribed to Paul, and received as of canonical authority by the Church. 
They all belong to the same period, and they were all written towards 
the close of the Apostle's life. If the apostle had been released from 
imprisonment for a time and then imprisoned a second time, the epis- 
tles belong to the interval between his release from his first imprison- 
ment in Rome and his death — an interval during which he had paid a 

(a) See note 3, Lesson IV. 


brief visit to the churches he had founded in the east." (Bagster Bi- 
ble Helps, p. 76.) 

2. Timothy — Paul's Disciple: "Timothy resided at Lystra (Acts 
xvi: 1). He was the son of a Greek father and a Jewish mother named 
Eunice, from whom, as also from his grandmother, Lois, he had re- 
ceived a devout training in the Old Testament (II Tim. i: 5; iii: 14, 15). 
Paul calls him his 'true son in the faith,' whence it is inferred that he had 
received the gospel through Paul's preaching during his first sojourn in 
Lystra. At all events, on the apostle's second visit to Lystra, he found 
the mother and son already converted, although the father continued an 
unbeliever. As Timothy was well reported of by the brethren, Paul cir- 
cumcised him and took him as one of his chosen companions (Acts xix: 
22). The connection continued intimate and unbroken till the close of 
the apostle's career." (Bible Treasury, p. 146.) 

3. I Timothy: "The time and place of writing cannot be certainly 
fixed. The former must have been between the years 64 and 67 A. D. 
But the occasion and purport of the epistle are very plain. Heretical 
teachers had arisen at Ephesus, where Timothy was stationed, and the 
Apostle gives directions which the young man required, and which have 
a iiermanent value for all youthful ministers. No systematic order of 
thought, such as is found in Romans and Ephesians, meets us here, but 
a i ree outpouring of the apostle's heart. The letter has been justly 
coi ipared to pearls of varied size and color loosely strung on one 
thr ,'ad." (Bible Treasury, p. 146.) 

4. II Timothy: "This epistle was written from Rome during Paul's 
sec 3nd imprisonment, probably about 67 A. D., and is the last of his 
extint writings. After the address and a fervent thanksgiving for Tim- 
othy's early training (ch. i: 1-5), he exhorts him to boldness and fidelity 
(ver. 6-14), adducing two examples — one of desertion, the other of faith- 
fulness (ver. 15-18); summons him to exercise fortitude (ii: 1-13), to 
reprove 'profane babblings' (ver. 14-21), and to guard well his own con- 
duct (ver. 22-26.)" (Bible Treasury, p. 146.) 

5. Titus: "Of Titus, to whom this epistle is addressed, we know 
nothing, except what we learn of him in Galatians, II Corinthians, II 
Timothy, and this epistle, for he is not once mentioned by name in the 
Acts of the Apostles. From these sources we conclude that he was a 
Greek by birth, and a convert of Paul, that he accompanied Paul and 
Barnabas to the first Council at Jerusalem (Acts xv), and that he was 
one: of those converts from heathenism on whose behalf the council is- 
sued its decree exempting such from the obligation to observe the Mo- 
saic law. From the date of this event he appears to have been a con- 
st:mt companion of Paul, and to have been from time to time sent by 
him on missions of importance to the infant churches (comp. II Cor. 
vii: 6-13; viii: 6; xii: 18). Titus was with Paul during his imprisonment 
at Rome, and seems together with Timothy, to have accompanied him 
aftiir his realese in the brief visit he paid to the churches in the East." 
(Bagster's Bible Helps, p. IT :) 

6. The Story of Onesimus: It is remarkable how great the small 
things of life sometimes become. Perhaps there is no letter or single 
Christian document that reveals so much of the character of the times of 
St. Paul as this brief personal note given to the runaway slave, Onesi- 
mus — meaning "Profitable" — whom Paul is returning to his master with so 
much courtesy. The following account of the Epistle by Prof. Marcus 
Dodds, in the Bible Treasury, is worthy the space we here give it: 

"It is interesting to find this short note, on a merely domestic mat- 
ter, preserved among the epistles of St. Paul. It was written to inter- 
cede for a runaway slave with his master, and it illustrates the multi- 


farious services the Apostle was invited to render. It is only one sam- 
ple of numberless letters which must have been written to his many- 
friends and disciples by one of St. Paul's eager temperament and warm 
affections in the course of a long and chequered life.' Philemon was res- 
ident in Colossae (Col. iv: 9). He had been brought to the faith by St. 
Paul (Philem. 19) and as it seems that as yet St. Paul had not visited 
Colossae, it is probable that Philemon had heard him in Ephesus. He 
was a thorough-going Christian (4-7), loving and helpful, and the dis- 
ciples in Colossae, or a section of them, met in his house (2); Apphia 
was probably his wife, and Archippus his son. Philemon's slave Onesi- 
mus (or 'Profitable,' a common name for a slave) had run away, not 
empty-handed (18); and, having found his way to Rome, and being 
somehow brought into contact with St. Paul he was by him persuaded 
to abondon his old mind and his old ways (10). Paul had devoted and 
active friends around him in Rome; but this energetic slave, trained to 
watch a master's wants and to execute promptly what was entrusted to 
him, became almost indispensable to the Apostle (11, 13). 'Profitable,' 
who was aforetime unprofitable to thee, now is profitable to thee and to 
me.' Paul would gladly have retained his services, but he acknowledged 
the claim of his master, and, besides, would not deprive Philemon of the 
pleasure of voluntarily sending him to minister to him (14). The note, 
short as it is, is valuable in two respects: 1. It gives us a clear view of 
tlie uprightness and courteousness of Paul. Nothing could be more win- 
ning and persuasive, nothing more sympathetic and considerate, than the 
terms he used in restoring the runaway to his master's good graces. 2. 
But the letter shows us Christianity at work in connection with slavery. 
No institution was more deeply rooted in the ancient world, and none 
more alien to the spirit of Christ. Yet St. Paul does not set himself 
to uproot it. Rather he might seem to give it his countenance by thus 
restoring a runaway to his master. But Christianity (and Paul as its 
representative), by admitting slaves to the brotherhood of the Church, 
and by appealing to the brotherly feeling of the masters, introduced 
principles which would not be stayed in their operation till slavery was 
seen to be unchristian, and abolished. The Christian spirit does not 
work the less surely because it works indirectly." (Bible Treasury, p. 

7. The Catholic Epistles — General View: "Seven epistles are now 
designated 'general' or 'catholic' The term was first applied to three of 
these (James, I Peter, and I John), and afterwards to II Peter and Jude, 
the brief letters, II and III John, being finally classed with the five oth- 
ers for convenience. The designation implies that the letter was origi- 
nally addressed to a wider circle of readers than the members of a sin- 
gle community of Christians. In Greek Mss. these epistles were usually 
placed immediately after the Acts of the Apostles. This group of writ- 
ings presents great variety in style and diction, in date, and in maturity 
of doctrinal teaching." (Bible Treasury, p. 149). 

8. Epistle of James: "James the Less, brother, or near relation, of 
our Lord, an Apostle, had the oversight of the Church at Jerusalem 
(Acts xv: 13), where he remained until his martyrdom (A. D. 62). This 
epistle, generally attributed to him, shows evident tokens of a degen- 
eracy in the tone of Jewish Christians, to whom it is addressed, stimu- 
lating them to the exercise of higher principles. It reproves the pre- 
vailing vices of his countrymen, — hypocrisy, presumption, censorious- 
ness, love of riches; and insists that true faith necessitates good works. 
It is remarkable for its eminently practical nature, the homeliness and 
aptness of its illustration, and the bold, plain-spoken rebukes of the 
wealthy oppressors of the poor. It was probably written near the close 


of his life, and is addressed to the whole 'twelve tribles.' " (Oxford 
Bible Helps, p. 29.) 

9. St. Peter — Protestant View: "Simon Peter, son of Jonas, a fisher- 
man at Bethsaida, was one of the foremost Apostles, by whom three 
thousand were converted on the Day of Pentecost (Acts ii), and the 
first Gentile family admitted by baptism into Christianity (Acts x: 47, 48). 
He is said to have preached to the Jews scattered throughout Pon- 
tus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, i. e., the countries of Asia 
adjacent to the Black Sea, to whom he addressed this epistle from Baby- 
lon, probably about A. D. 63. Its general design was to comfort them 
under afflictions." (Oxford Bible Helps, p. 29.) 

10. St. Peter — Catholic View: "The first Epistle of St. Peter, though 
brief, containeth much doctrine concerning Faith, Hope, and Charity, 
with divers instructions to all presons of what state or condition soever. 
The Apostle commandeth submission to rulers and superiors, and ex- 
horteth all to the practice of a virtuous life in imitation of Christ. This 
epistle is written with such apostolic dignity, as to manifest the su- 
preme authority with which its writer, the prince of the Apostles, had 
been vested by his Lord and master Jesus Christ. He wrote it at Rome, 
which figuratively he calls Babylon, about fifteen years after our Lord's 
Ascension." (Douay Bible, p. 1481.) 

11. I Peter: "The date of the epistle is uncertain. Some place it 
in 61 A. D., before St. Paul's Roman imprisonment; others, in 63 or 64 
A. D., after the release of that Apostle. The probabilities are slightly in 
favor of the latter date. It was addressed to Christians in certain regions 
of Asia Minor (i: 1). Strictly interpreted, the language points to Jew- 
ish Christians, but it is now generally held that all Christians are in- 
cluded in the address. The occasion of the epistle was impending trial, 
probably not state persecution, but social and personal opposition and 
reproach. Hence the tone of consolation and encouragement, even in 
the exhortations. As often remarked, the keynote is 'Hope.'" (Bible 
Treasury, p. 150.) 

12. II Peter: "The early evidence from Christian writers in sup- 
port of this epistle is not so strong as in the case of most of the New 
Testament books. But, as it claims to be written by the 'Apostle' Peter, 
it must be regarded as genuine, or as a wilful forgery. Internal evidence 
disproves the latter view. It differs but slightly from the first epistle 
in style and language, and these slight differences can be accounted for 
from its purpose. The superiority to all Christian writings of the post- 
apostolic age is evident. A recent discovery of parts of two apocryphal 
books attributed to St. Peter shows what inferior literature the earliest 
forgers produced. * * * * Apparently addressed to the same read- 
ers as the first epistle, this one has a different purpose, viz., to warn 
against teachers of error, and to enjoin an advance in knowledge as well 
as in holiness. The false teachers cannot be identified with those of the 
second century, which is anohter proof that St. Peter wrote the epistle." 
(Bible Treasury, p. 150.) 

13. Epistles of John: "The tract called the First Epistle of John 
seems rather to partake of the nature of a doctrinal discourse, ad- 
dressed to believers generally, but more particularly to Gentiles in Asia 
Minor, probably in the neighborhood of its chief city, Ephesus. Its 
date is uncertain. Some place it before the destruction of Jerusalem, 
others towards the end of Cent, i., thinking it bears marks of combating 
the Gnostic heresy. This epistle contains only thirteen verses, eight of 
wkich are found in substance in the first. It was probably written about 
the same time, but it is addressed 'to the Elect Lady' (thought by some 
to vean the Church), and 'her children;' or to 'the Lady Electa,' a per- 


son so-called for her eminent piety. They are exhorted to persevere in 
love, faith, and godliness, and to beware of false teachers." Bagster Bi- 
ble Helps, p 30.) 

14. Jude: "Jude, 'brother of James/ is supposed to be the Apostle 
(surnamed Thaddeaus and Lebbaeus), and a near relation of our Lord 
(Matt, x: 3; xiii: 55; Luke vi: 16). The epistle is remarkable for the 
quotation of an otherwise unrecorded saying of Enoch (ver. 14), and a 
tradition of a dispute between Michael the archangel and Satan regarding 
the body of Moses (ver. 9.) Its date, place, and occasion, are unknown; 
but it seems to denounce the same false teachers as those rebuked in 
II Peter ii, and in very similar language ; warning them by the example 
of the fallen angels, of Cain, the impenitent in the times of Noah, of the 
wicked cities of the plain, of Korah, and Balaam; asserting the certainty 
of the future judgment and punishment of the wicked." (Bagster Bible 
Helps, p. 30.) 

15. Revelation: "This is the only [most largely] prophetic book 
of the New Testament, and much of it remains still unfulfilled. There Is 
satisfactory evidence of its being genuine. Justin Martyr, living sixty years 
after its supposed date, ascribes it to John ; Papias acknowledges its inspira- 
tion; Irenaeus (disciple of Polycarp, who was John's own disciple) testi- 
fies to his authorship, and that he had himself received the explana- 
tion of one passage in it from those who had conversed with the Apostle 
about it. To these may be added Clement of Alexandria, Theophilus, 
Tertullian, Origen, Cyprian, Jerome, Athanasius, etc." (Bagster Bible 
Helps, p. 30.) See Doctrine & Covenants, sec. Ixxvii; also Y. M. I. A. Man- 
ual for 1898-9. 




Peter, the Chief of the Apostles. 

1. Early Life of. 

2. His Call to the Apostleship and 
Companionship with Jesus. 

3. His life after the Death of Jesus. 

4. Did He Establish the Church, at 


St. Paul, the Apostle of the Gentiles. 

1. Birth and Roman Citizenship of. 

2. His conversion to Christianity. 

3. His Conception of the Christian 

4. His Controversies with the Juda- 
izing Party. 

5. His Death and Influence on Chris- 

The Four G-ospels. Acta 
of the AposUeev XV. I 
and II Pet&r, Commen- 
tai-y Critical and Ex- 
planatory Introduction to 

I and II Peter, pp. 494-99. 
Smith's Dictionary of the 

JBible Ajrt. Peter. St. 
Peter as founder of the 
Church at Rome— Cath- 
olic View — "Catholic Be- 
lief (Bruno), pp. 3OT-321. 
Protestant View, Mil- 
man's History of Christ- 
ianity, Book II, Chaps. 

II and III; also Dt. 
WmL Smith's New Tfes- 
tament History, pp. 634- 


Acts Vlll-XXVni. The 
Pauline lilpistlesw All 
Bible Helps and Diction- 
aries Art. "Paul," Ldfo 
and Epistles of St. Paul, 
Coneybeare and How 
son's Ijife of St. Paul. 


1. Suggestions in the Construction of a Lecture: Referring again 
to the construction of a lecture, and holding in mind the framework 
given in Lesson 1; namely: 1. The Introduction; 2. The Discussion; 
3. The Conclusion. I am reminded of the only lesson in speech forming 
ever given to r.:e in College days, and that lesson was by a very in- 
ferior public speaker, but a very prince among teachers, the late la- 
mented Dr. John R. Park, whose name will forever be associated with 
our State University. He said: "Be sure that your lecture has a be- 
ginning, an ending, and something between." Another form of intro- 
duction, discussion and conclusion. 

As an illustration of this indispensable framework, Pittenger, whom 
I before quoted, gives the following illustrations from Shakespeare: 


"Among the many speeches found in Shakespeare, the existence 
of these three essential parts may easily be noted. The funeral speeches 
over the dead body of Julius Caesar afford an excellent example. The 
merit of the orations of Brutus and Antony are very unequal, but both 
are instructive. We will analyze them in turn. Brutus speaks first. 
He shows his want of appreciation of the true nature of persuasive 
eloquence by declaring that this will be an advantage. His introduc- 
tion is also too long and elaborate for the work he has in hand. The 
central thought with which he opens is in substance, "I am worthy of 
your closest attention." This cannot be considered a fortunate be- 
ginning, and it would have been fatal for any one less highly esteemed 
by the people than "the well-beloved Brutus." He says: 


'Romans, counrtymen, and lovers ! hear me for my cause, and be 
silent that you may hear; believe me for mine honor, and have respect 
to mine honor that you may believe; censure me in your wisdom, and 
awake your senses that you may the better judge.' 

"This introduction is a master-piece of Shakespeare's art, because 
it pictures so well the character of Brutus in his dignity and blind 
self-confidence; but for Brutus it is unfortunate, because it puts him 
on the defensive and makes the people his judges. He must now 
plead well, or they will condemn him. In the discussion (following) 
the thought simply is, "I was Caesar's friend, and therefore you may 
well believe that I would not have killed him if he had not deserved 
death because of his ambition.' This is the whole argument, and it is 
weak because it does not prove the ambition of Caesar, or show that 
ambition on Caesar's part was a crime which Brutus had a right to 
punish with death. The antithetic sentences lack both logic and pas- 
sion. As they touch neither head nor heart, they can have but slight 
and momentary effect. Notice the discussion as an example of fine 
words which do not serve their purpose. 


" 'If there be any in this assembly, any dear friend of Caesar's, to 
him I say that Brutus' love to Caesar was no less than his. If, then, 
that friend demand why Brutus rose against Caesar, this is my answer: 
Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more. Had you 
rather Caesar were living, and die all slaves, than that Caesar were 
dead, to live all freemen? As Caesar loved me, I weep for him; as 
he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honor him; but as 
he was ambitious, I slew him. There are tears for his love, joy for 
his fortune, honor for his valor, and death for his ambition. Who is 
here so base that would be a bondman? If any, speak; for him have I 
offended. Who is here so rude, that would not be a Roman? If any, 
speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so vile that will not love 
his country? If any, speak; for him have I offended. I pause for a 

"As several citizens cry out, 'None, Brutus, none,' he passes to the 
conclusion, which is as weak as the discussion. 


" 'Then none have I offended. I have done no more to Caesar, 
than you shall do to Brutus. As I slew my best lover for the good of 


Rome, I have the same dagger for myself, when it shall please my 
country to need my death.' 

"He has gained nothing by the whole speech, save the knowledge 
that none of the citizens present care at that time to impeach him for 
his crime; but their minds were open to other influences. Shakespeare 
thus shows how an able man might use all his powers in the perfection 
of oratorical and rhetorical forms, without producing a great or effec- 
tive speech. Antony now comes forward. Behold the contrast! 

Antony's speech. 

"The introduction is like and unlike that of Brutus. The same three 
titles are used ; the same call for attention. But there is no repetition, 
no egotism, no elaboration. The introduction is short, calling attention 
to his ostensible purpose, and prepares for a beautiful transition to the 


" 'Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears. I come to bury 
Caesar, not to praise him.' 

"There is not a superfluous word. But how can Antony glide into 
those praises of Caesar, which he has disclaimed, but which are neces- 
sary to his purpose? The next sentence solves the question: 

" 'The evil that men do lives after them; 
The good is oft interred with their bones; 
So let it be with Caesar.' 

"This leads most naturally to the thought of the discussion, which 
is, 'No event of Caesar's life shows guilty ambition; but many do reveal 
love to the people and care for the general welfare. He should, there- 
fore, be mourned, and — the next word is not supplied by the orator, but 
forced from the hearts of the people — avenged! We quote a few only 
of the well-known words: 


" 'The noble Brutus 
Hath told you Caesar was ambitious; 
If it were so, it were a grievous fault, 
And grievously hath Caesar answered it. 
Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest, 
(For Brutus is an honorable man, 
So are they all, all honorable men) 
Come I to speak in Caesar's funeral. 
He was my friend, faithful and just to me; 
But Brutus says he was ambitious. 
And Brutus is an honorable man. 
He hath brought many captives home to Rome, 
Whose ransom did the general coffers fill. 
Did this in Caesar seem ambitious? 
When that the poor hath cried Caesar hath wept. 
Ambition should be made of sterner stuff. 
Yet Brutus says he was ambitious, 
And Brutus is an honorable man. 
You all did see, that, on the Lupercal, 
I thrice presented him a kingly crown. 
Which he did thrice refuse. Was this ambition?' 


"The strongest argument against belief in guilty ambition on the 
part of Caesar and in favor of punishing his murderers is reserved by 
the subtle Antony for the last, and then he manages to have the peo- 
ple demand it of him. He proceeds very naturally and effectively from 
the rent robe and the bleeding body to the will of Caesar. This in- 
strument gave the Romans each a large donation in money, and be- 
stovired upon them collectively 'his walks, his private arbors, and 'new 
planted orchards' as a public park. The argument was irresistible, and 
needed no elaboration. If his death was avenged as a murder, the will 
would be valid ; otherwise, it would be set aside, and his estate confiis- 
cated by the conspirators. The people, thus fired by the strongest mo- 
tives of gratitude and interest themselves supply the conclusion, and 
Brutus had to fly for his life. The whole speech is worth study as an 
exhibition of almost perfect eloquence. Shakespeare meant to draw in 
Brutus the picture of a scholar coming before the people with fine 
words, and producing little more than a literary effect. In Antony he 
pictures the true orator in the plentitude of his power, to whom words 
are but servants in accomplishing his purpose of [I suggest convincing] 
persuading and inflaming the people. The one speech reads as if it 
might have been written out in the closet and memorized; the other 
gushes from the heart of the speaker as he watches the sea of up- 
turned faces, adapting his words with exquisite skill to sui4 and swell 
the passions written there." (Extempore Speech, pp. 54-59.) 


The Ancient American Scripture. — Th( 
Book of Mormon. 




I. The Existence of the Book of Mor- 
mon Revealed. 

1. First Visions and Call of the 
Prophet Joseph Smith. 

2. The Visitation of Aloroni. 

3. The Book of Mormon Delivered 

to the Prophet. 
II. History of the Translation. 

1. First Attempts at Translation. 

2. Martin Harris and His Visit to 
Professors ]\Iitchell and Anthon 
— the lost Mss. 

3. Oliver Cowdery as Amanuensis 
and the Completion of the Trans- 

III. The Manner of Translating the Ne- 
phite Record. 

1. The Prophet's Description. 

2. ^M^itmer and Harris' Account of 
the ]\Ianner of Translation. 

3. The Translation not a Mechanical 


Pearl of Great Price, 
'U^'ritings of Joseph 
Smith, pp. 81-100, History 
of the Church Vol. T, 
Chaps. 1-ii-iii. Myth of 
the Ms. Found, (Geo. 
Reynolds). Chap. viii. 
Note 1. Y. M. M. I. A. 
Manual (No. 7), 1908-4, 
Chap. i. 

History of the Church 
Vol. I, Chaps, iii, iv, v. 
Myth of the Ms. Found 
(Reynolds), Chap. ix. T. 
M. M. I. A. Manual No. 
7, Chaps. V, vl, viii. 
Wentworth Letter (Joseph 
Smith), Mill. Star VoL 
XIX p. 117-120, Cannon's 
Life of the Prophet, 
Chaps, iv-xi. 

T. M. M. I .Manual 

No. 7, Chap. vii. "De- 
fense of the Faith and 
the Saints," (b) Division 
on Bock of Mormon Con- 
Note 6. 

(a) Let the selection be from the Book of Mormon throughout the 
Book of Mormon section of the year's work. 

(b) This is a new work by Elder B. H. Roberts, just issued from the 
Deseret News press, and the question of the manner in which the Book 
of Mormon was translated is discussed at great length. 



TV Piihliratinn nf the "Rook History of the Church 

IV. i-uDiicanon ot tne I500K. voi. i/ pp. 75-6. Foot 

1. Dinculties of rindmg a Fublisher, note. 

2. Precautions Against Imposition. 

3. Efforts to Prevent Publication. 

4. The Prophet's Success. 

SPECIAL TEXT: And it came to pass that I, Nephi, said unto my 
father, I will go and do the things which the Lord hath commanded, for I 
know that the Lord giveth no commandments unto the children of men, save 
he shall prepare a way for them that they may accotnplish the thing zvhich 
he commandeth them." — First Nephi. 


1. Moroni's Visit to the Prophet Joseph: "On the evening of the 
21st of September, A. D. 1823, while I was praying unto God, and en- 
deavoring to exercise faith in the previous promises of Scripture, on 
a sudden a Hght like that of day, only of a far purer and more glorious 
appearance and brightness, burst into the room, indeed the first sight 
was as though the house was filled with consuming fire; the appear- 
ance produced a shock that affected the whole body; in a moment a 
personage stood before me, surrounded with a glory yet greater than 
that with which I was already surrounded. This messenger pro- 
claimed himself to be an angel of God, sent to bring the joyful tidings 
that the covenant which God made with ancient Israel was at hand to 
be fulfilled, that the preparatory work for the second coming of the 
Messiah was speedily to commence; that the time was at hand for the 
Gospel in all its fulness to be preached in power, unto all nations, that 
a people might be prepared for the Millennial reign. I was informed 
that I was chosen to be an instrument in the hands of God to bring 
about some of His purposes in this glorious dispensation. 

2. Ancient America Revealed: "I was also informed concerning 
the aboriginal inhabitants of this country and shown who they were, 
and from whence they came; a brief sketch of their origin, progress, 
civilization, laws, governments, of their righteousness and iniquity, 
and the blessings of God being finally • withdrawn from them as a 
people, was made known unto me; I was also told where were de- 
posited some plates on which were engraven an abridgement of the 
records of the ancient Prophets that had existed on this continent. The 
angel appeared to me three times the same night and unfolded the 
same things. After having received many visits from the angels of 
God unfolding the majesty and glory of the events that should trans- 
pire in the last days, on the morning of the 22nd of September, A. D. 
1827, the angel of the Lord delivered the records into my hands." 
Wentworth's Letter — Joseph Smith, 1842.) 

3. The Wentworth Letter: The letter so designated, and from 
which the foregoing notes of this lesson are taken, was written at the 
request of Mr. John Wentworth, editor and proprietor of the Chicago 
Democrat. A friend of his, Mr. Bastow, was engaged in writing a his- 
tory of New Hampshire and evidently desired to make some mention 
of the rise of Mormonism ,and hence he enlisted the good offices of Air. 
Wentworth to get a statement from the Prophet Joseph himself on 


that subject; and hence this letter was written. It is one of the most 
valuable of our original historical documents, and gives in concise 
form the very best statement possible of the rise, progress and doc- 
trines of the Church up to the time it was written; namely, March, 
1842. In addition to the statements concerning the Book of Mormon 
quoted in the foregoing notes, it was in that document that the sum- 
mary of doctrines believed in by the Church appears, commonly known 
as the "Articles of Faith." The Wentworth letter entire is to be found 
in the Millennial Star, Vol. 19, pp. 117-120. 

4. Precautions taken in Printing the Book of Mormon: Nothing 
is said by the Prophet in his History of the difficulties that arose whilst 
the Book of Mormon was in the hands of the printer; nor of the care 
that was taken to prevent the manuscript falling into the hands of ene- 
mies of the work. It is proper, however, that these matters should be 
stated at this point. It appears that when the arrangements were com- 
pleted with Mr. Grandin for printing the Book of Mormon, the Prophet 
went down to Harmony, in Pennsylvania. Before taking his depar- 
ture, however, it was arranged : 

First: that Oliver Cowdery transcribe the whole manuscript; 
hence it came about that there were two manuscript copies of the Book 
of Mormon, the original, which was taken in charge by the Prophet 
after the publication of the book, and the copy made by Oliver Cow- 
dery for the printer's use, and which finally was given by him into the 
custody of David Whitmer, with whose family it remains to this day 
(1901.) (Since the above was written the custodian of the Whitmer 
family has placed the Ms. in the care of Joseph Smith, son of the Prophet 

Second: that the copy made by Cowdery from the original man- 
uscript only should be taken to the printer's, so that if that should be 
destroyed the original would remain in the hands of the Prophet and 
his associates, from which it could be replaced; and even this copy was 
supplied the printer in small quantities at a time, usually enough only 
for a single day's work of the printer. 

Third: that in going to and from the office whoever carried the 
manuscript — usually it was 'Oliver Cowdery — should always have a 
guard to attend him. 

Fourth: that a guard should be kept constantly upon the watch, 
both night and day, about the house, to protect the manuscript from 
malicious persons, who might seek to destroy it. (The authorities 
for the above are: Lucy Smith's "History of the Prophet Joseph," ch. 
xxxi; the statements of Stephen S. Harding, who a number of times 
visited Grandin's establishment while the Book of Mormon was being 
printed; his statement is published in "The Prophet of Palmyra," by 
Thomas Gregg, pp. 34-56. (History of the Church, Vol. I, p. 75.) 

5. The Wisdom of the Prophet's Precautions Vindicated: Not- 
withstanding all the precautions taken by the little group of brethren 
engaged in publishing the book, the Nephite record, mutilated by inter- 


lineations of human invention, omissions, and added vulgarisms intend- 
ed to destroy the work, came nearly being given to the world before 
the Book of Mormon itself was published. This was the work of one 
Esquire Cole, ex-justice of the peace, who undertook to publish the 
Book of Mormon, in instalments, in a weekly periodical called Dog- 
berry Paper on Winter Hill. Cole obtained the use of Grandin's press 
nights and on Sundays, and surely must have obtained the advanced 
sheets of the printed forms of the Book of Mormon, which he was 
using, with the knowledge of Mr. Grandin; at least it is difficult to con- 
ceive how he could obtain and use them without his knowledge. Hyrum 
Smith, feeling uneasy concerning the security of that part of the Book 
of Mormon in the hands of the printer, induced Oliver Cowdery one 
Sunday to go with him to the printer's to see if all was well, and there 
they found Squire Cole at work on his Dogberry paper, and pub- 
lishing mutilated extracts from the Book of Mormon. He refused to 
desist from his unlawful course; but Joseph was sent for and came up 
during that week from Harmony, and by firmly asserting his rights 
under the copyright law, and by threatening to prosecute those who 
infringed them. Cole was induced to abandon his intention of pub- 
lishing the Book of Mormon in his paper. This difficulty past, an- 
other arose. The people of Palmyra and vicinity held a mass meeting 
and passed a resolution pledging themselves not to purchase the Book 
of Mormon when published, and to use their influence to prevent others 
from purchasing it. This had the effect of causing Mr. Grandin to sus- 
pend printing until he could obtain renewed assurances of receiving 
the amount agreed upon for printing the edition of five thousand. Again 
the Prophet was sent for, and again he made the journey from Har- 
mony to Palmyra, quieted the fears of Mr. Grandin by renewed assur- 
ances on the part of himself and Martin Harris that the amount agreed 
upon would be paid. The work proceeded, and at last issued from the 
press, notwithstanding all the difficulties it had encountered. (See Lucy 
Smith's "History of the Prophet Joseph," ch. xxxiii.) History of the 
Church, Vol. 1, pp. 75-6.) 

6. The Manner of Translating the Book of Mormon: The sum 
of the whole matter, then, concerning the manner of translating the 
sacred record of the Nephites, according to the testimony of the only 
witnesses competent to testify in the matter is: With the Nephite 
record was deposited a curious instrument, consisting of two trans- 
parent stones, set in the rim of a bow, somewhat resembling specta- 
cles, but larger, called by the ancient Hebrews "Urim and Thummim," 
but by the Nephites "Interpreters." In addition to these "Interpreters" 
the Prophet Joseph had a "Seer Stone," possessed of similar qualities 
to the Urim and Thummim; that the prophet sometimes used one and 
sometimes the other of these sacred instruments in the work of trans- 
lation; that whether the "Interpreters" or the "Seer Stone" was used 
tl'.e Nephite characters with the English interpretation appeared in the 


sacred instrument; that the Prophet would pronounce the English 
translation to his scribe, which when correctly written would disap- 
pear and the other characters with their interpretation take their place, 
and so on until the work was completed. It should not be supposed, 
however, that this translation though accomplished by means of the 
'"Interpreters" and "Seer Stone," as stated above, was merely a me- 
chanical procedure; that no faith, or mental or spiritual effort was re- 
quired on the prophet's part; that the instruments did all, while he who 
used them did nothing but look and repeat mechanically what he saw 
there reflected. * * * * i repeat, then, that the translation of the 
Book of Mormon by means of the "Interpreters" and "Seer Stone," 
was not merely a mechanical process, but required the utmost con- 
centration of mental and spiritual force possessed by the Prophet, in 
order to exercise the gift of translation through the means of the sa- 
cred instruments provided for that work. This might be inferred from 
the general truth that God sets no premium upon mental and spiritual 
laziness; for whatever means God may have provided to assist man to 
arrive at the truth, he has always made it necessary for him to couple 
with those means his utmost endeavor of mind and heart." (Y. M. M. 
I. A. Manual, 1903-5, pp. 68-9.) 










The Nephite Plates. 

1. Dimensions. 

2. Weight and Appearance. 
Writers of the Book of Mormon. 

1. First Group. 

2. Second Group. 

Purposes for Which the Book 
Mormon was Written. 


Original Books of the Nephite Rec- 

1. The Small Plates of Nephi. 

2. The Abridgement of Mormon. — 
Nephite History. 

3. The Abridgement of Moroni — 
The Jaredite History. 


Note 1. 

Wentworth Letter. 
Mill. Star Vol. XIX: U7. 

See Book of Mormon 
also Y. M. M. I. A. Man- 
ual (No. 7), Chap. ix. 

Ibid (No. 9), Chap. 
xxxvii. Doc. & Gov. Sec. 
ill, 16-20. Book of Mor- 
mon — Moroni's Preface 
Title page. Book of Mor- 
mon, Chap, v: 12-15. Ibid 
vii, 540, I Nephi, Chap. 
xiii. Y. M. M. 1. A. Man- 
ual (No. 7), Chap. 111. 
Note Ibid. 

Book of Mormon, pp. 
1-157. Words of Mormon, 
Chap, i, p. 158; pp. 160-548. 

Book of Mormon, 570- 
608. Y. M. M. I. A. Man- 
ual (No. 7), Chap. ix. 
Myth of the Ms FOund, 
Chap. V. 


1. Appearance and Dimensions of the Plates of the Book of Mor- 
mon: "These records were engraven on plates which had the appear- 
ance of gold, each plate was six inches wide and eight inches long, and 
not quite so thick as common tin. They were filled with engravings, 
in Egyptian characters, and bound together in a volume as the leaves 
of a book, with three rings running through the whole. The volume 
was something near six inches in thickness, a part of which was sealed 
The characters on the unsealed part were small, and beautifully en- 
graved. The whole book exhibited many marks of antiquity in its 
construction, and much skill in the art of engraving." (Joseph Smith, 
Wentworth Letter.) 


2. Summary of the Book of Mormon: "In this important and in- 
teresting book the history of ancient America is unfolded, from its first 
settlement by a colony that came from the Tower of Babel, at the con- 
fusion of languages to the beginning of the fifth century of the Chris- 
tian Era. We are informed by these records that America in ancient 
times had been inhabited by two distinct races of people. The first 
were called Jaredites, and came directly from the Tower of Babel. The 
second race came directly from the city of Jerusalem, about six hun- 
dred years before Christ. They were principally Israelites, of the de- 
scendants of Joseph. The Jaredites were destroyed about the time 
that the Israelites who succeeded them in the inheritance of the coun- 
try, came from Jerusalem. The principal nation of the second race fell 
in battle towards the close of the fourth century. The remnant are the 
Indians that now inhabit this country. This book also tells us that our 
Savior made his appearance upon this [the American] continent after his 
resurrection; that he planted the gospel here in all its fulness, and richness, 
and power, and blessing; that they had Apostles, Prophets, Pastors, Teach- 
ers, and Evangelists; the same order the same Priesthood, the same or- 
dinances, gifts, powers, and blessings, as were enjoyed on the eastern 
continent; that the people were cut off in consequence of their trans- 
gressions; that the last of their Prophets who existed among them was 
commanded to write an abridgement of their prophecies, history, etc., 
and to hide it up in the earth, and that it should come forth and be 
united with the Bible for the accomplishment of the purposes of God 
in the last days." (Joseph Smith, Wentworth Letter.) 

3. Book of Mormon Writers: As indicated in the lesson analysis, 
the Book of Mormon writers may be divided into two groups, separ- 
ated by a period of nearly a thousand years. The first group consists 
of nine writers: 

I Nephi, who writes 127i pages. 

Jacob, brother of Nephi, 2lh pages. 

Zenos, son of the above Jacob, 2h pages. 

Jarom, son of the above Zenos, 2 pages. 

In the book of Omni there are but 3i pages, but there are five 
writers, each of whom records merely a few lines. The names follow: 

Omni, son of the above Omni. 

Amaron, son of the above Omni. 

Chemish, brother of the above Amaron. 

Abinadom, son of Chemish. 

Ameleki, son of the above Abinadom. 

Amaleki writes about 2i pages, out of the three pages and a half 
that comprise the Book of Omni. 

Altogether this first group gives us 157 pages. 

The second group consists of Mormon and his son Moroni. 

Mormon's abridgement of the various books written upon "the 
large plates of Nephi," comprises 390J pages. 


Mormon's personal account of events that occur in his own day, 14i 
pages, making a total of 405 pages. 

Moroni's writings, consisting of the completion of his father's per- 
sonal record, the abridgement of the Jaredite history and his own book, 
called the Book of Moroni, 61 pages, making a total of 623 pages of our 
current editions. 

4. Purpose for which the Book of Mormon was Written: The 
following is a summary of the purposes for which the Book of Mor- 
mon was writen, gathered from the book itself and from the Doctrine 
and Covenants. (See references accompanying Lesson analysis.) 

First, to show unto the remnant of the house of Israel what great 
things the Lord has done for their fathers. 

Second, to teach them the covenants of the Lord made with their 
fathers, that the remnants may know that they are not cast off forever. 

Third, that this record may convince both Jews and Gentiles that 
Jesus is the Christ, the Eternal God, and that he manifests himself to 
all nations. 

Fourth, that the knowledge of a Savior might come especially to 
the remnants of the house of Israel on the western hemisphere, 
through the testimony of the Nephites and Lamanites as well as through 
the testimony of the Jews, that they might more fully believe the gos- 

Fifth, that the Jews might have the testimony of the Nephites as 
well as that of their fathers, that Jesus is the Chriat, the Son of the 
living God. 

Sixth, and I think mainly, to be a witness for the truth of the Bible, 
to establish its authenticity, and its credibility by bringing other wit- 
nesses to testify to the same great truths that are contained in the sa- 
cred pages of the Bible; to restore to the knowledge of mankind many 
plain and precious truths concerning the gospel which men have taken 
out of the Jewish scriptures, or obscured by their interpretations ; for which 
cause many have stumbled and fallen into unbelief. In a word, it is the mission 
of the book of Mormon to be a witness for Jesus, the Christ; for the 
truth of the Gospel as the power of God unto salvation; for that pur- 
pose it was written, preserved from destruction and has now come 
forth to the children of men through the goodness and mercy and power of 
God. (Y. M. M. L A. Manuals, 1903-1905, p. 26-7.) 



OF MORMON. (Continued.) 


I. Ancient Migrations to America. 

1. The Jaredite Colony. 

2. Lehi's Colony. 

3. Colony of Mulek. 

II. Ancient Nations of America. 

1. Jaredite Empire, Its Center of 

National Life — Form of Govern- 

2. Nephite Kingdom, When and 
How Established — Character of 

3. Nephite — Zarahemla Kingdom, 
How Formed, Nature of Its Laws. 

4. The Nephite Republic. Distinc- 
tion Between this Form of Gov- 
ernment and the Monarchy. 

5. Lamanite Confederation, Evi- 
dence of such Confederation — Its 
Extent and Nature. 


Myth of the Ms Found 
(Reynolds), Chap. v. Y, 
M. M. I. A. Manual (No. 
7), Chap. X. 

Notes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 

Y. M. M. I. A. Manual 
(No. 7). Chap. xiii. Notes 
8, 9, 10. 


1. Jaredite Colony: The Book of Mormon contains the history of 
two distinct races. The first came from the Tower of Babel and was 
destroj'ed a Httle less than six hundred years before Christ. The story 
of their national life is given very briefly, but sufficient is said to prove 
that they were one of the mightiest nations of antiquity, and in the 
days of their righteousness a people highly blessed of the Lord. Their 
fall and final destruction were the result of their gross wickedness 
and rejection of God's Prophets. These people were called the Jared- 
ites, their history in the Book of Mormon is contained in "the Book of 
Ether." Ether was their last Prophet, and wrote his account of his peo- 
ple on twenty-four plates of gold." (The Myth of the Manuscript Found, 
p. 43.) 


2. The Nephite Colony: The next race that inhabited this conti- 
nent was of Israelitish origin, the descendants of Joseph and Judah. 
The Nephites, the ruling branch, were principally the descendants of 
Manasseh (and Ephraim). By divine guidance their first prophet and 
ruler, Lehi, was brought out of Jerusalem with a small company of his 
relatives and friends, eleven years before the Babylonian captivitv (B. 
C. 600). They sailed from south-eastern Arabia across the Indian and 
Pacific oceans, and landed on the American shore not far from where 
the city of Valparaiso now stands. In the first year of the captivity 
another small colony was led out from Jerusalem, Mulek, one of the 
sons of King Zedekiah, being their nominal leader. This party landed 
in North America some distance north of the Isthmus of Darien, and 
soon after migrated into the northern portion of the southern conti- 
nent, where for nearly four centuries they grew in numbers, but not in 
true civilization. (Myth of the Manuscript Found, p. 44.) 

3. Inter-Continental Movements: In the meantime the descendants of 
the colonists undre Lehi had also grown numerous. Early in their history they 
had separated into two nationalities ; the first, called Nephites, observing the 
laws of Moses, the teachings of the prophets, and developing in the decencies 
and comforts of civilized life; the others, called Lamanites (after the 
cruel, rebellious elder brother of Nephi), sank into barbarism and idol- 
atry. These latter gradually crowded the Nephites northward until 
the latter reached the land occupied by the descendants of Mulek's col- 
ony, now called the people of Zarahemla, with whom they coalesced 
and formed one nation. From their national birth to B. C. 91, the Ne- 
phites had been ruled by kings, but at that time the form of gov- 
ernment was changed and a republic founded. The nation was then 
ruled by judges elected bv the people (the Nephite Republic). This 
portion of the history of the Nephites is a very varied one. One- 
third of their time they were engaged in actual war with the La- 
manites, and at other times they were distracted with internal con- 
vulsions and rebellions. About A. D. 30, the republic was overthrown 
and the people split up into numerous independent tribes. (Myth of 
the Manuscript Found, p. 44.) 

4. Time of the Departure of Jeredite Colony: The colony of Jared, 
according to the Book of Mormon, departed from the Tower of Babel 
about the time of the confounding of the people's language; which, if 
the Hebrew chronology of the Bible be accepted, was an event that 
took place 2,247 B. C. Through a special favor to the family of Jared 
and his brother, Moriancumer, the language of these families, and that 
of a few of their friends was not confounded. Under divine direction 
they departed from Babel northward into a valley called Nimrod, and 
thence were led by the Lord across the continent of Asia eastward until 
they came to the shore of the great sea — Pacific Ocean — which divided 
the lands. Here they remained four years; and then by divine appoint- 
ment constructed eight barges ■ in which to cross the mighty ocean 
to a land of promise, to which God had covenanted to bring them; 
to a land "which was choice above all other lands, which the Lord 
God had reserved for a righteous people." After a severely stormy 
passage — continuing for 344 days, the colony landed on the western 
coast of North America, "probably south of the Gulf of California." 
Soon after their arrival the people of the colony began to spread out 


upon the face of the land, and multiply, and till the earth; "and they 
did wax strong in the land." Previous to the demise of Moriancumer 
and Jared, the people were called together and a kingly government 
founded, Orihah, the youngest son of Jared being annointed king.. 

5. Composition and Number of Lehi's Colony: Lehi was one of 
the many prophets at Jerusalem who predicted the calamities which be- 
fell the Jewish nation on the second invasion of Judea by King Neb- 
uchadnezzar, early in the sixth century B. C. Lehi incurred the wrath 
of that ungodly people and was warned of God in a vision to depart from 
Jerusalem with his family, and was also promised that inasmuch as he 
would keep the commandments of God he should be led to a land of 
promise. From the wilderness where Lehi temporarily dwelt, two ex- 
peditions to the fated city were made by his sons: one, to obtain a 
genealogy of his fathers, and the Jewish scriptures (which resulted 
also in adding one more to the colony in the person of Zoram, a ser- 
vant of one Laban, a keeper of the Jewish records); the second, to induce 
one Ishmael and his family to join Lehi's Colony in their exodus from 
Jerusalem and journey to the promised land. In both 'these expedi- 
tions they were successful in achieving their object. The colony now 
consisted of some eighteen adult persons and a number of children. 

6. Direction of Travel and Landing Place of Lehi's Colony: From 
the Book of Mormon and the word of the Lord to the prophet Joseph 
Smith, it is learned that Lehi's Colony traveled from Jerusalem nearly a 
southeast direction until they came to the 19th degree north latitude; 
thence nearly east to the sea of Arabia. Here the colony built a ship 
in which to cross the great waters, which as yet separated them from the 
land of promise. They sailed in a southeasterly direction, and landed 
on the continent of South America in about 30 degrees south latitude. 

7. Conditions in Jerusalem at the Departure of Lehi's Colony: The 

story of Zedekiah's reign in Jerusalem, the conditions that obtained 
among the people, and the warnings which God sent by many proph- 
ets (Lehi among the rest) is thus told in II Chronicles, chapter xxxvi: 
"Zedekiah was one and twenty years old when he began to reign; and 
reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. And he did that which was evil in 
the sight of the Lord his God, and humbled not himself before Jeremiah 
the prophet, speaking from the mouth of the Lord. And he also re- 
belled against King Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him swear by 
God: but he stiffened his neck, and hardened his heart from turning unto 
the Lord God of Israel. Moreover, all the chief of the priests, and the 
people, transgressed very much, after all the abominations of the 
heathen, and polluted the house of the Lord which he had hallowed in 
Jerusalem. And the Lord God of their fathers sent to them by his mes- 
sengers, rising up betimes, and sending; because he had compassion 
on his people, and on his dwelling places: But they mocked the mes- 
sengers of God, and despised his words, and misused his prophets, untiJ 


the wrath of the Lord arose against his people, till there was no rem- 

8. Mulek's Colony: According to the Bible narrative of King Zed- 
ekiah's reign, when Jerusalem fell into the hands of the king of Baby- 
lon (588 B. C), King Zedekiah himself well nigh made his escape. For 
when the city was broken up, and all the men of war fled by night, by 
the way of the gate between two walls, which is by the king's garden, 
the king went the way toward the plain. But his flight being betrayed 
by an enemy among his own people, the army of the Chaldeans pursued 
Zedekiah early in the morning and overtook him in the plain near Jeri- 
cho. The king's army was scattered from him at the time he was cap- 
tured; for "those friends and captains of Zedekiah who had fled out of 
the city with him, when they saw their enemies near them, they left 
him, and dispersed themselves, some one way and some another, and 
every one resolved to save himself; so the enemy took Zedekiah alive, 
when he was deserted by all but a few, with his children and his wives." 
The unfortunate king was taken before the king of Babylon, whose 
headquarters were then at Riblah, in Syria, where "they gave judgment 
upon him." The sons of Zedekiah were slain in his presence; after 
which his eyes were put out; he was bound in fetters and carried tO' 
Babylon, where subsequently he died. But among the. king's friends- 
who escaped, were a number who carried with them one of Zedekiah's- 
sons, named Mulek; and according to the Book of Mormon, this com- 
pany "journeyed in the wilderness and were brought by the hand of the 
Lord across the great waters," into the western hemisphere. It is learned 
by an incidental remark in the Book of Mormon that the colony of Mu- 
lek landed somewhere in the north continent of the western hemisphere; 
and for that reason the north continent was called Mulek, by the Ne- 
phites; and the south continent, Lehi; and this for the reason that the 
Lord brought the colonies bearing these names to the north and south 
land respectively. 

9. The Government of the Jaredites: Of the nature of Jaredite gov- 
ernment little can be learned beyond the fact that after the election of 
the first king, Orihah, the hereditary principle was recognized; and al- 
though there were frequent contestants for the throne, and occasional 
usurpations of the kingly authority, the legitimate line of hereditary 
monarchs seems to have been reasonably well maintined. It appears not 
to have been part of the constitution of the government, however, that 
the rights of heredity in the royal house should descend to the eldest 
son. It frequently happened that the son born in the old ao-e of the 
reigning monarch succeeded to the kingly power, a course which perhao* 
accounts for the occasional rebellions of their brothers, though the right.t 
of the first born are never urged as the cause of the quarrels. 

10. The Nephite Kingdom: What the nature of this kingly gov- 
ernment was, what secondary officers existed in it, and what means were 
employed for the administration of its laws cannot be learned from the 
Nephite record. For some time the community over which the estab- 
lished government held sway was but a small one, hence the kingly of- 
fice had no such dignity as attaches to it in more extensive govern- 
ments; but was most likely akin to the petty kingdoms which existed in 
Judea at various times and with which Nephi and, some few of those 
who had accompanied him from Jerusalem were acquainted. The Ne- 
phites had the scriptures containing the. law of Moses, and were taught 
to some extent in some of the customs of the Jews, but not in all of 
them. And these customs, and the law of Moses administered with no 
very great amount of machinery, I apprehend constituted the character 


of the Nephite government. Under it the Nephites lived for a period 
of more than four hundred and fifty years. 

11. The Nephite Republic: The transition from a kingly form of 
government to what may be called a democracy was made at the death 
of Mosiah II; 509 years from the time Lehi left Jerusalem, or 91 years 
B. C. The Israelitish genius in matters of government inclines them to 
the acceptance of what men commonly call a theocracy, which is defined 
as meaning literally "a state governed in the name of God." The elec- 
tion of this form of government by Israelites as most desirable, grows 
out of the fact of the Mosaic legislation; for Moses received the law 
by which Israel was governed direct from Jehovah; its regulations were 
carried out in Jehovah's name by the administration of judges, both dur- 
ing the life time of Israel's great prophet and also after his demise. Liv- 
ing thus under the divine law, administered in the name of Jehovah by 
judges divinely appointed, was to be governed of God. 

12. Civilization and Government Among the Lamanites: The La- 
manites in respect of these matters should not be overlooked. It is 
true that they were idle; that they loved the wilderness and dwelt in 
tents ; that they depended upon the fruits of the chase and such pro- 
ducts of the earth as the rkh lands they occupied produced without the 
labor of man, as the principal means of their sustenance; still they came 
in contact now and then with Nephite civilization, which must have 
modified somewhat their inclination to utter barbarism. ***** 
That there was some system and regularity in Lamanite government 
must be apparent from the degree of efificiency to which it must have 
arisen in order to conduct the protracted wars with the Nephites. The 
largeness of their armies, the length of the wars, and the extensive scale 
on which they were projected, would indicate the existence of some 
strong, central government capable of making its authority respected. 
That such a government existed among the Lamanites is disclosed 
through the facts that are brought to light by the mission of the young 
Nephite princes, the sons of Mosiah II., in the century precedirig the 
birth of Messiah. It appears that at that time what I shall venture to 
call the Lamanite Empire was divided into a number of petty kingdoms 
whose kings, as it always the case among semi-civilized peoples, were 
possessed of great and arbitrary power; but these in turn seem to have 
been subject to a central ruler whose dominion extended over all, and 
whose power in his lareer sphere was as absolute as that of the petty 
kings in the smaller states. 






I. Civilization in Ancient America. ^^^ o^ Mormon. Book 

T 1- T- 1 AT r of Ether. 

1. Jaredite, Extent and Nature of. 

2. Nephite, Character of. 

3. Lamanite Civilization, Extent and 
Character of. 

II Religion Among the Ancient Nations ,J- ^- ^- i- a. Manual 

° . . ° (No. 7), Chap. xm. 

Of America. Notes 1, 2, 3. 

1. Among the Jaredites. 

2. The Nephites. 

3. The People of Zarahemla. 

4. The Lamanites. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "Fools mock, but they shall mourn; and my grace is 
sufficient for the meek. * * * * /ind if men will come unto me I will 
shozv unto them their weaknesses. I give unto men weaknesses that they may 
be humble ; and my grace is sufficient for all men that humble themselves be- 
fore me." — The Lord to Moroni. 


1. Religion of the Jaredites: "Relative to the religion that obtained 
among the Jaredites, we are left in well nigh as much ignorance as we 
are concerning the nature of the subordinate features of their govern- 
ment. The two brothers, Moriancumr and Jared, seem to have been 
among the righteous people of Babel; so much so in fact that Mori- 
ancumr was a very great prophet of God, and had direct access to the 
source of revelation; * * * * j^e so far prevailed with God through 
faith that he beheld him face to face, and talked with him as a man 
speaks with his friend. That is, he saw and talked with the pre-existent 
spirit of the Lord Jesus. ***** Moriancumr was commanded, 
however, not to suffer the things he had seen and heard to go into the 
world until the Lord Jesus should have lived in the flesh. He was com- 
manded to write what he had both seen and heard, and seal it 
up that it might be preserved to come forth in due time to the children 
of men. While Moriancumr was prohibited from making known to his 
people the great things thus revealed to him, his knowledge of the things 


of God must have given him wonderful power and influence in teaching 
his people the righteous truths which are fundamental and universal. 
* * * * The fifth monarch, Emer, possessed such faith that he, 
like Moriancumr, had the blessed privilege of seeing "the Son of Right- 
eousness, and did rejoice and glory in his day." And of the whole peo- 
ple it is said, "never could [there] be a people more blessed than were 
they, and more prospered by the hand of the Lord." All of which is 
good evidence that the Jaredites at this time (in the reign of Lib, the 
sixteenth monarch) were a righteous people; and this righteousness was 
doubtless brought about by the preaching of faith in God and his laws 
as only Moriancumr and other prophets whom God raised up to the Jar- 
edite nation could preach it. 

2. The Religion of the Nephites: Religion among the Nephites con- 
sisted in the worship of the true and living God, the Jehovah of the 
Jews, whose revelations to the children of Israel through ]\Ioses and all 
the prophets to* Jeremiah were brought with them into the new world. 
They therefore acepted into their faith all the Bible truths, and in its 
historical parts they had before them the valuable lessons which Bible 
history teaches. They looked forward also to the coming of Messiah, 
through Prophecy; and when he finally came and taught the gospel in its 
fulness they accepted it and thus became Christians. 

3. Religion of the Lamanites: The religion of Lamanites is more 
difficult to determine than their government. It is chiefly the absence 
of religion and of its influence that must be spoken of. Taught to be- 
lieve that the traditions of their fathers respecting God, the promised 
Messiah, and the belief in a future life were untrue; persuaded to be- 
lieve that their fathers had been induced to leave fatherland, and their 
rich possessions therein because of the dreams of the visionary Lehi; 
firm in their conviction that the elder sons of Lehi had been defrauded 
of their right to govern the colony by the younger son, Nephi, and that 
through the force of the religious influence he learned to wield by fol- 
lowing the spiritual example (to them, perhaps, the trickery) of his 
father — it was in the spirit of hatred of religion that the Lamanites 
waged wars upon the Nephites, to subvert religion and free men from 
its influence. But the Lamanites were true to human instincts. They 
freed themselves, as they supposed, from one superstition, only to plunge 
into others that were really contemptible — the superstition of idolatry; 
for they were an idolatrous people. This remark, however, must be un- 
derstood in a general sense, and as applying to the Lamanites proper 
previous to the coming of Messiah — of the followers, and the descend- 
ants of the followers, of the elder brothers of the first Nephi, La- 
man and Lemuel. After the coming of Messiah, when in the third 
century, A. D., the old distinctions of Nephite and Lamanite were re- 
vived, after the long period of peace and righteousness following the 
advent of Christ, they had no reference to race or family distinctions, 
as they had when first employed; but were strictly party distinctions; 
used, when adopted again in the period named, to indicate the Church or 
religious party, and the anti-religious party, respectively. 

4. The Priesthood of the Nephites: In order to oflfer sacrifices and 
administer in the other ordinances of the law of Moses (which the Ne- 
phites were commanded to observe), it was necessary, of course, that 
they have a priesthood, and this they had; but not the priesthood after 
the order of Aaron; for that was a priesthood that could only properly 
be held by Aaron's family and the tribe of Levi; while Lehi was of the 
tribe of Manasseh. Lehi held the priesthood, however, the higher priest- 
hood, which was after the order of Melchisedek, and was a prophet and 
mainister of righteousness. This he conferred upon his son Nephi, and 


Nephi shortly after his separation from his elder brothers on the land 
of promise, consecrated his two vO""&er brothers, Jacob and Joseph, to 
be priests and teachers unto his people. Jacob, when explaining his call- 
ing to his brethren, states that he had been called of God, "and ordained 
after the manner of his holy order." What thesignificance of the phrase 
"his holy order" means, is learned very distinctlj'' from other parts of the 
Book of Mormon. Alma, for instance, before giving up the chief judge- 
ship of the land, is represented as confining himself "wholly to the holy 
priesthood of the holy order of God, to the testimony of the word, ac- 
cording to the spirit of revelation and prophecy." Again Alma explains, 
"I am called * * * * according to the holy order of God, which is 
in Christ esus, yea, I am command edto stand and testify unto this peo- 
ple." All of which is made still clearer by what Alma says later. Hav- 
ing given an explanation of the plan of redemption which was laid for 
man's salvation, and which he represents as having been understood 
from earliest times, he adds: "I would that ye should remember that the 
Lord God ordained priests after his holy order, which was after the or- 
der of his Son (meaning Jesus Christ), to teach these things unto the 
people. * * * * This holy priesthood being after the order of his 
Son, which order was from the foundation of the world, or in other 
words, being without beginning of days or end of years, being prepared 
from eternitv to all eternity. * * * * Thus they become the high 
priests forever after the order of the Son. the only begotten of the 
Father, who is full of grace, equity and truth." Alma then admonishes 
his people to be humle "even as the people in the daj's of Melchisedek, 
who was also a high priest after the same order (of which he had 
spoken). * * * * And he was the same Melchisedek to whom Abra- 
ham paid tithes." The Nephite priesthood, then, was not a priesthood 
after Aaron's order, but of a higher order, even the priesthood after the 
order of the Son of God; the same kind of priesthood held by Melchise- 
dek, by Moses, by Lehi, and many other prophets in Israel. That this 
higher priesthood was competent to act in administering the ordinances 
under what is known as the law of Moses is evident from the fact that 
it so administered before the Aaronic or Levitical priesthood proper was 
given; and the fact that there was given the household of Aaron and 
the tribe of Levi a special priesthood, by no means detracts from the 
right and power of the higher or Melchisedek priesthood to officiate in 
the ordinances of the law of Moses; for certainly the higher order of 
priesthood mav officiate in the functions of the lower, when necessity re- 
quires it. All the sacrifices and ordinances under the law of Moses, ad- 
ministered by the Nephite priesthood, I say again, were observed with 
due appreciation of the fact that they were of virtue only as they shad- 
owed forth the things to be done by Messiah when he should come to 
earth, in the flesh, on his great mission of atonement." (Y. M. M. I. A. 
Manuals, 1903-5, pp. 137-8.) 



OF MORMON. (Continued.) 


I. The Value of the Book of Mormon. 

1. As a Witness to the Authenticity 

and Credibility of the Bible. 

(a) Of Parts of the Old Testa- 

(b) Of Parts of the New Testa- 

(c) Of the Whole Gospel Story. 

2. As Contributing Larger Views of 
the Justice and Mercy of God in 
His Hand-Dealings with the Hu- 
man Race in Respect of Revela- 

(a) With the Ancient Americans 
— Jaredites and Nephites. • 

(b) With the Gentiles. 

(c) With All Nations and Races 
of Men. 

SPECIAL TEXT ; "I ought not to harrow up in my desires the firm 
decree of a just God, for I know that he granteth unto men according to their 
desires, whether it be unto death or unto life ; yea, I know that he alloteth unto 
men, according to their wills; whether they be unto salvation or unto de- 
struction." — Alma. 


Y. M. M. I. A. Manual 
(No. 7), Chap. ii. 

The Gospel, Chap, vli 
and viii. 

I Nephl, v: 10-16, and 
Comments Y. M. M. I. A. 
Manual (No. 7), pp. 14, 15. 

II Nephi, xxix. Alma, 
xxix: 1-8. See also ''De- 
fence of the Faith and 
the Saints" Art. Revela- 
tion and Inspiration, also 


1. The Witness of the Western Hemisphere: A writer (Rev. John 
Watson — "Ian Maclaren") held much in esteem by the orthodox Chris- 
tian world — and deservedly so — in a noble work, "The Life of the Master," 
issued from the press, 1901, said: 


"Were a parchment discovered in an Egyptian mound, six inches 
square, containing fifty words which were certainly spoken by Jesus, this 
utterance would count more than all the books which have been published 
since the first century. If a veritable picture of the Lord could be un- 
earthed from a catacomb, and the world could see with its own eyes 
what like he was, it would not matter that its colors were faded, and 
that it was roughly drawn, that picture would have at once a solitary 
.place amid the treasures of art." 

If this be true, and I think no one will or can question it, then how 
valuable indeed must be this whole volume of scripture, the Book of 
Mormon! Containing not fifty, but many hundred works spoken by 
Jesus! Containing also an account of the hand dealings of God with the 
people inhabiting the western hemisphere, from earliest times to the 
fourth century after Christ. Wherein also are found his revelations to 
those peoples; his messages by angels sent directly from his presence to 
declare his word to them; his instructions, admonitions, reproofs, and 
warnings to them through men inspired by his holy spirit; and last of 
all, the account of Messiah's appearance and ministry among the peo- 
ple, his very words repeated, and, in some instances, rightly divided 
for us, that we may the better understand what of his teaching is gen- 
eral, and what special; what universal and permanent, and what local 
and transcient. How insignificant all the discoveries in Egypt, in an- 
cient Babylon, Palestine, and the Sinaitic Peninsula are in comparison 
with this New Witness of the western world! How paltry, valuable 
though they are in themselves, seem the Rosetta Stone, the Moabite 
Stone and the ilbrary of brick tablets from old Nineveh, in comparison 
with this Nephite record — this volume of scripture! How feeble the 
voice of the testimony of those monuments of the East to the authen- 
ticity and credibility of the Bible and the truth of the gospel, in compari- 
son with the testimony found in the Book of Mormon — the voice of 
departed nations and empires of people speaking through their records 
for the truth of God — for the verity of the gospel of Jesus Christ — a 
voice sufficient to overwhelm unbelief and forever make sure the found- 
ations of faith! It was mainly for this purpose that the Nephite records 
were written, preserved, and finally brought forth to the world. (Y. M. 
M. I. A. Manual, No. 7, p. 21.) 

2. The Hand Dealings of God with All Men in Relation to Revela- 
tion: The following appears in the Book of Mormon, with reference to 
God's course in making known his mind and will to the children of men: 

"I Cthe Lord) command all men, both in the east and in the west, 
and in the north, and in the south, and in the islands of the sea, that they 
shall write the words which I speak unto them; for out of the books 
which shall be writen I will judge the world, every man according to 
his works, according to that which is written. "For behold. I will speak 
unto the Jews, and they shall write it ; and I will also speak 
unto the Nephites, and they shall write it; and I will also speak unto 
the othre tribes of the house of Israel, which I have led away, and they 
shall write it: and I will also speak unto all nations of the earth, and 
they shall write it." 


Then the Lord proceeds to tell how in the dispensation of the ful- 
ness of times he will bring together and unite in testimony the words 
that he has spoken to these various peoples and nations. 

Again, it is writen in the same book: 

"Behold, the Lord doth grant unto all nations, of their own nation 
and tongue, to teach his word; yea, in wisdom, all that he seeth fit that, 
they should have; therefore we see that the Lord doth counsel in wis- 
dom, according to that which is just and true." 

This is the "Mormon" theory of God's revelation to the children of 
men. While the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is estab- 
lished for the instruction of men; and is one of God's instrumentalities 
for making known the truth, yet he is not limited to that instituion for 
such purposes, neither in time nor place. God raises up wise men and 
prophets here and there among all the children of men, of their own 
tongue and nationality, speaking to them through means that they can 
comprehend; not always giving a fulness of truth such as may be found 
ii the fulness of the gospel of Jesus Christ; but always giving that 
measure of truth that the people are prepared to receive. "Mormon- 
ism" holds, then, that all the great teachers among all nations and in 
all ages, are servants of God. They are inspired men, appointed to instruct 
God's children according to the conditions in the midst of which he finds 
them. Hence it is not obnoxious to "Mormonism" to regard Confucius, 
the great Chinese philosopher and moralist, as a servant of God, in- 
spired to a certain degree by him to teach those great moral maxims 
which have governed those millions of God's children for lo! these 
many centuries. It is willing to regard Gautama, Buddha as an inspired 
servant of God, teaching a measure of the truth, at least giving to these 
people that twiligh of truth by which they may somewhat see their way. 
So with the Arabian prophet, that wild spirit that turned the Arabians 
from worshiping idols to a conception of the Creator of heaven and 
earth that was more excellent than their previous conception of Deity. 
And so the sages of Greece and of Rome. So the reformers of early 
Protestant times. Wherever God finds a soul sufficiently enlightened 
and pure; one with whom his Spirit can communicate, he makes of 
him a teacher of men. While the path of sensuality and darkness may 
be that which most men tread, a few, to paraphrase the words of a moral 
philosopher of high standing, have been led along the upward path; a 
few in all countries and generations have been wisdom seekers, or seek- 
ers of God. They have been so because the Divine Word of Wisdom 
has looked upon them, choosing them for the knowledge and service of 
himself. (Defense of the Faith and the Saints, Art. "Revelation and In- 

3. The Book of Mormon Ensemble a Witness for the Truth of the 
Hebrew and Christian Revelation: It is, however, the Book of Mormon 
as a whole in which its greatest value as a witness for the truth of the 


Bible, and the truth of the gospel of Jesus Christ, most appears. I mean 
the Book of Mormon apart from its reference to an abridgement of the 
ancient record of the Jaredites; and the transcriptions from the ancient 
record on brass plates carried by Lehi's colony to the western world. 
In the Book of Mormon so considered we have the record of the hand- 
dealings of God with the peoples that inhabited the western hemisphere. 
We have in it the record of those things which occurred in a branch of 
the house of Israel that God was preparing for the same great event for 
which he was training the house of Israel in the eastern world, viz., the 
advent of the Messiah, and the acceptance of the gospel through which 
all mankind are to be saved. This branch of the house of Israel, brok- 
en from the parent tree and planted in the western hemisphere, brought 
with them the traditions and hopes of Israel; they brought with them 
as we have already seen, the scriptures, the writings of Moses and the proph- 
ets down to the reign of Zedekiah, king of Judah ; but what is more im- 
portant than all this they came to the western world with the favor and 
blessing of Israel's God upon them, and Israel's peculiar privilege of di- 
rect communication with God through inspired dreams, the visitation of 
angels, and the voice of God. Lehi's colony was led to the western 
world by prophets, inspired of the Lord, their journey being marked by 
many and peculiar manifestations of his presence among them. After 
their arrival in the western world, to them a land of promise, the Lord 
from time to time raised up prophets among them, who instructed them 
in the ways of the Lord; who reproved them when overtaken in trans- 
gression; who announced judgements against them when persuasion 
was of no avail for their correction; who warned them by the spirit of 
prophecy of approaching disasters; and who held continually before 
them *he hope of Israel, the advent of the Messiah, who, by his suffer- 
ing and death on the cross, would redeem mankind. 

It was much in this manner and for the same purpose that God 
dealt with his people in the eastern world; and the fact that his course 
with the people on the western hemisphere was substantially the same 
as that followed with those of the East, establishes at once his justice 
and mercy towards his children, and bears testimony to the great truths 
that indeed God is no respecter of persons, and that in every land he 
raises up for himself witnesses of his power and goodness. 



OF MORMON. (Continued.) 

Book of Either, Chap, 
iii. Ill Nephi— the whole 
book. (a). 


I. The Value of the Book of Mormon 

1. As Giving a Supplementary and 
a Very Definite Revelation of 
Jesus Christ. 

(a) To the Brother of Jared. 

(b) To the Nephites. 

2. As Revealing Very Great and Im- 
portant Doctrines, (b) 

(a) The Reason for Man's Fall. 

(b) The Purpose of Man's Exis- 

(c) The True Immortality of 

(d) The Agency of Man. 

(e) The Antiquity of the Gospel, 
(g) The Necessity of — Opposite 


SPECIAL TEXT ; "Do not supfyosc, because it has been spoken con- 
cei^ning restoration, that ye shall be restored from sin to happiness [ivhile 
remaining in sin]. Behold I say unto you, wickedness never was happiness." 

Y. M. M. I. A. Manual 
(No. 9), chap. vii. The 
whole chapter is devoted 
to Book of Mormon Doc- 
trines. II Nephi, ii. Alma, 
xli, vlli. 

(a) This book has been called the "Fifth Gospel," and deservedly 
so, though he who first used the term tried to disprove its claims. It 
richly deserves the title, however. Also it has been called the "Ameri- 
can Gospel," see Defense of the Faith and the Saints, Art. "The Fifth 

(b) The references under this subdivision, and the notes of this les- 
son are not intended to be considered as doctrines to be mastered here. 
The references and notes are given just to be read with a view to 
fixing in the mind of the student the fact that the Book of Mormon 
deals with these important subjects and is of value for that reason. The 
class is not dealing with doctrine now but with the Book of Mormon as 
Nephite literature; hence teachers will not allow their class to linger over 
these very attractive subjects, now. 



1. The Book of Mormon Doctrine of the Fall of Adam: Here, then, 
stands the truth so far as it may be gathered from God's word and the 
nature of things: Tliere is in man an eternal, uncreated, self-existing en- 
tity, call it "intelligence," "mind," "spirit," "soul" — what you will, so 
long as you recognize it, and regard its nature as eternal. There came 
a time when in the progress of things, (which is only another way of 
saying in the "nature of things") an earth-career, or earth existence, 
because of the things it has to teach, was necessary to the enlargement, 
to the advancement of these "intelligences," these "spirits," "souls." 
Hence an earth is prepared; and one sufficiently advanced and able, by 
the nature of him to bring to pass the event, is chosen, through whom 
this earth-existence * * * * may be brought to pass. He comes to 
earth with his appointed spouse. He comes primarily to bring to pass 
man's earth-life. He comes to the earth with the solemn injunction 
upon him: "Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth, and sub- 
due it." But he comes with the knowledge that this earth-existence 
of eternal "Intelligences" is to be lived under circumstances that will 
contribute to their enlargement, to their advancement. They are to ex- 
perience joy and sorrow, pain and pleasure; witness the eflfect of good 
and evil, and exercise their agency in the choice of good or of evil. To 
accomplish this end, the local or earth harmony of things must be 
broken. Evil to be seen, and experienced, must enter the world, which 
can only come to pass through the vocation of law. The law is given — 
"of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: 
for in the day thou eatest of it thou shalt surely die." The woman, for- 
getful of the purpose of the earth mission of herself and spouse is led 
by flattery and deceit into a violation of that law, and becomes subject 
to its penalty — merely another name for its eflfect. But the man, not 
deceived, but discerning clearly the path of duty, and in order that earth 
existence may be provided for the great host of "spirits" to come to earth 
under the conditions prescribed — he also transgresses the law, not only 
that men might be, but that they might have that being under the very 
circumstances deemed essential to the enlargement, to the progress of 
eternal Intelligences. Adam did not sin because deceived by another. 
He did not sin maliciously, or with evil intent; or to gratify an inclina- 
tion to rebellion against God, or to thwart the Divine purposes, or to 
manifest his own pride. Had his act of sin involved the taking of life 
rather than eating a forbidden fruit, it would be regarded as a "sacri- 
fice" rather than a "murder." This to show the nature of Adam's trans- 
gression. It was a transgression of the law — "for sin is the transgres- 
sion of the law" — that conditions deemed necessary to the progress of 
eternal Intelligences might obtain. Adam sinned that men might be, 
and not only "be," but have that existence under conditions essential 
to progress. 


2. Book of Mormon Doctrine of the Atonement: The atonement, 
its effects and operation, is dealt with at length in II Nephi ii, and in 
Alma xli and xlii. According to the doctrine there set down the effect 
of Adam's transgression was to destroy the harmony of the world. Man 
as a consequence of his fall was banished from the presence of God, and 
made subject also to a temporal death — the separation of the spirit and 
body — which conditions would have remained eternally fixed, the na- 
ture of inexorable law — "called the justice of God" — admitting of noth- 
ing less. But this was justice untempered by mercy: "And thus we see 
that all mankind were fallen, and they were in the grasp of justice; yea, 
the justice of God, which consigned them forever to be cut off from 
his presence." But mercy must in some way be made to reach man, and 
that without destroying justice: "And now the plan of mercy could not 
be brought about, except an atonement should be made ; therefore God 
himself atoneth for the sins of the world, to bring about the plan of 
mercy, to appease the demands of justice, that God might be a perfect, 
just God, and a merciful God also." (Alma xlii: 14.) The atonement 
brings to pass "the resurrection of the dead; and the resurrection of the 
dead bringeth back men into the presence of God." In other words, the 
atonement redeems men from the effects of Adam's moral transgression; 
and also brings the element of mercy into God's moral economy re- 
specting man's earth-life. That is to say, the atonement frees man 
from the consequences of Adam's transgression; leaves him free to 
choose good or evil — both of which are in the world — as he shall elect; 
but he is responsible for the consequences of that individual choice, 
which is only another way of saying that man is responsible for his own 
sins. Still under the operation of Mercy, which has been brought into 
this world's moral economy through the atonement of Christ, man may 
obtain forgiveness of sin through repentance; for "mercy claimeth the 
penitent." "A law is given, and a punishment affixed," but "a repen- 
tance [is] granted; which repentance mercy claimeth; otherwise justice 
claimeth the creature, and executeth the law, and the law inflicteth the 
punishment." (Alma xlii: 23.) (Y. M. Manual, No. 9, chap, vii.) 

3. The Book of Mormon Doctrine of Opposite Existences: Of this 
same class of ideas is what I shall call the Book of Mormon doctrine 
of "opposite existences," what the scholastics would call "antinomies." 
Be not disheartened at this statement of the subject; the Book of Mor- 
mon presentation of it will be much simpler; that simplicity in fact is 
part of its originality, an evidence of its being inspired. The statement 
of the doctrine in question occurs in a discourse of Lehi's on the 
subject of the atonement. The aged prophet represents happiness or 
misery as growing out of the acceptance or rejection of the atonement 
of the Christ, and adds that the misery consequent upon its rejection is 
in opposition to the happiness which is affixed to its acceptance: "For 
it must needs be," he continues, "that there is an opposition in all things. 
If [it were] not so * * * * righteousness could not be brought to 


pass; neither wickedness; neither holiness nor misery; neither good nor 
bad. Wherefore [that is, if this fact of opposites did not exist], all 
things must needs be a compound in one; wherefore, if it [the sum of 
things] should be one body, it must needs remain as dead, having no 
life neither death, nor corruption nor incorruption, happiness nor misery, 
neither sense nor insensibility. Wherefore, it must needs have been created 
for a thing of naught; wherefore there would have been no 
purpose in the end of its creation. Wherefore this thing [i. e. the absence 
of opposite existences which Lehi is supposing] must needs destroy the 
wisdom of God, and his eternal purposes; and also the power, and the 
mercy, and the justice of God." This may be regarded as a 
very bold setting forth of the doctrine of antinomies, and yet I think 
the logic of it, and the inevitableness of the conclusion unassailable. 
* * « * * ^s there can be no good without the antinomy of evil, 
so there can be no evil without its antinomy, or antithesis — good. The 
existence of one implies the existence of the other; and, conversely, the 
non-existence of the later would imply the non-existence of the former. 
It is from this basis that Lehi reached the conclusion that either his doc- 
trine of antinomies, or the existence of opposites, is true, or else there 
are no existences. That is to say — to use his own words — "If ye shall 
say there is no law, ye shall also say there is no sin. If ye shall say there is 
no sin, ye shall also say there is no righteousness. And if there be no right- 
eousness, there be no happiness. And if there be no righteouness nor happi- 
ness, there be no pvmishment nor misery. And if these things are not, there 
is no God, and if there is no God, we are not, neither the earth ; for there 
could have been no creation of things, neither to act nor to be acted 
upon: wherefore, all things must have vanished away." 

But as things have not vanished away, as there are real existences, 
the whole series of things for which he contends are verities. "For there 
is a God," he declares, "and he hath created all things, both the heavens 
and the earth, and all things that in them are: both things to act, and 
things to be acted upon." (II Nephi ii. For a larger treatment of the 
theme see Y. M. M. I. A. Manual, No. 9, chap, xxxix.) 





I. The Conditions on Which the Gen- xiv.^chSp. ""ixii^'^" ^*'*^* 
tile Races May Continue Their n Nephi, chap, i, and 
Freedom and Prosperity in the chap. x. 

- . ^^ T i r ry- III Nephi, XXI. Book of 

Americas — the L-and OI ZlOn. Ether, Chap. ii. "Defense 

1. The Land of America a Choice li^^Z^ ^^^h ar>d^the 
and Promised Land. views of America. 

2. The Inheritance Rig"hts of the 
Gentiles in the Land of Zion. 

3. The Decrees of God Concerning 
the Land of Zion. 

II. Meet the Charge of Mormon Disloy- 
alty from Book of Mormon Prem- 

SPECIAL TEXT; "Righteousness exalteth a nation, hut sin is a re- 
proach to any people. — Solomon. 


1. Extempore Speech: We are again arrived at our exercise which 
requires extemporaneous speaking — the method enjoined upon us by the 
word of the Lord. For he says "neither take ye thought before hand 
what ye shall say" — he adds in the very same paragraph, however — "treasure 
up in j'our mind continually the words of life, and it shall be given you in the 
very hour that portion which shall be meted to every man." (Doc. & 
Cov. Sec. Ixxxiv: 85). If this counsel is followed the teaching ministry 
of the church (as it does) will employ the method of extempore speech. 
iUit that method does not mean that materials shall not be gathered 
from the fields of knowledge, and hived with the studious years, to be 
used "in the very hour" that one has need to use it. Extempore speech 
does not mean speech without thought, without knowledge, of the mat- 
ter to be presented. It may even be said that it requires more thorough 
knowledge of a subject than the written method or the memorized meth- 
od of speech. Extemporaneous speech to be successful must be speech 


from a fullness of knowledge of the subject. And as connected with the 
teaching of the Gospel must be speech arising out of having "treasured 
Up continually the words of life." The true extemporaneous method of 
speech is not the lazy man's method, on the contrary it requires that 
those who follow it, shall have their knowledge of things most care- 
fully digested, and their intellectual powers most carefully trained. 

2. St. Augustine's Advice to the Preacher: Comparing the advan- 
tages of extempore speech with other forms, Mr. Pittenger, in his work 
aready quoted several times, relates the following of the great Chris- 
tian teacher of the sixth century: 

"Augustine, the great Christian writer and preacher, has not left us 
in ignorance as to which mode of address he preferred. He enjoins the 
"Christian teacher" to make his hearers comprehend what he says — "to 
read in the eyes and countenances of his auditors whether they under- 
stand him or not, and to repeat the same thing, by giving it different 
terms, until he perceives it is understood, an advantage those cannot 
have who, by a servile dependence upon their inemories, learn their 
sermons by heart and repeat them as so many lessons. Let not the 
preacher," he continues, "become the servant of words; rather let words 
be servants to the preacher." (Extempore Speech, p. 34-5.) 

3. W. E. Gladstone on Methods of Preparation: Mr. Pittenger, our 
author above quoted, asked the late Mr. W. E. Gladstone for a state- 
ment of his method of preparation for public speaking, and in a very 
courteous letter that gentleman replied, from which I quote the follow- 
ing, which is all he says on the subject of preparation: 

"I venture to remark, first, that your countrymen, so far as a very 
limited intercourse and experience can enable me to judge, stand very 
little in need of instruction or advice as to public speaking from this side 
of the water. * * * * Suppose, however, I was to make the attempt, 
I should certainly found myself mainly on a double basis, compounded 
as follows : First, of a wide and thorough general education, which I 
think gives a suppleness and readiness as well as firmness of tissue to 
the mind not easily to be had without this form of discipline. Second, 
of the habit of constant and searching reflection on the subject of any 
proposed discourse. Such reflection will naturally clothe itself in words, 
and of the phrases it supplies many will spontaneously rise to the lips. I 
will not say that no other forms of preparation can be useful, but I 
know little of them, and it is on those, beyond all doubt, that I should 
advise the young principally to rely." (Extempore Speech, p. 42.) 


The Modern Scriptures. — (A) The Book of 

Doctrine and Covenants. — (B) The Pearl of 

Great Price. 





I. The First of Direct Modem Revela- ^.^^^.'^^^ °f the church 

T , _ . , , T^. ,y. Vol 1, Chap. 1. Pearl of 

tions — Joseph Smith S r irst Vis- Great Price, pp. 81-7. 

• Note 1. Preface of Book 

^On. of Commandments. His- 

11. The First Compilation of Modern '^^^^Mt'^^^lItiJ^ 
Revelations— The "Book of Com- 2to. New witness fo-r 

, ,. God, Cha,p. x. Note 2 and 

mandments. 3. 

III. The Book of Doctrine and Cove- 

1. History of the Book. History of the Cliurch, 
^ ^1 "I r .Li TD 1 -4. r- ^oJ 11> Chap, xvili. Y. M. 

2. Character of the Book, its Com- m. i. Manual (Not lo). 
position. PP- 21-2^- 

3. Testimonies respecting it. 

SPECIAL TEXT; Behold, I am God and have spoken it; these com- 
mandments are of me, and were given unto my servants in their weakness, 
after the manner of their language, that they might come to understanding. 
And inasmuch as they erred it might be made known: and inasmuch as they 
sought zvlsdom they might be instructed ; and inasmuch as they sinned they 
might be chastened, that they might repent; and inasmuch as they were hum- 
ble they might be made strong, and blessed from on high, and receive knowl- 
edge from time to time." — The Lord to Joseph Smith. 

(a) The reading should now be from the Doctrine and Covenants, 
and so continued through the lessons dealing with that book. 


1. The Far-reaching Effect of the First Direct Revelation 
(Called Joseph Smith's First Vision) in Modern Times: How little 
that fair-haired boy, standing there in the unpruned forest, with the 
sunlight stealing therough the trees about him, realized the burden 
placed upon his shoulders that morning by reason of the visitation 
lie received in answer to his prayer! Here is not the place for argu- 
ment, that is to come later; but let us consider the wide-sweeping 
effect of this boy's vision upon the accepted theology of Christen- 
dom. First, it was a fiat contradiction to the assumption that revela- 
tion had ceased, that God had no further communication to make to 
man. Second, it reveals the errors into which men had fallen concerning 
the personages of the Godhead. It makes it manifest that God is not an 
incorporeal being without form or body, or parts; on the contrary he 
appeared to the Prophet in the form of a man, as he did to the ancient 
prophets. Thus after centuries of controversy the simple truth of the 
scriptures which teach that man was created in the likeness of God — 
hence God must be the same in form as man — was re-affirmed; Third, 
it corrected the error of the theologians respecting the oneness of the 
persons of the Father and the Son. Instead of being one person as the 
theologians teach, they are distinct persons, as much so as any father and 
son on earth; and the oneness of the Godhead referred to in the scrip- 
tures, must have reference to unity of purpose and of will; the mind of 
the one being the mind of the other, and so as to the will and other at- 
tributes. The announcement of these truths, coupled with that other 
truth proclaimed by the Son of God, viz., that none of the sects and 
churches of Christendom were acknowledged as the church or kingdom 
of God, furnish the elements for a religious revolution that will affect 
the very foundations of modern Christian theology. In a moment all the 
rubbish concerning theology which had accumulated through all the 
centuries since the gospel and authority to administer its ordinances 
had been taken from the earth, was grandly swept aside — the living rocks 
of truth were made bare upon which the Church of Christ was to be 
founded — a New Dispensation of the gospel was about to be committed 
to the earth — God had raised up a witness for himself among the chil- 
dren of men. (New Witness for God, Vol. I, pp. 173-4.) 

2. The Book of Commandments: By the middle of September, 1831, 
the revelations which had been received by the Prophet for the direc- 
tion of individuals and the Church had amounted to quite a number; and 
as the Church about that time assembled in Conference at Hiram, 
Portage County, Ohio, and authorized W. W. Phelps to purchase a print- 
ing press to be set up at Independence, Missouri, it was resolved to make 
a collection of these revelations and publish them in book form under 
the title "The Book of Commandments." A special conference was held 


on this business on the first of November, at Hiram, on which occasion 
the "Lord's Preface" to the Book of Commandments was received by- 
revelation through the Prophet. This is now the Lord's Preface to the 
Book of Doctrine and Covenants, and stands as section 1.) The 
Prophet asked the conference what testimony they were willing to at- 
tach to this "Book of Commandments," which would shortly be sent to 
the world. A number of the brethren arose and said that they were will- 
ing to testify to the world that they knew that the revelations were of the 
Lord, and on the succeeding day — for the conference continued through 
two days — the brethren arose in turn and bore witness of the truth of 
the Book of Commandments. (History of the Church, Vol. I, p. 222, 
note.) The Prophet also received by inspiration the formal testimony 
which it was the intention evidently to have the brethren in attendance 
at the conference sign, (see note 3), but as the book was never com- 
pletely printed, this testimony was not published, and its publication 
seems to have been neglected in subsequent collections and publications 
of the revelations. It was also resolved by the conference that the 
number of copies in the first edition to be printed at Independence, Mis- 
souri, should be 10,000, but finally in 1832, when the printing was begun, 
it was considered prudent only to print an edition of 3,000. (Church His- 
tory, Vol. I, p. 270.) The work of printing began and was continued 
until 160 pages had been printed, when, on the 20th day of July, 1833, 
mob violence broke out at Independence, the house of W. W. Phelps, 
which contained the printing establishment, was thrown down and the 
printing materials taken possession of by the mob. Many papers were 
destroyed, and the family furniture thrown out of doors. A number of 
copies of the Book of Commandments, however, so far as printed, was 
saved by members of the Church, and one of these coming into the 
possession of the late President Wilford Woodruff, he deposited it with 
the Church Historian, in whose possession it now is, and accounted as 
among the precious documents of the collection of rare books and manu- 
scripts in the Historian's office. 

3. The Testimony to the Truth of the Book of Commandments: 
"The testimony of the witnesses to the book of the Lord's command- 
ments, which he gave to his Church through Joseph Smith, Jun., who 
was appointed by the voice of the Church for this purpose; we therefore 
feel willing to bear testimony to all the world of mankind, to every 
creature upon the face of all the earth and upon the islands of the sea, 
that the Lord has borne record to our souls through the Holy Ghost, 
shed forth upon us, that these commandments were given by inspiration 
of God, and are profitable for all men, and are verily true. We give 
this testimony unto the world, the Lord being our helper; and it is 
through the grace of God, the Father, and his Son, Jesus Christ, that 
we are permitted to have this privilege of bearing this testimony unto 
the world, that the children of men may be profited thereby." (History 
of the Church, Vol. I, p. 226.) 

4. The Doctrine and Covenants: Having been hindered by their 
enemies from completing the publication of the "Book of Command- 


ments," the Church renewed its efforts to publish the revelations in Kirt- 
land, Ohio. In September, 1834, a committee on compilation and ar- 
rangement was appointed consisting of Joseph Smith, the Prophet, 
Oliver Cowdery, Sidnej' Rigdon and Frederick G. Williams. About one 
year later this committee completed its labors, and on the 17th of August, 
1835, a general assembly of the Church convened in Kirtland, the quor- 
ums of the priesthood were arranged in the order of their standing as 
then understood. President Joseph Smith and Frederick G. Williams 
were absent in Michigan, and the Twelve were absent in the East, vis- 
iting the churches. The "Doctrine and Covenants" was presented to 
the quorums separately for their acceptance, and voted upon by them; 
after which it was presented to and accepted by the general assembly 
by unanimous vote as the "Doctrine and Covenants" of their faith. 

After this action, W. W. Phelps presented an article (not a revela- 
tion) on "Marriage," and Oliver Cowdery one on "Government and Laws 
in General," both of which were ordered printed in the book of "Doc- 
trine and Covenants." There was also printed in the book a series of 
Seven Lectures on Faith, that had previously, been delivered before a the- 
ological class in Kirtland. So that the Doctrine and Covenants then 
comprised the Articles of Faith, seven in number, the two Articles on 
Marriage and Government 'and a collection of Revelations, (not all that 
had been given, by the way,) the last forming the body and greater part 
of the book. (See History of the Church, Vol. II, chapter xviii.) 

5. In What Light the Various Parts of the Doctrine and Cove- 
nants are to be Regarded: It is only the Revelations of God that are 
to be regarded as setting forth the absolute truth, the final word, so far 
as it is written, as the doctrine and the covenants of the Church. Hence 
the parts of the "Doctrine and Covenants" that are not revelations are 
not of the same rank with the revelations, and are only of binding force 
as they are in agreement with these revelations. The following note on 
these Lectures on Faith is from the History of the Church, Vol.11, p. 176: 

"These 'Lectures on Theology' here referred to were afterwards 
prepared by the Prophet (see page 180), and published in the Doctrine 
and Covenants under the title 'Lectures on Faith.' They are seven in 
number, and occupy the first seventy-five pages in the current editions 
of the Doctrine and Covenants. They are not to be regarded as of 
equal authority in matters of doctrine with the revelations of God in the 
Doctrine and Covenants, but as stated by Elder John Smith, who, when 
the book of Doctrine and Covenants was submitted to the several quor- 
ums of the Priesthood for acceptance (August 17, 1835), speaking in be- 
half of the Kirtland High Council, 'bore record that the revelations in 
said book were true, and that the lectures were judicially written and 
compiled, and were profitable for doctrine." The distinction which El- 
der John Smith here makes should be observed as marking the differ- 
ence between the Lectures on Faith and the revelations of God in the 
Doctrine and Covenants." (History of the Church, Vol. II, p. 176.) 

6. Testimony of the Twelve Apostles: As stated in note 4, the 
Twelve Apostles were not present at the general assembly of the Church, 


held on the 17th of Augst, 1835, at which time the Doctrine & Covenants 
was accepted by the Church, but previous to their departure on their 
missions to the churches in the East, their testimony to the truth of the 
revelations was written and read by W. W. Phelps to the Saints in con- 
ference assembled, and stands as follows: 

"The testimony of the Witnesses to the Book of the Lord's Command- 
ments, which commandments he gave to his Church through Joseph Smithy 
Jun., tvho was appointed, by the voice of the Church, for this purpose. 

"We therefore feel willing to bear testimony to all the world of man- 
kind, to every creature upon the face of all the earth, that the Lord has 
borne record to our souls, through the Holy Ghost shed forth upon us, 
that these Cmmandments were given by inspiration of God, and are 
profitable for all men, and are verily true. We give this testimony unto 
the world, the Lord being our helper; and it is through the grace of God 
the Father, and his Son Jesus Christ, that we are permitted to have this 
privilege of bearing this testimony unto the world, in the which we re- 
joice exceedingly, praying the Lord always that the children of men 
may be profited thereby." 

The Twelve Apostles of the Church at the time were: Thomas B. 
Marsh, David W. Patten, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson 
Hyde, Wm. E. McLellin, Parley P. Pratt, Luke S. Johnson, William 
Smith, Orson Pratt, John F. Boynton, Lyman E. Johnson. (History 
of the Church, Vol. II, p. 245.) 





I, The Revelations — Classification (a) as 
to Whom Given. 

(a) To Individuals. 

(b) To the Church. 

(c) To Groups of Elders. 

(d) To the world. 

II. Classification as to How They were 

(a) Direct Word of Mouth from the 

(b) By Urim and Thunimim. 

(c) By Direct Communication of An- 

(d) By the operations of the Spirit of 
God on the Prophet's Mind. 

III. Classification as to Subject Matter. 

(a) Didactic, Instruction or Direction 

to Individuals, to the Elders, to 
the Church. 

(b) On Organization of the Church 
and Priesthood. 

(c) Doctrinal. 


Doctrine & Covenants 
— all the Revelations. 
Revelations to Individ- 

(aj Sees. 3, 5, 6, 12, 14, 
15, 19, 126. (a). 

(b) Sees. 1, 45, 46. 

(c) Sees. 84, 58, 29, G. 

(d) Sec. 76. 

(a) The First Vision, 
History of the Church, 
Vol. I, Chap, i; Doc. & 
Cov., Sec. no. 

(b) Doc & Gov., Sees. 
3, 6, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17. 

(c) Doc & Gov., Sec. 

(d) The greater number 
of the Revelations in the 
Doctrine and Covenants. 

(a) Didactic Revelation, 
Doc. & Gov., Sees. 21, 24, 
25. 26, 28, 68. 

(b) Revelation on Or- 
g-anization — Sees. 20, H, 
102. 107, 124. 

Cc) Doctrinal, Sees. 19, 
20, 21, 4a 76, 84, 88, 93. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "Behold, I zvill tell yon in your mind and in your 
heart, by the Holy Ghost, which shall come upon you and zvhich shall dzvell in 
your heart. Nozu behold this is the Spirit of revelation; behold this is the 
Spirit by zvhich Moses brought the children of Israel through the Red Sea, on 
dry ground." — The Lord to Oliver Cowdery. 

(a) The sections cited in this and the follow^ing classification do not 
give all the revelations of the respective classes, only a few as illustra- 

(&) See note (a). 



1. How the Revelations were Received: The Prophet Joseph 
Smith received revelations in every way that the Lord communicates his 
mind and will to man. Like Moses he knew the Lord face to face, stood 
in his very presence, and heard his voice, as in the first communication 
the Lord made to him, usually called the Prophet's first vision (See 
History of the Church, Vol. I, chapter 1, also Pearl of Great Price, p. 
85), as also in the vision given in the Kirtland Temple where he and 
Oliver Cowdery saw the Lord standing on the breastwork of the pulpit 
and heard him speak to them. He received communications from angels 
as in the case of Moroni, who revealed to him the Book of Mormon; 
John the Baptist, who restored the Aaronic Priesthood; and Peter, 
James and John, who restored the Melchisedek priesthood; also the com- 
munications of the angels mentioned in what is usually called, the 
Kirtland Temple Vision. (See Doc. & Cov., Sec. 110.) 

He received communications through Urim and Thummim, for by 
that means he translated the Book of IMormon and received a number of 
the revelations in the Doctrine and Covenants, among others sections 
3, 6, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17. He received divine intelligence by open visions, 
such intelligence as is contained in section 76, and section 107. He also 
received revelations through the inspiration of God, operating upon his 
mind; and indeed the larger number of the revelations in the Doctrine 
and Covenants were received in this manner. Speaking of the reve- 
lations which were compiled preparatory to the publication of the 
Book of Commandments, he desired that the labors of himself and 
brethren who had been associated with him from the early days of 
the Church up to that time should be acknowledged and made a mat- 
ter of record, saying, "If this conference thinks these things worth 
according to the mind of the spirit, for by it these things [the collected 
revelations] wer^ put into my heart, which I know to be the Spirit of truth." 
This indicates the medium through which most of the revelations came — 
from the inspired mind of the Prophet. (See also Doc. & Cov. Sees. 8, 9.) 

2. The Manner of Inditing Revelations: Elder Parley P. Pratt gives 
the following description of the manner in which a revelation was given 
through the Prophet in his presence. 

"After we had joined in prayer in his translating room he dictated 
in our presence the following revelation: Each sentence was uttered 
slowly and very distinctly, and with a pause between each, sufficiently 
long for it to be recorded, by an ordinary writer, in long hand. This 
was the manner in which all his written revelations were dictated and 
written. There was never any hesitation, reviewing, or reading back, in 
order to keep the run of the subject; neither did any of these communi- 
cations undergo revisions, interlinings, or corrections. As he dictated 
them so they stood, so far as I have witnessed; and I was present to 
witness the dictation of several communications of several pages each. 
(Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, pp. 65-6.) 


The statement of Elder Pratt needs modifying, at least to the extent 
of saying, that additions were made sometimes to the revelaions, as a 
comparison beween the revelations as they appeared in so much of the 
"Book of Commandments" as was published at Independence, in 1833, 
and the same revelations as they stand in the Book of Doctrine and 
Covenants. Indeed in the Doctrine and Covenants additions are some- 
times noted (see section 20, verses 65-67, and foot-note, also section 27, 
introduction; also sec. 42, verses 31 and 34 and footnote). In the main, 
however, the statement of Elder Pratt may be taken as not only apply- 
ing to the revelations which he witnessed the dictation of, but to all that 
the Prophet received. 

3. The Divers Manners in which Revelations were Given in Ancient 
Times: As to the various ways in which the prophets in olden times re- 
ceived revelations, (agreeing with the various ways in which God com- 
municated his mind and will to Joseph Smith) I quote the following 
from the "Annotated Bible," published in 1859. 

"The divine communications were made to the prophets in divers 
manners; God seems sometimes to have spoken to them in audible voice; 
occasionally appearing in human form. At other times he employed the 
ministry of angels, or made known his purposes by dreams. But he most 
frequently revealed his truth to the prophets by producing that super- 
natural state of the sentient, intellectual, and moral faculties which the 
scriptures call 'vision.' Hence prophetic announcements are often called 
'visions,' i. e., things seen; and the prophets themselves are called 'seers.' 
Although the visions which the prophet beheld and the predictions of 
the future which he announced were wholly announced by the divine 
Spirit, yet the form of the communication, the imagery in which it is 
clothed, the illustrations by which it is cleared up and impressed, the 
symbols employed to bring it more graphically before the mind — in 
short," all that may be considered as its garb and dress, depends upon the 
education, habits, association, feelings and the whole mental, intellectual 
and spiritual character of the prophet. Hence the style of some is purer, 
more sententious, more ornate, or more sublime than others." 

Also the Reverend Joseph Armitage Robinson, D. D., Dean of West- 
minster and Chaplain of King Edward VII of England, respecting the 
manner in which the message of the Old Testament was received and 
communicated to man, said, as late as 1905: 

"The message of the Old Testament was not written by the divine 
hand, nor dictated by an outward compulsion; it was planted in the 
hearts of men, and made to grow in a fruitful soil. And then they were 
required to express it in their own language, after their natural methods, 
and in accordance with the stage of knowledge which their time had 
reached. Their human faculties were purified and quickened by the di- 
vine Spirit; but they spoke to their time in the language of their time; 
they spoke a spiritual message, accommodated to the experience of their 
age, a message of faith in God, and of righteousness as demanded by a 
righteous God." (Defense of the Faith and the Saints, p. 266-7.) 

4. The Spirit of Revelation: In one of the revelations there is 
given a description as to the manner in which revelations are given 


through the operation of the spirit of the Lord upon the mind of man, 
"for, verily," as Job puts it, "there is a spirit in man and the inspiration 
of the Lord giveth them understanding." The revelation alluded to, is 
one given to Oliver Cowdery in relation to his having the privilege of 
translating ancient records, by means of Urim and Thummim. The 
Lord said concerning such translation: 

"Behold, I will tell you in your mind and in your heart, by the Holy 
Ghost, which shall come upon you and which shall dwell in your heart. 
Now, behold, this is the Spirit of revelation; behold, this is the Spirit by 
which Moses brought the children of Israel through the Red Sea on dry 
ground." (Doc. & Cov. Sec. 8.) 

Oliver's faith, however, seems to have failed him in the matter, and 
in explanation of that failure, the Lord said to him: 

"And, behold, it is because that you did not continue as you com- 
menced, when you began to translate, that I have taken away this priv- 
ilege from you. Do not murmur, my son, for it is wisdom in me that I 
have dealt with you after this manner. Behold, you have not understood; 
you have supposed that I would give it unto you, when you took no 
thought, save it was to ask me; but, behold, I say unto you, that you 
must study it out in your mind; then you must ask me if it be right, and 
if it is right I will cause that your bosom shall burn within you; there- 
fore, you shall feel that it is right; but if it be not right, you shall have 
no such feelings, but you shall have a stupor of thought, that shall cause 
you to forget the thing which is wrong; therefore you cannot write that 
which is sacred, save it be given you from me." (Doc. & Cov. Sec. 8.) 

From this, it appears, that the co-operation of the mind of man by 
mighty effort is necessary to the obtaining of the spirit of revelation. 
Prophets are not mere automatons, who repeat, machine like, what is 
given them. There must be striving for the Spirit of truth, and the power 
to express it. 





The Great Doctrinal Revelations, (a) 

1. Doctrines in Relation to God, to 
Christ and the Atonement. 

(a) In Relation to God, and the 

(b) In Relation to God, the Son. 

(c) The Atonement, Redemption, 
and Resurrection. 

2. Doctrines in Relation to Man and 
His Earth Mission. 

(a) The Nature of Man, and Re- 
lationship to God. 

(b) The Agency of Man and Pur- 
pose of Earth Life. 

(c) The Future of Man in vary- 
ing degrees of his develop- 
ment, of Glory. 

(d) The Eternity of the Marriage 

(e) The Nature of Angels and 
Ministering Spirits. 


Joseph Smith's Vision 
History of the Chtirch, 
Vol. I, Chap. i. Pearl of 
Great Price, p. 86, p. 
(Note 1), Doc. & Cor., 
Sec. XX : 17, 19, 28; See. 
exxi: 32; Sec. cxxx: 23. 

Sec. XX : 21-28; Sec. 
Ixxv: 20-24; xciii: 1-21. 

Sec. xx: 21-3«; xix: 1-20; 
xv-iii: H, 12. 

Dov. & Cov., Sec. xciii: 
21, 23, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35. 

Sec xxix: 34, 36, 39; 
Ivii: 26-28; xciii: 29-32; 
xxix: 43; civ: 17-18. 

Doc. & Gov., Sec. Ixxvi, 
and Sec. Ixxxviii: 14-35. 

Doc. & Gov.. Sec. xxix; 

Sec. cxxxii. 

Sec. cxxxi: 1-4, 21, 23, 
29. 31, 32, 33, 34, 35. 
Sec. cxxx. 

(c) Some of the great Doctrinal Revelations have already been des- 
ignated. A more complete list would be sections 19, 20, 21, 42, 76, 84, 88, 
89, 93, 127, 128, 129, 130, 132. Of course in all the revelations there is 
more or less of doctrine; even in those that may be esteemed the least 
some great principle is present, if not by direct announcement, then in 
application or illustration. But the foregoing are designated, because 
they are pre-eminently doctrinal in character, and by grouping them, as 
in the analysis, they may be the more readily consulted. It should be re- 
membered that we are not in this lesson to attempt any treatise upon 
these great doctrines as such, we are merely calling attention to them 
now — locating them for the student, merely calling attention to their 
existence in our modern revelations that they may be read. Thorough 
consideration of them will come later in the Seventy's course in The- 


3- Doctrines in Relation to Things. 

(a) Creation of the Earth, the ,2^'eh.''iJ^^Tk?'^: Lfil 
Mission of, the Future of. s-io; ixx: i, 6-15; ixxxviii: 

(b) The Existence of Other ixxxvUi: 36-62, and th« 
Planetary Systems Than son Prat? °* ^^^^"^ ^' 
Ours, that are the Habitat of 

Intelligencies — the Children 
of God. 

(c) The Doctrine of Parallel Ex- ix?xviii: ?6, s??"""" ^''' 
istences — of Limitless Ex- ibid, 37; xciu: 33-35; also 

. • / N J T^ Pearl of Great Price, 

tension (space), and Every- Book of Abraham, also 

whereness of Matter. Book of Moses, chap. i. 

/^\ -ru -n. c •*.• r -r ^i ^^"^ Witness for God, 

(d) 1 he Dennition of iruth. chaps, xxviii-xxx. 

(e) The Iminence of God in ai?o" y.-^m"^ m.' pMa^n^ai 
the Universe. (No. 9) chap. vii, p. 393. 

Doc. ■ & Gov., Sec. 
Ixxxviii: 7-13, 45, et s€q. 
Sec. xciii: 36. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "Intelligence, or the light of truth, was not created 
or made, neither indeed can be." All truth is independent in that sphere in 
which God has placed it, to act for itself, as all intelligence also, otherwise 
there is no existence." — The Lord to Joseph Smith. 


1. Doctrinal Dominating Influence of Joseph Smith's First Vision: 

Any exposition of Mormon views of Deity must necessarily begin with this 
vision, as it is the very beginning and foundation of the Mormon doc- 
trine of God. It establishes the great truth that God is a person, in the 
sense that he is an individual, in whose likeness man was made. It 
clearly sets forth that Jesus is also a person in the same sense and dis- 
tinct from the Father. And it follows that the "oneness" of God must 
be a moral and spiritual oneness, not a physical identity. (See note 1, 
part v). The facts set forth in this vision or deducible from it must dom- 
inate all Mormon ideas upon the subject of God, and be present in all 
interpretations of Doctrine and Covenant passages. (See Mormon 
Doctrine of Deity, chapter 1.) Hence, although this great revelation, 
so fundamental to Mormon Doctrine, is not given a place in the Doc- 
trine and Covenants (and why has always been a mystery to the writer), 
it is given in the references that it may stand in its place of first impor- 
tance among our doctrines. 

2. The Literary Style of the Doctrine and Covenants: The liter- 
ary style of the revelations in the Doctrine and Covenants is wholly 
unique. From the nature of some of the revelations, the style necessarily 
is purely didactic, but even in such revelations the style is particularly 

145 ♦ 

striking and impressive. In some of the great doctrinal revelations the 
style rises to sublimity worthy of the psalms or of St. John. What could 
be more impressively beautiful, for example, than the opening para- 
graphs of section 76: 

"Hear O ye heavens, and give ear O earth, and rejoice ye inhabi- 
tants thereof, for the Lord is God, and beside him there is no Savior: 
Great is his wisdom, marvelous are his ways, and the extent of his doings 
none can find out; his purposes fail not, neither are there any who can 
stay his hand; from eternity to eternity he is the same, and his years 
never fail. For thus said the Lord, I, the Lord, am merciful and gra- 
cious unto those who fear me, and delight to honor those who serve me 
in righteousness and in truth unto the end; great shall be their reward 
and eternal shall be their glory." (Doc. & Gov., Sec. 76.) 

The language and imagery of the whole revelation is surpassingly 
beautiful. Prophets quite universally are conceded to be akin to poets, 
and very naturally the language of inspiration takes on the poetic 
spirit, and examples of this are frequent in the revelations. Take for 
instance, the following passage, as an example both of sublime poetry 
and the literature of power. (See note 7, p. 45.) 

"I the Almighty, have laid my hands upon the nations, to scourge 
them for their wickedness: 

"And plagues shall go forth, and they shall not be taken from the 
earth until I have completed my work, which shall be cut short in right- 

"Until all shall know me, who remain, even from the least unto the 

"And shall be filled with the knowledge of the Lord, and shall see eye 
to eye, and shall lift up their voice, and with the voice together sing this 
new song, saying: 

"The Lord hath brought again Zion; 
The Lord hath redeemed his people, Israel, 
According to the election of grace, 
Which was brought to pass by the faith 
And covenant of their fathers. 

"The Lord hath redeemed his people, 
And Satan is bound and time is no longer: 
The Lord hath gathered all things in one; 
The Lord hath brought down Zion from above. 
The Lord hath brought up Zion from beneath. 

"The earth hath travailed and brought forth her strength: 
And truth is established in her bowels: 
And the heavens have smiled upon her: 
And she is clothed with the glory of her God: 
For he stands in the midst of his people: 

"Glory, and honor, and power, and might, 
Be ascribed to our God; for he is full of mercy, 
Justice, grace and truth, and peace, 
For ever and ever, Amen." 

(Section 84.) 


Students should search out such passages and make them their own. 

3. The Best Manner of Studying the Revelations: The student will 
find it most profitable to read the revelations of the Doctrine and Cove- 
nants in connection with the circumstances under which they were given. 
This can be done by securing Vol. I of the History of the Church, in 
which volume 101 out of a possible 134 revelations, are to be found pub- 
lished in there historical association. Some of the revelations, or parts 
of them, can only be understood by reading them in the manner here 
suggested. For example the revelation in section 46 opens in this man- 

"Hearken, O ye people of my Church, for verily I say unto you, 
that these things were spoken unto you for your profit and learning; 
But notwithstanding those things which are written, it always has been 
given to the Elders of my Church from the beginning, and ever shall 
be to conduct all meetings as they are directed and guided by the Holy 
Spirit; nevertheless ye are commanded never to cast any one out from 
your public meetings, which are held before the world," etc., etc. (History 
of the Church, Vol. 1, p. 163-4.) 

Now, reading this revelation in the Doctrine & Covenants no under- 
standing can be had from it as to what "things" are referred to in this 
opening paragraph, that are "spoken for your profit and learning," but when we 
learn, as we do from the footnote (p. 163, Vol. 1, Church History) that 
"in the beginning of the Church, while yet in her infancy, the disciples 
used to exclude unbelievers, which caused some to marvel and converse 
of this matter because of the things written in the Book of Mormon" 
(III Nephi xvii: 22-34); wherein it is learned that the Nephite church 
was forbidden to exclude unbelievers from their Church gatherings, and 
sacramental meetings, whereupon it was thought and urged by some that 
the practice of the Saints in Kirtland was contrary to the revealed will 
of the Lord respecting this matter; therefore the Saints took the pas- 
sages from the Book of Mormon to the Prophet and desired to know the 
will of the Lord respecting this custom. "Therefore the Lord deigned 
to speak on this subject, that his people might come to understanding, 
and said that he had always given to his Elders to conduct all meet- 
ings as they were led by the Spirit." (History of the Church, note, p. 
163.) Knowing these circumstances the whole matter becomes perfectly 
plain. We know what is meant when the revelation starts out by say- 
ing, "These things were spoken unto you for your profit and learning," 
etc. As it is in this case so it is in many others, the clear understanding 
of the revelation depends on knowing the circumstances which called 
forth the revelation. 





I. The Law of the Lord as Expressed ^^a^ ^^ Tithing. r>oc & 

, T-» ^-^rr • Cov., Sec. cxix. Amoiig 

m Tlthmg and Fast-Offerings — the Ancients: Gen. xiv: 

Applied to Poverty Problems, Lo- KS ^vm:"^^!.'" DeX 

Cal and National. xii: also chap, xiv; also 

Chap. xxvi: 12-16: II 
Chronicles, xxxi; Neb., 
xii: 44:also Chap.xiii: 5-12, 
and Chap. x: 37, 38. 
Matt., xxiii: 23; Luke, xi: 
42; also Chap, xvii: 9-14; 
especially Malachi iii — - 
whole chapter. 

II. The Law of the Lord as Expressed 09^9^3^^ ?xx' iS Sc 
in the Doctrine of Consecration civ. isrew witness for ckid 

and Stewardship — Applied to the 
World's Industrial Problems. 

Chap, xxvii. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "For the earth is full, and there is enough and to 
spare; yea, I prepared all tilings, and have given unto the children of men to 
be agents unto themselves. Therefore, if any man shall take of the abundance 
which I have made, and impart not Iiis portion, according to the law of my 
gospel, unto the poor and the needy, he shall, with the wicked, lift up his eyes 
in hell, being in torment." . {Doc. & Cov., Sec. 104, 17-18.) 


1. Collecting Materials: The most difficult thing in the treatment 
of a subject is the gathering of material — "thought-gathering." You 
must have material, data. Then if the student would be anything more 
than a mere repeater of other men's thoughts, a mere mouth for other 
men's ideas, this data must be thought upon, considered in every possible 
light that it may give birth to new ideas in his own mind, that he may 
bring some gift, born of his own intellectual effort, to the subject in hand. 
Take for example the two subjects of this lesson; merely announce the 
subjects without giving any references to material treating upon them, 
and doubtless some of our younger members would be at a loss to know 
how to go about gathering the materials for a treatise upon these sub- 
jects. The references, hov/ever, are given, and now the student is sup- 


posed to consult every passage given and read it with care. But he 
should not be content with reading just the passage cited, let him read 
the context. Search for other passages bearing upon the same general 
subject, and there are many of them; for our references never exhaust 
the material; they are intended only to barely give enough to help start 
the student upon the subject. Then let there be reflection upon what 
is read, out of which there will grow new thoughts — at least new to the 
student — and these combined after his own fashion with the ideas of the 
pasasages consulted and works read, will constitute his material for his 
address or paper. The note following this on "thought-gathering" is a 
propos and might be regarded as a continuation of this. (Read also in 
this connection note — , Lesson — .) 

2. Thought-Gathering: "After the subject upon which we are to 
speak has been determined, the logical order of preparation is, first, 
gathering material; second, selecting what is most fitting and arrang- 
ing the whole into perfect order; third, fixing this in the mind so that 
it may be available for the moment of use. These processes are not al- 
ways separated in practice, but they may be best considered in the order 
indicated. When the subject is chosen and the mind fastened upon it, 
that subject becomes a center of attraction and naturally draws all kin- 
dred ideas toward it. Old memories that had become dim from the 
lapse of time are slowly hunted out and grouped around the parent 
thought. Each hour of contemplation that elapses, even if there is not 
direct study, adds to the richness and variety of our available mental 
stores. The relations between different and widely separated truths 
become visible, just as new stars are seen when we gaze intently toward 
the evening sky. All that lies within our knowledge is subjected to a rigid 
scrutiny and all that appears to have any connection with the subject is 
brought into view. Usually a considerable period of time is needed for 
this process, and the longer it is continued the better, if interest in the 
subject is not suffered to decline in the meanwhile. But it is somewhat 
difficult to continue at this work long enough without weariness. The 
capacity' for great and continuous reaches of thought constitute a prin- 
cipal element in the superiority of one mind over another. Even the 
mightiest genius cannot, at a single impulse, exhaust the ocean of truth 
that opens around every object of man's contemplation. It is only by 
viewing a subject in every aspect that superfi-cial and one-sided impres- 
sions can be guarded against. But the continuous exertion and toil this 
implies are nearly always distasteful, and the majority of men can only 
accomplish it by a stern resolve. Whether acquired or natural, the ability to 
completely "think out" a subject is of prime necessity; the young student 
at the outset should learn to finish every investigation he begins and 
continue the habit during life. Doing this or not doing it will generally 
be decisive of his success or failure from an intellectual point of view. 
Thought is a mighty architect, and if you keep him fully employed, he 
will build up with slow and measured strokes a gorgeous edifice upon 
any territory at all within your mental range. You maj' weary of his 
labor and think that the wall rises so slowly that it will never be com- 
pleted; but wait. In due time, if you are patient, all will be finished and 
will then stand as no ephemeral structure, to be swept away by the first 
storm that blows, but will be established and unshaken on the basis 
of eternal truth." (Extempore Speech, Pittenger, pp. 159-161.) 


3. Referring again to our suggestions for the frame work of :i 
speech, consisting of: 


' Conclusion, 
I desire to point out how well this idea is carried out in Paul's soul- 
thrilling and successful speech before King Agrippa, recorded in Acts 

The audience is august; there is Porcius Festus, Roman procurator 
of Judea; Agrippa, a King and Grandson of Herod the Great,and Bernice, 
sister of Agrippa: there were also present the chief captains attendant 
upon these high officers, and the principal men of the city of Caesarea 
gathered in the place of hearing, "with great pomp." Into this presence 
Paul is brought in chains and introduced. The cause of his imprison- 
ment is briefly stated with the fact that he had appealed to Caesar, and 
now Paul is informed by Agrippa that he may speak for himself. 


Paul (stretching forth his hand) — "I think myself happy. King 
Agrippa. because I shall answer for myself this day before thee touching 
all the things whereof I am accused of the Jews: especially because I 
know thee to be expert in all customs and questions which are among 
the Jews; wherefore I beseech thee to hear me patiently. 


My manner of life from my youth, which was at the first among mine own 
nation at Jerusalem, know all the Jews ; which knew me from the beginning, if 
they would testify, that after the most straitest sect of our religion I 
lived a Pharisee. And now I stand and arn judged for the hope of the 
promise made of God unto our fathers; unto which promise our twelve 
tribes, instantly serving God day and night hope to come. For which 
hope's sake, King Agrippa, I am accused of the Jews. 

"Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you, that God 
should raise the dead? I verily thought with myself, that I ought to do 
many things contrary to the name of Jesus of Nazareth. Which thing 
I also did in Jerusalem: and many of the Saints did I shut up in prison, 
having received authority from the chief priests; and when they were 
put to death, I gave my voice against them. And I punished them oft 
in every synagogue, and compelled them to blaspheme; and being ex- 
ceedingly mad against them, I persecuted them even unto strange cities. 
Whereupon as I went to Damascus with authority and commission from 
the chief priests, at midday, O king, I saw in the way a light from 
heaven, above the brightness of the sun, shining round about me and 
them which journeyed with me. And when we were all fallen to the 
earth, I heard a voice speaking unto me, and saying in the Hebrew 
tongue, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me? it is hard for thee to kick 
against the pricks. And I said, Who art thou. Lord? and he said, I am 
Jesus whom thou persecutest. But rise, and stand upon thy feet; for I 
have appeared unto thee for this purpose, to make thee a minister and 
a witness both of these things which thou hast seen, and of those things 
in the which I will appear unto thee; delivering thee from the people, and 


from the Gentiles, unto whom now I send thee, to open their eyes, and 
to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto 
God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among 
them which are sanctified by faith that is in me. 

Whereupn, O King Agrippa, I was not disobedient unto the heavenly yis- 
ion : btit shewed first unto them of Damascus, and at Jerusalem, and through- 
out all the coasts of Judea, and then to the Gentiles, that they should repent 
and turn to God, and do works meet for repentance. For these causes the 
Jews caught me in the temple, and went about to kill me. Having 
therefore obtained help of God, I continue unto this day, witnessing 
both to small and great, saying none other things than those which the 
prophets and Moses did say should come: And to the Gentiles — 

Festus (in a loud voice) — "Paul, thou art beside thyself; much learn- 
ing doth make thee mad. 


Paul — "I am not mad, most noble Festus; but speak freely: for I am 
persuaded that none of these things are hidden from him; for this thing 
was not done in a corner. King Agrippa, believest thou the prophets? 
I know that thou believest. 

Agrippa — "Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian." 
Paul — "I would to God that not only thou, but also all that hear me 
this day, were both almost, and altogether such as I am, except these 







Origin of the Pearl of Great Price. 

1. Date and Circumstances of Pub- 

2. Contents of the First Edition. 
The Chief Original Documents. 

1. The Writings of Moses. 

2. The Book of Abraham. 

3. The Writings of Joseph Smith. 


Millennial Star, Vol. 
XIII (1851), pp. 216, 217; 
also Vol. XLIX, p. 396 et 
seq. New Witness for 
God, Vol. I, p. 316. Note 

Pearl of Great Price?, 
pp. 1-49. History of the 
Church, Vol. I, p. 98. 

Pearl of Great Price, 
pp. 50-74. History of the 
Church, Vol. II, pp. 236, 
286, 349, 350. Times and 
Seasons, Vol. Ill, NOsl 9 
and 10. New Witness for 
God, Vol. I, pp. 443-453. 
(1842). Divine Authentic- 
ity o£ the Book of Abra- 
ham (Reynolds). 

Pearl of Great Price, 
pp. 75-103. History of the 
Church, Vol. I, Chaps, 

SPECIAL TEXT : "And it came to pass as the voice was still speaking, 
Moses cast his eyes and beheld the earth, yea, even all of it, and there was not 
a particle of it which he did not behold, discerning it by the Spirit of God, and 
he beheld also the inhabitants thereof, and there was not a soul which he be- 
held not, and he discerned them by the Spirit of God. And their numbers were 
great, even numberless as the sand upon the sea-shore. And he beheld many 
lands, and each land was called earth, and there were inhabitants on the face 
thereof. And it came to pass that Moses called upon God, saying, tell me I 
pray thee, ruhy these things are so. * * * * And the Lord God said unto 
Moses, for mine own purpose have I made these things Here is wisdom and 
it remaineth with me. * * * * And worlds without number have I cre- 
ated, and I also created them for mine own purpose, and by the Son I created 
them, which is mine only begotten. * * * * For behold this is my 


MAN." — Book of Moses. 

(a) The readings for this exercise and for the remaining lessons 
should be selected from the Pearl of Great Price. 



1. Compilation and Contents: The Pearl of Great Price was com- 
piled and published by the late Elder Franklin D. Richards, of the Coun- 
cil of the Twelve Apostles, in Liverpool, England, 1851. Elder Richards 
at the time was presiding over the British mission. Its title page ran as 



Being a 

Choice Selection 

from the 

Revelations, Translations, and Narrations 



First Prophet, Seer, and Revelator to the Church 

of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

In addition to the Articles now published in the current and author- 
ized version of the tract, it also contained a number of extracts from the 
Revelations of the Doctrine and Covenants, including a key to the reve- 
lations of St. John (Doc. and Cov. Sec. 11); commandments to the 
Church concerning baptism (Doc. & Cov., Sec. 20) ; on the method of ad- 
ministering the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper (Doc. & Cov., Sec. 20); 
the duties of the Elders, Priests, Teachers, and Deacons and members of 
the Church (Doc. & Cov., Sec. 20); on Priesthood (Doc. & Cov., Sec. 84); 
the calling and duties of the Twelve Apostles (Doc. & Cov. Sec. 107); an 
extract from the revelation given July, 1830, (Doc. & Cov., Sec. 27); 
«jctract from the revelation on the rise of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
"Latter-day Saints (Doc. & Cov., Sec. 1); John Jaques' splendid hymn, en- 
ititled "Truth," (Hymn-book, p. 71), and last but not least, the revelation 
and prophecy on war, (Doc. & Cov., Sec. 87). From this enumeration of 
articles omitted from this choice collection in the later editions of the 
work, it is seen that nothing is omitted but what is now published in the 
Doctrine and Covenants or Hymn-book; and the eliminations were made 
to avoid duplicating the publication of the articles in several books. 

Rererting to the revelation and prophecy on war, I call attention to 
the fact that the preface of the Pearl of Great Price bears the date of 
July 11, 1851, and the work was published in that year; but it was not 
until the morning of the 12th of April, 1861, that the first gun in the 
great Rebellion was fired on Fort Sumter by General Beaureguard, so 
that this remarkable prophecy made by the Prophet in 1832 was actually 
in print and widely published in England and the United States nearly 
ten years before the war of the Rebellion broke out. 

From a copy of the 1851 edition now on file in the Historian's office, 
we take the following paragraph from the Preface, which explains the 


reasons for publishing this collection of precious gems from the revela- 
tions of God to the great modern Prophet: 

"The following compilation has been induced by the repeated solici- 
tations of several friends of the publisher, who are desirous to be put in 
possession of the very important articles contained therein. Most of the 
revelations composing this work were published at early periods of the 
Church, when the circulation of its journals was so very limited as to 
render them comparatively unknown at present, except to a few who 
have treasured up the productions of the Church with great care from 
the beginning. A smaller portion of this work has never before appeared 
in print; and altogether it is presumed, that true believers in the divine 
mission of the Prophet Joseph Smith will appreciate this little collec- 
tion of precious truths as a Pearl of Great Price, that will increase their 
ability to maintain and to defend the holy faith by becoming possessors 
of it." 

2. Book of Moses: The Book of Moses published in the Pearl of 
Great Price, is a revelation of the ancient prophet's writings to Joseph 
Smith, which began to be given to the prophet in June, 1830, just after 
the Prophet and the disciples of the Church he was founding had passed 
through the very trying period of persecution, and in his history the 
Prophet introduces it in the following language: 

"Amid all the trials and tribulations we had to wade through, the 
Lord, who well knew our infantile and delicate situation, vouchsafed for 
us a supply of strength and granted us line upon line of knowledge, here 
a little and there a little, of which the following was a precious morsel." 

Then follows part of the Book of Moses, published in the Pearl of 
Great Price, History of the Church, Vol. 1, pp. 98-101. Another frag- 
ment from the Book of Moses appears in the same work at pp. 133 to 
139, being an extract called the Prophecy of Enoch. The Prophet Joseph 
at this time was engaged in the revision (sometimes called a translation) 
of the Hebrew Scriptures. Referring to those revelations concerning 
historical events of ancient times, he remarks: 

"The Lord greatly encouraged and strengthened the faith of his lit- 
tle flock, which had embraced the fulness of the everlasting gospel, as 
revealed to them in the Book of Mormon, by giving some more extended 
information upon the scriptures, a translation of which had already com- 
menced. Much conjecture and conversation frequently occurred among 
the Saints, concerning the books mentioned, and referred to, in various 
places in the Old and New Testaments, which were now nowhere to be 
found. The common remark was. 'They are lost books;' but it seems 
the Apostolic Church had some of these writings, as Jude mentions or 
quotes the prophecy of Enoch, the seventh from Adam. To the joy of 
the little flock, which in all, from Colesville to Canadaigua, New York, 
numbered about seventy members, did the Lord reveal the following do- 
ings of olden times, from the prophecy of Enoch." (History of the 
Church, Vol. 1, pp. 131-133.) 

I know of no revelation within the saine compass that contains so 
much valuable information in regard to historical events and doctrinal 


principles as this Book of Moses. The information conveyed by it, both 
in history and doctrine, becomes a unifying force in the history of the 
world and the gospel of Jesus Christ. I hope this will be apparent in the 
analysis of this book to be found in Lesson VI. 

3. The Book of Abraham: The Book of Abraham is a translation 
from certain Egyptian papyrus which fell into the hands of the Prophet 
in the following manner. The account is condensed from the story as 
told by the Prophet in the History of the Church, Vol. II, pp. 348-350. 

In 1831 the celebrated French traveler, Antonio Sebolo, penetrated 
Egypt as far as the ancient city of Thebes, under a license procured from 
Mohemet AH — then Viceroy of Egypt — through the influence of Cheva- 
lier Drovetti, the French consul. Sebolo employed four hundred and 
thirty-three men for four months and two days, either Turkish or Egyp- 
tian soldiers, paying them from four to six cents a day per man. They 
entered the Catacombs near ancient Thebes on the seventh of June, 1831, 
and procured eleven mummies. These were shipped to Alexandria, and 
from there the great traveler started with his treasures for Paris. But 
en route for the French capital, Sebolo put in at Trieste, where he was 
taken sick, and after an illness of ten days, died. This was in 1832. Pre- 
vious to his death he willed his Egyptian treasures to his nephew, Mich- 
ael H. Chandler, who was then living in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, but 
whom Sebolo believed to be in Dublin, to which city he ordered the 
mummies shipped. Mr. Chandler ordered the mummies forwarded to 
New York from Dublin, where he took possession of them. Here the 
cofifins for the first time were opened, and in them were found two rolls 
of papyrus covered with engravings. While still in the customs house, 
Mr. Chandler was informed by a gentleman, a stranger to him, that no 
one in the city could translate the characters; but was referred to Jos- 
eph Smith, who, the stranger informed him, possessed some kind of gift 
or power by which he had previously translated similar characters. 
Joseph Smith was then unknown to Mr. Chandler. The mummies were 
shipped to Philadelphia; and from there Mr. Chandler traveled through 
the country, exhibited them and the rolls of papyrus, reaching Kirtland 
in July, 1835, where some of the Saints purchased the mummies and the 
two rolls of papyrus, one of which proved to be the writings of Abra- 
ham, and the other of Joseph, who was sold into Egypt." 

With the assistance of Oliver Cowdery, and W. W. Phelps as scribes 
the Prophet began the work of translating this record, which so singu- 
larly came into his possession; but it was not finally published until 
March, 1842, at Nauvoo. It will be found as we now have it in the 
Pearl of Great Price, given with the fac-similies of certain pages of the 
papyrus in the Times and Seasons, Vol. Ill, Nos. 9 and 10. It is a reve- 
lation of exceedingly great value, both on account of the historical and 
doctrinal data which it contains, as appears in the analysis for Lesson 
VI. For still further items of interest in relation to the Eook of Abra- 
ham, see History of the Church, Vol. II, pp. 348-350 and footnotes. 


4. The Writings of Joseph Smith in the Pearl of Great Price: Of 

the writings of Joseph Smith in the Pearl of Great Price little need be 
said as they speak for themselves. It is the Prophet's simple yet at- 
tractive and powerful narrative of those events which psrtain to the 
beginning of the great Latter-day work, the opening of the Dispensa- 
tion of the Fulness of Times. It is comprised within a very few pages 
— 23 in all — and merely gives the story of the Prophet's birth and first call by 
heavenly vision to the restoration of the Priesthood by the administration of 
John the Baptist, in the month of May, in the year 1829, and a quotation 
from the Wentworth Letter (See Note — ) comprising the Aritcles of 
Faith. Yet brief and limited as are these writings, they are invaluable 
because of their authenticity, their beautiful simplicity, and the spirit of 
truth that pervades them and infuses them with a convincing power. 




I. The Important Items of History and 
Doctrine in the Book of Moses. 

(a) That the Revelation to Moses on 
Creation was Limited to Our 
Earth and Its Heavens — was 

(b) The Limitless Creations of God in 
Ever-changing Processes. 

(c) The Purpose of God in Creation. 

(d) The Council in Heaven Previous 
to Man's Existence in the earth ; 
the Choice of a Redeemer for 
Man; Lucifer's Rebellion. 

(e) The Meaning of Sacrifice — the 
Gospel Revealed to Adam, the 
Joy of Adam and Eve in Their 
Earth Existence Under the Gos- 

(f) The Beginning of Scripture. 

(g) The Establishment of Seers. 

(h) The Zion of Enoch — Translation. 


(a) Note 2; Book of 
Moses, Chap, i: 12-36; 
Chap, ii: 1. Mormon Doc- 
trine of Diety, pp. 159— fiO. 
"Immorality of Man," 
Improvement Era, Vol. 

X, pp.413, 414, foot note. 

(b) Chap, i: 27-38; vii: 

(c) Chap, ii: 39; vi: 55, .56. 

(d) Chap, iv: 1-4. 

(e) Chap. V, 1-U; vi: 

(f) Chap, vi: 4-6. 
(g-) Chap, vi: 32-36. 
(h) Chap, vii: 14-69. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "And it repented Noah, and his heart was pained, 
that the Lord had tnade man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart 
(compare Gen. vi: 6). * * * And the Lord said, I zvill destroy man whom I 
have created from the face of the earth * * * * for it repcnteth Noah 
that I have created them." — Moses, in Book of Moses. 


1. Purpose of the Lesson: It is not intended in this lesson to 
attempt any treatise on the very great doctrines indicated in the an- 


alysis. The purpose is to locate them; to call attention to the fact of 
their existence in the Pearl of Great Price, to make their acquaintance 
only in a general way now, with a view of learning their nature and im- 
portance as doctrines later in the course. 

2. The Book of Moses: It must not be thought that all the doc- 
trines either in the Book of Moses or the Book of Abraham are indi- 
cated in the lesson analysis and references. These are but the principal 
ones; and when taken into account, when thought upon, how great and 
fundamental they are! What extended views of the creations of God for 
instance are found in the passages — "and worlds without number have I 
creafed; behold, there are many worlds that have passed away by the 
word of my power, and there are many that now stand; * * * the 
heavens they are many and cannot be numbered vmto man! But they are 
numbered unto me, for they are mine." And this from Enoch's talk 
with God — "Were it possible that man could number the particles of the 
earth, yea millions of earth's like this, it would not be a beginning to the 
number of thy creations; and thy curtains are stretched out still!" What 
splendor, too, is seen in the endless processes of creation described in 
these words of the Lord — "As one earth shall pass away, and the heavens 
thereof, even so shall another come, and there is no end to my works." 
Science settlse to its sure foundations in that doctrine. It is, in a way, 
and within certain limits — to put it in modern phrase — a sort of "evolu- 
tion and devolution," with each succeeding wave in the process of the "evo- 
lution" rising to still higher states of excellence and grandeur and glory. 
And then as to the purposes of God in all these creations — "For mine 
own purpose have I made these things; * * * * for behold, this is 
my work and my glory — to bring to pass the immortality and eternal 
life of man!" Where else are these things said so well? Again: The 
controversy in heaven concerning the means of man's redemption; Lu- 
cifer's plan with its agency-destroying effect on man, and its glory de- 
stroying effect on God. "Behold," said this proud spirit — this "Light- 
bearer" — -"Behold, here am I, send me, I will be thy son, and I will re- 
deem all mankind, that one soul shall not be lost, and surely / will do it, 
wherefore give me thine honor. But, behold, my beloved Son, which 
was my Beloved and Chosen from the beginning, said unto me — Father, 
thy will be done, and the glory be thine forever. Wherefore, because 
that Satan rebelled against me, and sought to destroy the agency of 
man, which I, the Lord God, had given him, and also, that I should give 
unto him mine own power; by the power of mine Only Begotten, I 
caused that he should be cast down; and he became Satan, yea, even the 
dc-vil, the father of all lies, to deceive and to blind men, and to lead them 
captive at his will, even as many as would not hearken unto my voice." 
(Book of Moses, pp. 15, 16). 

Then historically there is the fact of the gospel being taught to 
Adam, both by the Lord and through the ministration of angels; involv- 
ing the explanation of the sacrifices man had been commanded to offer 



unto the Lord, prefiguring the redemption of the race through the atonement 
to be made by the Ouly Begotten of the Father; the joy of Adam and his 
spouse, even at the fall when its true significance is made known to them 
— "Inasmuch as thy children are conceived in sin, even so when they be- 
gin to grow up, sin conceiveth in their hearts and they taste the bitter, that 
they may know hozv to prize the good." With this truth clear to his un- 
derstanding — "Blessed be the name of God/' said the great Patriarch of 
our race, "for because of my transgression my eyes are opened and 
in this life I shall have joy, and again in the flesh I shall see God. And 
Eve, his wife, heard all these things and was glad, saying: Were it not 
for our transgression we never should have had seed, and never should 
have known good and evil, and the joy of our redemption, and the eternal 
life which God giveth unto all the obedient. And Adam and Eve blessed 
the name of God, and they made all things known unto their sons and 
daughters." (Book of Moses, pp. 20-21.) 

Then, too, the mission and preaching of Enoch, the establishment of 
Zion, and its translation into heaven, in all which there is much 
knowledge of ancient times restored to man. 

3. The Date of the Revelation of the Book of Moses: The 
time at which the Book of Moses was given to the Church by the 
Prophet should also be remembered, June, 1830. The Prophet was then 
only in his twenty-sixth year; yet had his soul reached so far into the 
things of God that he came to the Church with these precious, because 
fundamental, universal and yet to be world-moving truths. Whence 
came the Prophet's knowledge of these deep things of God, save by the 
revelations of God? The writer is reminded here of an incident which 
came under his observation in his missionary experience in the south. 
One of the traveling Elders of the Church had succeeded in arousing 
the interest of a very intelligent lady in the message he was sent to de- 
liver to the world, and had her reading the Book of Mormon, the Doc- 
trine and Covenants, and other Church works. Learning which, certain 
Christian ministers began calling upon her with the view of dissuading 
her from such investigation, and in connection with their protests gave 
her a tract setting forth the old Solomon Saulding theory of the origin 
of the Book of Mormon. Calling upon her a few days later, after she 
had had time to read their tract, the ministers inquired what she thought 
of the Book of Mormon now. "Well, gentlemen,." said she, "of course I 
am not able as yet to say whether the Spaulding theory or Joseph Smith's 
story of the origin of the Book of Mormon is true, but I have some- 
thing else to show you. Here is this Mormon book, the Doctrine and 
Covenants, claiming to be a collection of revelations received by Joseph 
Smith at first hand from the Lord. I believe there is no contention about 
his being the author of these revelations, and I find in them more evi- 
dences of divine inspiration than in the Book of Mormon, or in any 
other book I have ever read. Will you explain away the evidence of di- 
vinity in these revelations of which Joseph Smith is undoubtedly the 


author?" To this proposition there was no forthcoming answer, and 
much confused the ministers departed. I think the same idea may be 
applied to these books in the Pearl of Great Price — the Book of Moses, 
and the Book of Abraham — for in them, too, the same evidences of di- 
vine inspiration exist — bringing forth knowledge far beyond anything 
that the uaided mind of Joseph Smith could conceive. 

4. The Revelations of Scripture Local: The fact that the revela- 
tions of our Bible and other scriptures relate, in the main, to matters per- 
taining to "our God," "our earth and its heavens," as set forth in the 
Book of Moses, I regard as very important in relation both to the 
phraesology and meaning of all the scriptures. For when the scripture 
says: "In the begining God created the heaven and the earth," etc.; and 
"thus the heavens and the earth were finished and all the hosts of them," 
he has reference not to any absolute "beginning," or absolute "finishing," 
but only to the "beginning" and "finishing" as pertaining to our earth 
and the order of creation with which it is connected; and the "hosts" 
that pertain to our order of existence, not absolutely to all existences. 
The revelations we have received of God, let it be said again, are local, 
they relate to us and our order of existence; they may not at all, except 
in the most casual and general way, refer to that order of worlds con- 
nected with and governed by the Pleiades, or of Orion, much less to the 
further removed constellations and their systems of worlds. We learn 
from the Pearl of Great Price that when the Lord gave those revela- 
tions to Moses by which the prophet was enabled to write the creation 
history of our earth, the local character of those revelations was ex- 
pressly stated. (See Book of Moses, chap, i: 35, 40; chap ii: 1.) 






History and Doctrine in the Book of. 

1. The Priesthood of Abraham from 
the Fathers. 

2. Origin of the Egyptians. 

3. Domination of Egyptian Relig- 
ious Ideas ; Chaldea in Abraham's 

4. Abraham's Knowledge of Astron- 
omy through Urim and Thum- 

5. The Pre-Existence of Spirits and 
the Eternal Existence of Intelli- 

6. The Purpose in Man's Earth Pro- 
bation, Choice of the Redeemer. 

7. Creation Story Revealed to Abra- 
ham — Plurality of Gods. 


fa) Book Of Abraham, 
Chap, i; 1-4; 25-31. 

(b) Chap, i 

(c) Chap. i. 


(d) Chap. 
Witness for God 
pp. 443-453. 

1-18. New 
Vol. I, 

(e) Chap, iii: 16-26. 

(f) Chap, iii: 


(g) Chaps, iv-v. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "If tzvo things exist, and there be one above the 
other, there shall be greater things above them. * * * * Now, if there 
be two things, one above the other, and the moon be aboz'c the earth, then it 
may be that a planet or a star may exist above it; * * * * ^^ (,1^0 if 
there be two spirits, and one shall be more intelligent than the other, yet those 
two spirits notivithstanding one is more intelligent than the other, have no 
beginning ; they existed before, they shall have no end, they shall exist after, 
for they are gnolaum, or eternal. * * * * These tzijo facts do exist, that 
there are tzvo spirits, one being more intelligent than the other; there shall be 
another more intelligent than they; I am the Lord thy God, I am more intelli- 
gent than them all."— ^The Lord to Abraham. 


1. The Book of Abraham: The Book of Abraham, no less than the 
Book of Moses, is immensely rich in doctrine and historical incident. Of 


the latter the fact of the large influence (if not identy) of Egyptian religious 
ideas in Chaldea in the days of Abraham ; the descent of the cursed or black 
race from Cain, the first murderer; their preservation through the flood 
by the wife of Ham — "Egyptus, which in the Chaldean signifies 'Egypt,' 
which signifies that which is forbidden," implying that Ham had married 
into that race which was forbidden to the "sons of God," and were 
cursed as pertaining to the Priesthood; the origin also of the Egyptians — 
these things constitute the chief historical items that are contributed by 
the book. As to doctrines, perhaps the most important are the pre-exis- 
tence of spirits, and the eternal existence, yet varying grades of intel- 
ligences, chap, iii); the choice of the more noble spirits as God's rulers 
in the earth (Ibid); the purpose of the earth life of these eternal intelli- 
gences, viz., to be "added upon," which means growth, increase of knowl- 
edge through experience, enlarged wisdom, broader intelligence, in- 
creased power and glory, Moses' "tasting the bitter that they may know 
how to prize the good (Book of Moses, chap, vi: 55); and the plurality 
of Gods implied in the fact that in his creation story Abraham uses the 
plural form throughout in reference to the divine Beings engaged in the 
work of creation — "And the Gods said let there be light," — and the Gods 
called the light day," etc. We might claim for this book also the reve- 
lation of scientific truth in the Abrahamic system of astronomy, but that 
is too large a subject for treatment in a note; and therefore the student 
is referred to the very excellent work of Elder Geo. Reynolds, "The 
Book of Abraham: Its Authenticity Established as a Divine and Arncient 
Record." And also New Witnesses for God, Vol. I, chapters xxviii, 
xxix, and xxx. It should be said that it is more than sixty 
years since the Abrahamic system was first announced by the Prophet; 
and it is interesting to note the fact that though the heavens have been 
constantly searched by powerful telescopes during that time, nothing 
has yet been discovered which at all conflicts with it. On the contrary 
much has been learned which tends to confirm it. What God revealed on 
this most important and interesting branch of knowledge far outstripped 
at the time it was published, what scientists had learned or speculative philos- 
ophers had conjectured; and with confidence those who accept that revelation 
may watch the slow but important discoveries of astronomers which will 
yet demonstrate the truth of that system which God has revealed. It 
represents the universe as planned on a scale so magnificent that it is 
worthy of the intelligence of a God as its Creator. Such ideas of the 
construction of the universe that they are worthy of revelation; they 
carry with them by the very force of their grandeur the evidence of 
their truth; and when it is remembered that they were brought forth by 
a young man wholly separated from the centers of scientific thought, un- 
acquainted with the speculations of philosophers, and without any pre- 
vious knowledge of astronomy, it is not difficult to believe that he re- 
ceived his knowledge of them from the writings of one inspired or taught 
of God: and that he himself was gifted with divine power to translate 


those ancient writings, and hence himself a prophet and seer inspired of 

2. Astronomy in Ancient Egypt: "The more carefully one studies 
the great work of Copernicus [the father of modern astronomy] the 
more surprised he will be to find how completely Ptolemy [the Egyptian] 
furnished him both ideas and material. If we seek the teachers and 
predecessors of Hipparchus, the Greek, (160-125 B. C.) we find only the 
shadowy forms of Egyptian and Babylonian priests, whose names and 
writings are all entirely lost. In the earliest historic ages, men knew 
that the earth was round; that the sun appeared to make an annual rev- 
olution among the stars; and that eclipses were cause by the moon en- 
tering the shadow of the earth, or the earth that of the moon." (Popular 
Astronomy, Simon Newcomb, Introduction, p 2.) It is not at all im- 
probable that among the Egyptian and Babylonian priests above spoken 
of, "whose names and writings are all entirely lost," that Abraham may 
have had a place. 

3. The Influence of Abraham on Egyptian Thought: That Abra- 
ham was in Egypt is clear both from the Bible and the writings of Jose- 
phus. The latter after relating all that the Bible does, only in greater 
detail, adds to the account that the Egyptian king made Abraham a large 
present in money; "and gave him leave to enter into conversation with 
the most learned among the Egyptians; from which conversation, his 
virtue and his reputation became more conspicuous than they had been 
before. For whereas the Egyptians were formerly addicted to different 
customs, and despised one another's sacred and accustomed rites, and 
were very angry one with another on that account, Abraham conferred 
with each of them, and confuted the reasonings they made use of, every 
one for his own practices; he demonstrated that such reasonings were 
vain, and void of truth; whereupon he was admired by them, in those 
conferences, as a very wise man, and one of great sagacity, when he dis- 
coursed on any subject he undertook; and this was not only in under- 
standing it, but in persuading other men also to assent to him. He com- 
municated to them arithmetic, and delivered to them the science of as- 
tronomy; for before Abraham came into Egypt, they were unacquainted 
with those parts of learning; for that science came from the Chaldeans 
into Egypt, and from thence to the Greeks also." (Antiquities of the 
Jews, Bk I, chap, xiii.) 








I. The American Negro Race Problem. 

1. Advent of the Negro Race in 

2. Slavery and the Abolition of It. 

3. Political Enfranchisement of the 
Black Race — Its Wisdom or Un- 

4. Present Status of the Negro Race 

II. The Lav^^ of the Lord as Affecting 
the Negro Race Problem. 

1. The Progenitor of the Race. 

2. The Man\ier of Its * Preservation 
through the Flood. 

3. The Curse Put Upon it by Noah. 

4. In what Respects a Forbidden 

5. From all the Foregoing Deduce 
the Law of God in the Question. 


History of the United 
States by Alexander 
Stephens, pp. 36, 88, 366. 
Same Author's. "W^ar 
Between the States. Old 
Virginia and Her Neigh- 
bors (John Fiske), Vol. 
I, p. 18, 19, Vol. II. pp. 7, 
29, 41, 172-222, 228-231, 23.5-6. 

Emancipation Proclam- 
ation (Abraham Ldncoln), 
War Between the States. 
Vol. II. Appendix to Pa- 
pers and Messages of the 
Presidents' Vol. 

For Present Status of 
the Question see "The 
Color Line," W^m. Ben- 
jamin Smith, McClure 
Phillips & Co., N .Y. 

Book of Moses— Pearl 
of Great Price, Chap, v, 
ver.-^es 5-S, 22; Chap, viii; 
vehses -8, 2; Chap, viii: 
12-15. Gen. ix: 18-27. 

Book of Abraham, 
Chap, i: 9-11, 21-28. Com- 
pare Gen. ix: 18-27; also 
"The Book of Abraham— 
A Divine and Ancient 
Record," (Reynolds), p. 
6, 7. Smith's Old Testa- 
ment History, Chap. iii. 

SPECIAL TEXT: "Let not man join together what God hath put asun- 
der." — "The Color Line/' chap. i. 



1. Introduction of African Slavery into America: "Some time an 
terior to this period (i. e., 1620 A. D.) the Spaniards and Portuguese had 
bought from the chiefs on the coast of Africa negro captives, and had 
carried them to other parts of the world, especially to South America 
and the West Indies, and had sold them as slaves. This traffic they had 
continued without intermission, and in the year 1620 a Dutch vessel 
brought to Jamestown twenty of these unfortunate beings and sold 
them to the colonists of Virginia. This was the introduction of African 
slavery in the British American colonies, which has been the source of 
so much subsequent trouble, as we shall see. By the close of the year 
1620 the population of the colony amounted to nearly two thousand. 
Upon the subject of the introduction of African slavery in Virginia, and 
afterwards in all the other British colonies, out of which so much trou- 
ble and strife subsequently arose, it is quite proper here to state that a 
majority of the colonists at Jamestown were very much opposed to this 
introduction in their community of these supposed descendants of Ham 
a^ "bondsmen and bondswomen" for life. Their opposition arose, how- 
ever, perhaps more from considerations looking to the best interests and 
future welfare of the colony, in its progress in moral and material devel- 
opment, than from any feelings of humanity towards the unfortunate 
victims of this species of commerce. The African slave trade was at that 
time not only tolerated 'by all civilized nations, but actively engaged 
in for profit by many of the most distinguished Christian monarchs." 
(Stephens' History of the United States, p. 36.) 

2. The First American Slave Ship: "In 1636 was built at Marble- 
head, in Massachusetts, the first American slave-ship; it was called the 
Desire, and was intended for the African salve-trade, in which most of 
the European nations were then engaged directly or indirectly. The 
first cargo of African slaves brought into Massachusetts was by the De- 
sire, on the 20th of May, 1638. Many of the most prominent men pur- 
chased slaves out of this cargo; so that Massachusetts was a few years 
only behind Virginia in the introduction within the English settlements 
on this continent of this unfortunate race of slaves." (History of the 
United States, Stephens, p. 88.) * 

3. The Beginning of Abolition: "On the 12th of February, 1790, a 
petition, invoking the Federal authorities to adopt measures with a view 
to the ultimate abolition of African slavery, as it then existed in the re- 
spective States, was sent to Congress, headed by Dr. Franklin, who had 
been a very distinguished, though not a very active leader, owing to his 
age, in the ranks of the "Nationals," in the Philadelphia convention. 
There were then in the United States 697,897 negro slaves. They had 
been introduced into all the States, as we have seen, but most of them 


were at tHis time in the Southern States. This movement was looked 
upon with alarm everywhere by the true friends of the federal system, 
as it invoked the exercise of powers not delegated by the States to Con- 
gress. After a thorough discussion on the 23rd of March, 1790, in the 
House of Representatives, the question was quieted for the time by the 
passage of a resolution "That Congress have no authority to interfere 
in the emancipation of slaves, or in the treatment of them within any 
of the States; it remaining with the several States alone to provide any 
regulations therein, which humanity and true policy may require." (His- 
tory of the United States, Stephens, p. 367.) The act of emancipation 
did not come until 1863, in the midst of the Civil war, and then it was 
regarded merely as a war measure. 

4. The Race Question as Affecting the Southern States: Perhaps 
the most convincing book in justification of the South in denying to 
the negro race social equality with the white race is the one written by 
William Benjamin Smith, entitled "The Color Line, A Brief in Behalf 
of the Unborn," from which the following is a quotation: 

"Here, then, is laid bare the nerve of the whole matter: Is the south 
justified in this absolute denial of social equality to the negro, no mat- 
ter what his virtues or abilities or accomplishments? 

"We affirm, then, that the south is entirely right in thus keeping open 
at all times, at all hazards, and at all sacrifices an impassible social 
chasm between black and white. This she must do in behalf of her 
blood, her essence, of the stock of her Caucasian race. To the writer 
the correctness of this thesis seems as clear as the sun — so evident as 
almost to forestall argument; nor can he quite comprehend the frame of 
mind that can seriously dispute it. But let us look at it closely. Is 
there any doubt whatever as to the alternative? If we sit with negroes 
at our tables, if we entertain them as our guests and social equals, if we 
disregard the color line in all other relations, is it possible to maintain 
it fixedly in the sexual relation, in the marriage of our sons and daugh- 
ters, in the propagation of our species? Unquestionably, No! It is 
certain as the rising of tomorrow's sun, that, once the middle wall of 
social partition is broken down, the mingling of the tides of life would 
begin instantly and proceed steadily. Of course, it would be gradual, 
but none the less sure, none the less irresistible. It would make itself 
felt at first most strongly in the lower strata of the white population; 
but it would soon invade the middle and menace insidiously the very up- 
permost. Many bright mulattoes would ambitiously woo, and not a few 
would win, well-bred women disappointed in love or goaded by impulse 
or weary of the stern struggle for existence. As a race, the Southern 
Caucasian would be irrevocably doomed. For no possible check could 
be given to this process once established. Remove the barrier between 
two streams flowing side by side — immediately they begin to mingle their 
molecules; in vain you attempt to replace it. * * * * The moment 
the bar of absolute separation is thrown down in the South, that moment 
the bloom of her spirit is blighted forever, the promise of her destiny is 
annulled, the proud fabric of her future slips into dust and ashes. No 
other conceivable disaster that might befall the South could, for an in- 
stant, compare with such miscegenation within her borders. Flood and 
fire, fever and famine and the sword — even ignorance, indolence, and 


carpet-baggery — she may endure and conquer while her blood remains 
pure; but once taint the well-spring of her life, and all is lost — even 
honor itself. It is this immediate jewel of her soul that the South 
watches with such a dragon eye, that she guards with more than vestal 
vigilance, with a circle of perpetual fire. The blood thereof is the life 
thereof; he who would defile it would stab her in her heart of hearts, 
and she springs to repulse him with the fiercest instinct of self-preserva- 
tion. It may not be that she is distinctly conscious of the immeasur- 
able interests at stake or of the real grounds of her roused antagonism; 
but the instinct itself is none the less just and true and the natural bul- 
wark of her life. 

"At this point we hear some one exclaim, 'Not so fast! To sit at 
table, to mingle freely in society with certain persons, does not imply 
you would marry them." Certainly not, in every case. We may recog- 
nize socially those whom we personally abhor. This matters not, how- 
ever; for wherever social commingling is admitted, there the possibility 
of intermarriage must be also admitted. It becomes a mere question of 
personal preference, of like and dislike. Now, there is no accounting 
for tastes. It is ridiculous to suppose that no negroes would prove at- 
tractive to any white. The possible would become actual — as certainly 
as you will throw double-double sixes [in dice], if only you keep on throwing. 
To be sure, where the number of negroes is almost vanishingly small, 
as in the north and in Europe, there the chances of such mesalliances 
are proportionally divided; some may even count them negligible. But in 
the South, where in many districts the black outnumbers the white, A«y 
would be multiplied immensely, and crosses would follow with iacr«»s- 
ing frequency. * * * But some may deny that the mongrelization 
of the Southern people would offend the race notion — would corrupt or 
degrade the Southern stock of humanity. If so, then such a one has yet 
to learn the largest-writ lessons of history and the most impressive doc- 
trines of biological science. That the negro is markedly inferior to the 
Caucasian is proved both craniologically and by six thousand years of 
planet-wide experimentation; and that the commingling of inferior with 
superior must lower the higher is just as certain as that the half-sum of 
two and six is only four." 

A Final Word on Speech Building: In the notes that have accom- 
panied these special lessons, which we have suggested be treated in 
extempore speeches, we have gradually developed one single lesson 
in the matter of constructing a lecture or speech. The plan has 
been simple, and the illustrations abundant. The lesson in speech 
structure was based upon the simple principle of the speech having 
an Introduction, a Discussion, and a Conclusion, accompanied by 
several illustrations of noted speeches. A word was said with reference 
to the gathering of material for such an address, and the manner of de- 
livering it in the form of extempore speech. And now at the conclusion 
of the lesson, I desire to say one more thing, and to say it as emphati- 
cally as it is possible for it to be said. 

Let every speech, lecture, or discourse by a Seventy be an honest 
one. Let it be his own, good, bad, or indifferent. A poor speech that 
is one's own is more to one's credit than a good one stolen, and repeated 
as his. Plagiarism is defined to be an act "appropriating the ideas, 


writings, or inventions of another without due acknowledgment; specif- 
ically, the stealing of passages, either word for word or in substance, 
from the writings of another and publishing them as one's own; literary 
or artistic theft. * * * ^ writing, utterance, or invention stolen from 
another. (Dictionary, Funk & Wagnall's.) 

I desire to call the attention of our Seventies to the fact that the 
ugly words, "stolen," "theft," "stealing," are used as describing this act, 
and in literary ethics the act is just as despicable as those acts in com- 
mercial life that go under similar descriptive titles, "stealing," "theft," 
"robbery." And indeed, there is more excuse for such acts in commer- 
cial life than in literature. Of all despicable characters in the literary 
world, the pla'^'-'<'=t is regarded as the most contemptible, and yet there 
have not been wanting among us in the ministry of the Church (due to 
their ignorance of the ethics of literature, of course) those who have advo- 
cated the appropriation of sermons and lectures prepared by others ; and have 
advocated the repetition of these stolen sermons in the preaching of the 
gospel! I know of nothing that should be so completely repudiated in 
the Seventies' class work and their subsequent ministry as this course, 
or anything that smacks of it. It is as bad as wearing stolen clothes. 
It is asking one to shine not even by borrowed, but by stolen light. It 
will result in mental laziness. It is a confession of one's own inability 
to think for himself and work out from the mass of materials that lie 
before him in the revelations of God, the deductions and conclusions that 
make for the establishment of faith and righteousness in the lives of 
others. A few ideas hammered out on the anvil of one's own thought, 
even though they be crudely and haltingly expressed, if they are one's 
own, that is a better beginning and more hopeful than the most glowing 
declamation of the sermon that has been stolen from another, or plag- 
iarised from some book or tract. I beg of you to adhere to this counsel. 
Of all things have your discourses honest before God and before men. 

Of course, I know the excuse that is made to justify plagiarism 
among some of our young and inexperienced Elders. Some of our 
young brethren are conscious of their unpreparedness to immediately 
begin their work when called to the ministry, and they feel the necessity 
of beginning at once; for they are called upon to speak immediately on 
arriving in their missions, and they are overwhelmed with the sense of 
having nothing to say, and either through wrong suggestion of others, 
or misconception of the proprieties in the premises, they commit to mem- 
ory the discourse of a companion, or a tract (See Editor's Table of Era, 
September, 1907), or parts of books and deliver such memorized tracts 
or discourses as their own. That is plagiarism, which is always dishonest 
and not in harmony with the Spirit of truth, which is the Spirit of the 
gospel. To meet such an emergency of unpreparedness supposed to 
justify the kind of plagiarism referred to above, I suggest that it would 
be better for the Elder to confess his inability to set forth the doctrine 


or message for the present, but say that he had in his possession a tract 
or book that did so, and with permission of those who had gathered he 
would read some passages from it that would set forth some of the doc- 
trines of our faith; and then read so much as might be necessary for the 
occasion. Or he might say that on a given occasion he had heard his 
companion set forth a certain doctrine or part of the message they were 
sent to deliver in a manner that appealed to him, and as his companion 
had not referred to it, or was not likely to refer to it on this occasion he 
would take the liberty of doing so; being careful to credit his companion 
throughout, and especially at points peculiarly striking. By taking this 
course, he preserves the consciousness of his own honesty, and by dili- 
gence will soon work himself out of the necessity of reading or repeat- 
ing the ideas and language of others. 

President Joseph F. Smith's Benediction on, and Instructions to the 


"I feel like blessing the quorums of the Priesthood, every one of 
them, from the High Priests to the Deacons. I pray God, my Heavenly 
Father to remember them in their organizations, to help them, that they 
may magnify the Priesthood they hold and do the will of the Father; 
that the Seventies may be minute men, instant in season and out of sea- 
son, ready and willing to respond to the calls that are made upon them 
to go and preach the gospel to the world. Gather in from the Elders' 
quorums those who have proven themselves worthy and who have gained 
experience, and make Seventies of them, so that the quorum of the Sev- 
enties may be replenished; and the aged ones, whose physical condition 
will not permit them any longer to do missionary duty in the world, let 
them be ordained High Priests and Patriarchs, to bless the people and to 
minister at home. Gather in the strong, the vigorous, the young, the 
able-bodied, who have the spirit of the gospel in their hearts, to fill up 
the ranks of the Seventies, that we may have ministers to preach the 
gospel to the world. They are needed. We cannot now meet the de- 
mand." (Conference Reports, October, 1905, p. 95.) 

The Seventy's Course in Theology 


Outline History of the Dispensations of 

the Gospel 

Compiled and Edited by 


Of the First Council of 
the Seventy 

"The things of God are of deep import; and time and experience, and 
careful and ponderous and solemn thoughts can only find them out." — 
Joseph Smith. 


Salt Lake City 


Copyrighted by 


For the First Council of Seventy 



The Seventy's Year Book No. II is a series of forty-four lessons on 
"The Outline History of the Dispensations of the Gospel." As our Year 
Book No. I was a rapid survey of the whole body of scriptures recognized 
by the Church, so the present Year Book is a like rapid, general survey 
of the principle dispensations of the Gospel given to men upon this earth. 
As the survey of the scripture books was made for the purpose of forming 
a general idea of the books as a body of sacred literature, and that some 
idea might be learned of their essential unity; so this present outline 
survey of the chief dispensations of the Gospel is Intended to give some 
general views of the Gospel not otherwise obtainable, and to fix in the 
mind of the student the idea of essential unity in the Gospel in all 
dispensations: Establishing the idea that there is but one Gospel; and 
that, the "everlasting gospel;" the same through all ages. That it was 
the plan devised in heaven before the foundations of the earth were laid, 
and will endure as a means of salvation so long as there are naen to be 

The Treatment of the Theme: The treatment of the theme is eub- 
stantially the same as in Year Book No. I. That is to say, an analysis 
of the subject of the lesson is given, in which the lesson is subdivided 
under those heads into which the subject naturally falls. For the infor- 
mation, of the student texts and books are cited accompanying usually 
each subdivision of the subject and these references in every case should 
be c'arefully read so far as the books cited can be obtained by the student; 
and as the books to which citations in the main are made, the four books 
recognized by the Church as Holy Scripture, each Seventy student should 
have these. Accompanying each lesson are a series of notes, sometimes 
detached, but often, in this Year Book, they constitute a brief continuous 
treatise upon the subject in hand, which should be amplified by wide 
reading and deep study on the part of the student. In all cases where no 
citation of authorities is given at the close or in the body of the note, 
they are written by the compiler and editor or are taken from his works. 

In this connection I would say a word in relation to the several les. 
sons which I have called "A Prelude to the History of the Dispensations." 
It may be thought that these lessons are difficult, and deal with matters 
not necessary to the main subject. Of course the author of this Year 
Book holds a different view or the lessons would not be presented. To 


him the principles there developed are fundamental and essential to a 
right understanding of the Dispensations of the Gospel; and should not 
be omitted because they invite attention to lines of thought somewhat 
unusal to us in the study of the Gospel. It is the existence of these prin- 
ciples in our Theology that makes "Mormonism" a religion and not a 
mere sect. They constitute an essential part of the message we have for 
the world; and the ministry of the Church should master these subjects, 
though thinking upon them is unusual and the mastery of such themes is 
slowly acquired. Let it be remembered that "The things of God are of 
deep import; and time and experience, and careful and ponderous and 
solemn thought can only find them out."' 


Scripture Reading Exercises are to continue throughout the year, 
though Special Texts printed with each lesson are abandoned in this 
Year Book, as it is hoped that the advantage of collecting or noting 
special texts of the scripture, and striking passages from other choice 
literature, while reading, has been sufficiently demonstrated to now be- 
come a habit with those who read good books. 


In no case should it be regarded as a complete preparation of the les- 
son to merely glance over the analysis and read the notes. The lesson as 
constructed is merely to be regarded as an outline of the particular theme 
as the whole Year Book itself is to be looked upon as a mere outline trac- 
ing of the History of the Gospel in the successive ages through which it 
sweeps. The lessons indicate a method of treatment that may be followed; 
but original research by reading, consluting authorities, and thorough 
thinking should be employed in the preparation of the student; and the 
Year Book looked upon and used as merely a help and guide in this in- 

What is said in the Introduction of Year Book, No. I, in relation to 
Class Teachers, Manner of Lesson Treatment, Home Reading, the Prep- 
aration of Lessons, Opening Exercises and Prayer, should be considered 
standing instructions to the Seventies through the ensuing year in their 
class meetings. And it will be well to consider these topics in the Intro- 
duction of Year Book No. I before beginning the exercises outlined in 
this year's work, that the minds of the class may be refreshed in those 
matters and the exercises and preparation work be made to conform to 
these instructions. 

In addition to what is in the Introduction to Year Book No. I, we 
suggest that from observation of the class work during the past year, the 
Seventies have not reached the character of work that may be reasonably 
expected of them in treating topicte of the lessons assigned to them. We 
have a right to expect that members of our quorums when assigned a 

lesson, or auy part of it, will become such masters of the subject, 
at least of that part of it assigned to them, that they will be able to 
make an intelligent presentation of it, clear cut, with a beginning, a mid- 
dle, and a conclusion to it; and something that will be an intelligent 
statement at least of the subject, instead of being through witli an im- 
portant topic by a two or three minute statement of it, of which half is 
apology or excuse. These topics certainly require a ten or fifteen or 
twenty minute exposition that shall be worth while. And while we would 
not be severe in our criticism of the past, or too demanding for the future, 
certainly it can reasonably be expected that Seventies will make some 
exertion that will give the results here alluded to. We want, in the 
first plac|e, work; in the second place, work; in the third place, work; 
and then work; and more work; and better work. That program will 
spell success. There is no excellence without labor, and muc^i of it. 


Relative to the text books. All of the books recommended in the 
Introduction of last year's course are available and necessary as author- 
ities in this present year's course, and in addition to these works of 
refereince, a good, General History will be of great service. That of 
P. V. N. Meyers, prepared for Colleges and High Schools, (Ginn & Com- 
pany, Publishers, Boston) being perhaps the most desirable, price $1.50. 

In the Apostatic division of our treatise. Part V, numerous references 
are made to Ecclesiastical histories and works of a theological character, 
some of which would be difficult to obtain, such as "Mosheim's Institutes 
of Ecclesiastical History;" Neander's "History of the Christian Religion;" 
Schaff's "History of the Apostolic Church;" "Mosheim's "History of Chris- 
tianity in the First Three Centuries;" Hefele's "History of Christian 
Councils;" "Millman's History of Christianity in the First Three Cen- 
turies;" Lardner's Works," and the like. But "The Students Ecclesias- 
tical History," written by Dr. Philip Smith, author of the "Old Testament" 
and "New Testament Histories," frequently quoted in Seventy's Year 
Book No. I, and in this, published by Harper Brothers in two volumes, 
(price $3.00), is within the reach of all; and on the whole is a very fine 
Compendium of Ecclesiastical History, quite dispassionate in tone, and 
generally trustworthy, and brings events down to the death of Luther, 

Also there is in print the "Ecclesiastical History" by Eusebius Pam- 
philus. Bishop of Caesarea, covering the first three Christian centuries. 
Eusebius is generally styled the "Father of Ecclesiastical History," and 
those who can obtain this authority are dealing with original sources of 
information. The work is translated from the Greek, and ptiblished and 
obtainable through any of our book stores. In this connection we urge 
our members to gradually obtain; but as soon as may be, these reference 
books, as no workman can get along without tools. 

The Improvement Era: We call attention also to the Improvement 
Era, the Organ of the Seventies and of the Young Men's Mutual Improve- 
ment Associations, with its special Seventy's department, The Seventy's 
Council Table. This magazine affords the First Council opportunity to reach 
every quorum of Seventy once every month throughout the year — Twelve 
communications each year, of several pages of printed matter, bearing 
upon Seventies work; — suggestions in class work; dealing with questions 
of quorum administration; with questions of doctrine, and history, and 
exposition of the scriptures. How valuable an adjunct it has become in 
our work! We enjoin it upon our presidents that they see to it that all 
subjects in the Era of special interest to their several quorums be 
brought forth to said quorums by the Presidents, and read for the infor- 
mation of the quorum, that all may be benefited by the instruction. From 
reports made to the General Secretary, Elder J. G. Kimball, we learn that 
some two thousand Seventies take the Era, so that with each monthly 
issue of the Era we are in touch with that many individual Seventies. 
Many more of our members, however, should subscribe for this 
magazine, and the Presidents should urge members to subscribe for and 
read it as one of the best means of keeping in touch with the work of 
the Seventies. 

The Seventy's Course in Theology 


Outline History of the Dispensations of 

the Gospel 



(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. Intelligencies — Existence and Charac- Pearl of Great Price ch. 

ter of ^^" ®*' Jo^ i- 1"^'* Com- 

pared with Doc. and Cov. 
sec. xciii 6-31. See the 
Prophet Joseph's "King 
FoUett Sermon" Apl. 7, 
1844, MiU. Star Vol. xxiii, 
pp. 245-280 and notes 1, 2, 
3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 

II. Distinction Between "Intelligences" Book of Ether ch. lii: is- 

and "Spirits." 16, and the foregoing refer- 

ences of the lesson and note« 
1, 7. Also Article in the 
"Improvement Era," Apri 
1907, on the "Immortality 
of Man."* 

* The following appears as a note preceding the article in question, 
from which article most of the notes in this and in lessons following in 
Part I are taken: "Elder Roberts submitted the following paper to the 
First Presidency and a number of the Twelve Apostles, none of whom 
found anything objectionable in it, or contrary to the revealed word of 
God, and therefore favor its publication. — Editors." 



1. Intelligencies-Co-Eternal: "If two things exist, and there be 
one above the other, there shall be greater things above them. ***** 
If there be twj spirits, and one shall be more intelligent than the other, 
yet these two spirits, notwithstanding one is more intelligent than the 
other, have no beginning; they existed before, they shall have no end, 
they shall exist, for they are gnolaum, or eternal. Book of Abra- 
ham ch. 3, 16, 18.) 

2. Intelligencies, Eternal, Self-existent: "The soul — the mind of 
man — the immortal spirit — where did it come from? All learned men 
and doctors of divinity say that God created it in the beginning; but 
it is not so: the very idea lessens man in my estimation. I do not be- 
lieve the doctrine. I know better. Hear it, all ye ends of the world, 
for God has told me so, if you don't believe me, it will not make the truth 
without effec r. * * * we say that God himself is a self-existent being. 
Who told you so? It is correct enough, but how did it get into your 
head? Who told you that man did not exist in like manner, upon the 
same principles? Man does exist upon the same principles. ***** 
The mind or the intelligence which man possesses is co-equal, [co-eter- 
nal*], with God himself. I know my testimony is true." — Joseph Smith, 
(Mill. Star, Vol. XXIII, p. 262.) 

3. The Nature of Intelligencies: There is in that complex thing 
we call man, an intelligent entity, uncreated, self existent, indestructible, 
He — for that entity is a person; because, as we shall see, he is possessed 
of powers that go with personality only, hence that entity is "he," not 
'"it," — he is eternal as God Is; co-existent, in fact, with God; of the same 
kind of substance or essence with deity, though confessedly inferior in 
degree of intelligence and power to God. One must needs think that 
the name of this eternal entity — what God calls him — conveys to the 
mind some idea of his nature. He is called an "intelligence;" and this 
I believe is descriptive of him. That is, intelligence is the entity's chief 
characteristic. If this be a true deduction, then the entity must be self- 
conscious, and "others — conscious," that is, he must have the power to 
distinguish himself from other things — the "me" from the "not me." 
He must have the power of deliberation, by which he sets over one 
thing against another; with power also to form a judgment that this or 
that Is a better thing or state than this or that. Also there goes with 
this idea of intelligence a power of choosing one thing instead of an- 
other, one state rather than another. These powers are inseparably con- 
nected with any idea that may be formed of an intelligence. One can- 
not conceive of intelligence existing without these qualities any more 

*It must be remembered that these sermons of the prophet were 
reported in long hand, and by several persons (See History of the 
Church, Vol. IV, p. 556-note) ; and hence verbal inaccuracies may exist, 
of which the above is doubtless one. The Prophet could not have meant 
to have taught that the "intelligence" in man was "co-equal with God", 
except as to being co-equal in eternity with God, since the Book of Abra- 
ham teaches that God is more intelligent than all other intelligencies 
(ch. iii: 19) and the Prophet himself, as will be seen in subsequent 
quotations, teaches the same truth. Hence the insertion of word above 
in brackets. 

than he can conceive of an object existing in space without dimensions. 
The phrase "the light of truth" [Doc. & Gov., Sec. xciii.] is given in one 
of the revelations as the equivalent for an "intelligence" here discussed; 
by which is meant to be understood, as I think, that intelligent en- 
tities perceive the truth, are conscious of the truth, they know that which 
is, hence "the light of truth," "intelligence." Let it be observed that 
I say nothing as to the mode of the existence of these intelligences, be- 
yond the fact of their eternity. But of their form, or the manner of their 
subsistence nothing, so far as I know, has been revealed, and hence we 
are without means of knowing anything about the modes of their exist- 
ence beyond the fact of it, and the essential qualities they possess, which 
already have been pointed out. 

4. Words Used Interchangeably: It is often the case that mis- 
conceptions arise through a careless use of words, and through 
using words interchangeably, without regard to shades of dif- 
ferences that attach to them; and this in the scriptures as 
in other writings. Indeed, this fault is more frequent in the scrip- 
tures perhaps than in any other writings, for the reason that, for the 
most part, they are composed by men who did not aim at scientific exact- 
ness in the use of words. They were not equal to such precision in the 
use of language, in the first place; and in the second, they depended 
more upon the general tenor of what they wrote for making truth ap- 
parent than upon technical precision in a choice of words; ideas, not 
niceness of expression, was the burden of their souls; thought, not its 
dress. Hence, in scripture, and I might say especially in modern scrip- 
ture, a lack of careful or precise choice of words, a large dependence 
upon the general tenor of what is written to convey the truth, a wide 
range in using words interchangeably that are not always exact equiva- 
lents, are characteristics. Thus the expressions, "Kingdom of God," 
"Kingdom of Heaven," "the Whole Family in Heaven," "the Church," 
"the Ghurch of Christ," "the Church of God," are often used interchange- 
ably for the Church of Christ when they are not always equiva- 
lents; so, too, are used the terms "Spirit of God," and "Holy Ghost;" 
"Spirit of Christ," and the "the Holy Ghost;" "Spirit," and "Soul;" 
"intelligencies," and "spirits:" "spirits," and "angels." I mention this 
in passing, because I believe many of the differences of opinion and much 
of the confusion of ideas that exist arise out of our not recognizing, or 
our not remembering these facts. Hereafter let the student be on his 
guard in relation to the use of the words "intelligencies," "spirits," 
"soul," "mind," etc: and he will find his way out of many a difficulty. 

5. Intelligence Eternal — Not Created: "Man was also in the be- 
ginning with God. Intelligence, or the light of truth, was not created 
or made, neither indeed can be." (Uoc. & Gov., Sec. xciii. 29.) 

"I am dwelling on the immorality of the spirit of man. Is it logoli- 
cal to say that the intelligence of spirits is immortal, and yet that it (i. e. 
the intelligence) had a beginning. The intelligence of spirits had no 
beginning, neither will it have an end. That is good logic. That which 


has a beginning may have an end. There never was a time when there 
were no spirits, for they are co-equal (co-eternal) with our Father in 
heaven. ***** i take my ring from my finger and liken it unto the 
mind of man — the immortal part, because it has no beginning. Suppose 
you cut it in two; then it has a beginning and an end; but join it again 
and it continues one eternal round. So with the spirit of man. As the 
Lord liveth, if it had a beginning it will have an end. ***** Intelli- 
gence is eternal and exists upon a self-existent principle. It is a spirit* 
from age to age and there is no creation about it. * * * * * The first 
principles of a man are self-existent with God. — Joseph Smith — (Mill. 
Star, Vol. 23, p. 262.) 

6. The Difference Between "Spirits," and Uncreated "Intelligencies:" 
In the Book of Mormon we have the revelation which gives the most light 
upon spirit-existence of Jesus, and, through his spirit-existence, light 
upon the spirit-existence of all men. The light is given in that com- 
plete revelation of the pre-existent, personal spirit of Jesus Christ, made 
to the brother of Jared, ages before the spirit of Jesus tabernacled in 
the flesh. The essential part of the passage follows: 

Behold, I am he who was prepared from the foundation of the 
world to redeem my people. Behold, I am Jesus Christ; ***** and 
never have I showed myself unto man whom I have created, for never 
has man believed in me as thou hast. Seest thou that ye are created 
after mine own image? Yea, even all men were created in the beginning 
after mine own image. Behold this body which ye now behold, is the 
body of my spirit; and man have I created after the body of my spirit; 
and even as I appear unto thee to be in the spirit, will I appear unto my 
people in the flesh. 

What do we learn from all this ? First, let it be re-called that accord- 
ing to the express word of God 'intelligences" are not created, neither 
indeed can they be. Now, with the above revelation from the Book of Mormon 
concerning the spirit-body of Jesus, before us, we are face to face with 
a something that was begotten, and in that sense a "creation," a spirit, 
the "first born of many brethren;" the "beginning of the creations of 
God." The spirit is in human form — for we are told that as Christ's 
spirit-body looked to'Jared's brother, so would the Christ look to men when 
he came among them in the flesh; the body of flesh conforming to the 
appearance of the spirit, the earthly to the heavenly. "This body which 
ye now behold is the body of my spirit"— the house, the tenement of 
that uncreated intelligence which had been begotten of the Father a 
spirit, as later that spirit-body with the intelligent, uncreated entity 
inhabiting it, will be begotten a man. "This body which you now behold 
is the body of my spirit," or spirit-body. There can be no doubt but what 
here "spirit," as in the Book of Abraham, is used interchangeably with 
"intelligence," and refers to the uncreated entity; as if the passage 
stood; "This is the body inhabited by an intelligence." The intelligent 
entity inhabiting a spirit-body make up the spiritual personage. It is 

♦Observe in the above quotation from the Prophet, how he some- 
times uses the word "spirit" interchangeably with "intelligetice." but 
mark, he twice uses the expression, "intelligence of spirits." 


this spirit life we have so often thought about, and sang about. In this 
state of existence occurred the spirit's "primeval childhood;" here spirits 
were "nurtured" near the side of the heavenly Father, in his "high and 
glorious place;" thence spirits were sent to earth to unite spirit-ele- 
ments with earth-elements — in some way essential to a fulness of glory 
and happiness (Doc. & Gov. Sec. xciii: 32-35) — and to learn the lessons 
earth-life had to teach. The half awakened recollections of the human 
mind may be chiefly engaged with scenes, incidents and impressions 
of that spirit life; but that does not argue the non-existence of the 
uncreated intelligences who preceded the begotten spiritual personage 
as so plainly set forth in the revelations of God. 

The difference, then, between "spirits" and "intelligencies," as here 
used, is this: Spirits are uncreated intelligencies inhabiting spiritual 
bodies; while "intelligencies," pure and simple, are intelligent entities, 
but unembodied in either spirit bodies or bodies of flesh and bone. They 
are uncreated, self-existent entities, possessed of "self-consciousness," 
and "other-consciousness" — they are conscious of the "me" and the "not 
me"; they possess powers of discrimination, (without which the term 
"intelligence" would be a solecism) they discern between the evil and 
the good; between the "good" and "the better." They possess "will" or 
"freedom," — within certain limits at least* — the power to deterimne upon 
a given course of conduct, as against any other course of conduct. This 
intelligence "can think his own thoughts, act wisely or foolishly, do right 
or wrong." To accredit an "intelligence" with fewer or less important 
powers than these, would be to discredit him as an "intelligence" al- 

7. Effect of the Doctrine of the Eternal Existence of Intelligences on 
Our Terminology: The conception hereset forth in the doctrine that intelli- 
gencies are co-eternal with God, uncreated and uncreatable, self-existent, in- 
destructible, will be to change somewhat the currently accepted notion in 
regard to pre-existence of intelligencies and spirits, and in a way the num- 
ber of estates through which they pass. It is customary for us to say,that 
there are three grand estates of existence through which intelligencies 
pass in the course of their exaltation to resurrected, immortal, divine 
beings (See Jacques's Catechism, chap, vi.) : first, their pre-existence as 
spirits, sons and daughters of God, in the spirit woi-ld; second, these 
spirits clothed upon with mortal bodies — earth-life of men and women; 
third, spirits inhabiting bodies that have been resurrected, immortal be- 
ings clothed with imperishable bodies prepared for eternal advancement 
in the kingdoms of God. But the doctrine of the Prophet and of the 
scriptures he gave to the world, require us to recognize before the first 

*We see that this is true as to men as intelligencies. As one re- 
marks: "Within certain temporary material limitations, man is free. 
He cannot speak if he be dumb, nor see if he be blind; but. mentally 
and morally, he is always free. He can think his own thoughts, act wise- 
ly or foolishly, do right or wrong." — (See Great Questions, p. 21.) 

estate as set forth in the above order, the existence of the self-existent 
intelligencies before they are begotten spirits, sons and daughters of 
(Jod. So that it could be said that there are four estates in which intel- 
ligencies exist instead of three; namely; self-existent, uncreaterl and un- 
begotten intelligencies, co-eternal with God; second, intelligencies begot- 
ten of God spirits; third, spirits begotten men and women, still sons and 
daughters of God; fourth, resurrected beings, immortal spirits inhabiting 
imperishable bodies, still sons and daughters of God, and in the line 
of eternal progression, up to the attainment of divine attributes and 
powers. Still, if we have regard to those changes through which intel- 
ligences pass, rather than to their status before and after those changes, 
then we may still say that so far as the matter has been revealed theire 
are three estates or changes through which intelligences pass in the 
course of their development or evolution into divine beings; and thus 
preserve the terminology of otir sacred literature to which we are ac- 
customed. (See Book of Abraham, ch. iii: 22-26. Also Jaques' Catechism, 
ch. vi.) 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. Relationship of Jesus to Other Intel- ,„?J„i:^S:'„''S'Doc';"i 

llgences. Cov. Sec. xdil-. 6-22. King 

Follet's Sermon, Mill. Star, 
Vol. XXIII: p. 245-280. 
Also notes, 2, 3, 4. 

II. The Relationship of God and Other Pearl of Great Price, 

Intelligences. f^^ of Abraham, ch. m: 

° 19-23 and note 5. 


1. Men and Jesus of the Same Order of Beings: The Scriptures 
teach that Jesus Christ and men are of the same order of beings; that 
men are of the same race with Jesus, of the same nature and essence; 
that he is indeed our elder brother. "For it became liim, for whom are all 
things and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to 
make the captain of their salvation perfect through suffering. For both 
he that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one: for which 
cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren." (Heb. ii: 10, 11.) Hence 
while very far removed from us in that the Christ is more perfect in 
righteousness, and more highly developed in intellectual and spiritual 
powers than we, yet these differences are of degree, not of kind ; so that 
what is revealed concerning Jesus, the Christ, may be of infinite helpfulness 
in throwing light upon the nature of man and the several estates he has 
occupied and will occupy hereafter. The co-eternity of Jesus Christ with 
God, the Father, is quite universally held to be set forth in the preface of 
John's gospel, which is so familiar that it need not be quoted here. More- 
over, to us who accept the new dispensation of the gospel, through the 
revelations of God to the Prophet Joseph Smith, the doctrine of John's 
preface comes with increased emphasis by reason of the proclaimed ex- 
tension of the principle of the co-eternity of God, the Father, and Jesus 
Christ, to other beings, namely, to men; and by asserting also the fact 
that the intelligent entity in man, the mind, intelligence, was "not created 
or made, neither indeed can be." The following is from the revelation: 

"John saw and bore record cf the fulness of my glory. * * * and 
he bore record saying, I saw his glory that he was in the beginning be- 
fore the world was; therefore in the beginning the Word was, for he was 
the Word, even the messenger of salvation, the Light and the Redeemer 


of the world, the Spirit of Truth, who came into the world because the 
world was made by him, and in him was the life of men and the light 
of men" 

Such is the account which Jesus gives of John's testimony; and now 
Jesus himself: 

"And now, verily, 1 say unto you, I was in the beginning with the 
Father, and am the first born. ***** Ye [referring to the brethren who 
were present when the revelation was given] were also in the be- 
ginning with the Father, that which is spirit, even the spirit of truth. 
***** Man [meaning the race] was also in the beginning with GrOd. 
Intelligence, or the light of truth, was not created or made, neither indeed 
can be. All truth is independent in that sphere in which God has placed 
it, to act for itself, as all intelligence also; otherwise there is no exist- 
ence. Behold here is the agency of man, and here is the condemnation 
of man, because that which was from the beginning is plainly manifest 
unto them and they receive not the light. And every man whose spirit 
receiveth not the light is under condemnation, for man is spirit." 

Here we have the co-eternity of Jesus and of all men most emphati- 
cally stated: "I was in the beginning with the Father. ***** Ye were 
also in the beginning with the Father, that which is spirit;" that is, that 
part of man that is spirit. "Man," that is all men, the term is generic — 
"man was in the beginning with God." And then mark what follows: 
"Intelligence" — the part that was with God in the beginning, the en- 
tity of man which cognizes truth, that perceives that which is, mind, 
say, — "intelligence, or the light of truth, was not created or made, neither 
indeed can be." 

2. Jesus as the First Born: Sure it is that God, the Father, is the 
Father of the spirits of men. "We," says Paul, "have had fathers of our 
flesh which corrected us, and we gave them reverence: shall we not much 
rather be in subjection unto the Father of spirits and live?" 

According to this, then, there is a "Father of Spirits." It follows, 
of course, that "spirits" have a father — they are begotten. It should 
be remarked that the term, "spirits" in the above passage cannot refer 
to self-existent, unbegotten intelligences of the revelations, considered 
in the foregoing note; and certainly this relationship of fatherhood to 
spirits is not one brought about in connection with generation of human 
life in this world. Paul makes a very sharp distinction between "Fathers 
of our flesh" and the "Father of spirits," in the above. Fatherhood to 
spirits is manifestly a relationship established independent of man's 
earth-existence; and, of course, in an existence which preceded earth- 
life, where the uncreated intelligences are begotten spirits. Hence, the 
phrase "shall we not be subject to the Father of spirits and live?" 

Christ is referred to by the writer of the epistle to the Colossians, 
as the "first bom of every creature;" and the Revelator speaks of him as 
"the beginning of the creation of God;" and in the revelation alreaxiy 
quoted so often (Doc. & Gov. sec. xciii.) Jesus represents himself as 
being in the "beginning with the Father;" and as "the first born." 

The reference to Jesus as the "first born of every creature" 


cannot ret'ei- to his birth into earth-life, for he was not the first-born into 
this world; therefore, his birth here referred to must have reference to 
the bii'th of his spirit before his earth life. 

The reference to Jesus as the "beginning of tke creation of God," 
cannot refer to his creation or generation in earth-life; for manifestly he 
was not the beginning of the creations of God in this world; therefore, 
he must have been the "beginning" of God's creation elsewhere, viz. in 
the spirit world, wheae he was begotten a spiritual personage; a son of 

The reference to Jesus as the "first born" — and hence the justifica- 
tion for our calling him "our Elder Brother" — cannot refer to any rela- 
tionship that he established in his earth-life, since as to the flesh he is 
not our "elder brother," any more than he is the "first born" in the fiesh; 
there were many born as to the flesh before he was, and older brothers to 
us, in the flesh, than he was. The relationship of "elder brother" can- 
not have reference to that estate where all were self-existent, uncreated 
and unbegotten, eternal intelligencies ; for that estate admits of no such 
relation as "elder," or "younger;" for as to succession in time, the fact 
on which "younger" or "elder" depend, the intelligences are equal, that is, 
— equal as to their eternity. Therefore, since the relationship of "elder 
brother" was not established by any circumstance in the earth-life of 
Jesus, and could not be established by any possible fact in that estate 
where all were self-existing intelligences, it must have been established 
in the spirit life, where Jesus, with reference to the hosts of intelligences 
designed to our earth, was the "first born spirit," and by that fact became 
our "Elder Brother," the "first born of every creature," "the beginning 
of the creations of God," as pertaining to our order of existence. (See 
note 10, lesson v.) 

3. Why God is God: "These two facts do exist, that there are two 
spirits, one being more intelligent than the other; there shall be an- 
other more intelligent than they: I am the Lord thy God, I am more 
intelligent than them all. ***** i dwell in the midst of them all; * * * 
I rule in the heavens above, and the earth beneath, in all wisdom and 
prudence, over all the intelligencies thine eyes have seen from the be- 
ginning." (Word of the Lord to Abraham, Book of Abraham, ch. iii: 
19-21.) "I am more intelligent than them all." By this expression 
I do not understand the scripture to mean that God is more intelligent 
than any one of the other intelligencies, but more intelligent than all of 
them combined. His intelligence is greater than that of the mass. It is 
this fact doubtless which makes this One, "more intelligent than them 
all," God. He is the All- Wise One! The All-Powerful One! What he tells 
other intelligencies to do must be precisely the wisest, fittest thing that 
they could anywhere or anyhow learn — the thing which it will in all- 

*The language here is paraphrased from Carlyle's lecture, "The Hero 
as King." 


ways behoove them with right loyal thankfulness, and nothing doubting, 
to do.* There goes with this, too, the thought that this All Wise One, 
will be the Unselfish One, the -All-Loving One, the One who desires that 
which is highest, and bast; not lor Himself alone, but for all; and that 
will be best for Him too. His glory, His power. His joy will be enhanced 
by the uplifting of all, by enlarging them; by increasing their joy, 
power, and glory. And because this All Intelligent One is all this, and 
does all this, the other intelligencies worship Him, submit their judg- 
ments and their will to His judgment and His will. He knows, and can 
do that which is best; and this submission of the mind to the most In- 
telligent, Wisest — wiser than all — is wordship. This the whole meaning 
of the doctrine and the life of the Christ expressed in — "Father, not my 
will but Thy will, be done." 

5. The Desire of God for the Advancement of Other Intelligences: 
"The first principles of man are self-existent with God. God himself, 
finding he was in the midst of spirits and glory, because he was more 
intelligent, saw proper to institute laws whereby the rest could have 
a privilege to advance like himself. The relationship we have with God 
places us in a situation to advance in knowledge. He has power to in- 
stitute laws, to instruct the weaker intelligencies, that they may be 
exalted with himself, so that they might have one glory upon another, 
and all that knowledge, power, glory, and intelligence which is requisite 
in order to save them in the world of spirits. This is good doctrine. It 
tastes good. I can taste the principles of eternal life, and so can you. 
They are given to me by the revelations of Jesus Christ; and I know 
that when I tell you these words of eternal life as they are given to me, 
you taste them, and I know that you believe them. You say honey is 
sweet, and so do I. I can also taste the spirit of eternal life. I know 
it is good; and when I tell you of these things which were given me by 
inspiration of the Holy Spirit, you are bound to receive them as sweet, 
and rejoice more and more." — Joseph Smith. (Mill. Star, Vol. XXIII, 
p. 262.) 

6. Value of the Doctrine of Eternal Existence: But what is the 
value of this doctrine of the eternal existence of uncreated intelligences? 
In what way does it contribute to the better apprehension of that which 
is, the truth? These considerations, of course, should not be and are not 
our first concern. Our first consideration should be and has been the 
truth of the thing. But since that is now settled by what God has re- 
vealed about it, we may well, if possible, ascertain what helpfulness there 
is in the doctrine, for the right apprehension of the general scheme of 
things. This apprehension, I believe, it affects in a very vital way. 
As matters now stand, the usually accepted Christian doctrine on the 
matter of man's origin is that God of his free-will created of nothing 
the spirits and bodies of men. That they are as he would have them, 
since in his act of creation he could have had them different if he had 


CO minded. Then why should he — being infinitely wise and powerful 
and good, for so the creeds represent him — why should he create by 
mere act of volition beings such as men are, not only capable of, but 
prone to, moral evil? Which, in the last analysis of things, in spite of 
ail special pleadings to the contrary, leaves responsibility for moral evil 
with God? God's creative acts culminating thus, the next pertinent ques- 
tions are: Then what of the decreed purpose of God to punish moral 
evil? and what of the much vaunted justice of God in that punishment? 
Wherein lies the just responsibility of man if he was so created as to 
love evil and to follow it? It is revolting to reason, as it is shocking to piety 
to think, that God of his own free will created some men, not only in- 
clined to wickedness, but desperately so inclined; while others, he of his 
own volition created with dispositions naturally inclined toward good- 
ness. In like manner stands it with man in relation to his inclination 
to faith, and to disbelief: and yet, under the orthodox belief all are in- 
cluded under one law for judgment! Under the conception of the ex- 
istence of independent, uncreated, self-existent intelligences, who by the 
inherent nature of them are of various degrees of intelligence, doubtless 
differing from each other in many ways, yet alike in their eternity and 
their freedom; with God standing in the midst of them, "more intelli- 
gent than them all," and proposing the betterment of their condition — 
progress to higher levels of being, and power through change — under 
this conception of things how stand matters? There is the begetting of 
these intelligences, spirits; the spirits, men; the men, resurrected per- 
sonages of infinite possibilities; at each change increased powers for 
development are added to intelligences, yet ever present through all the 
processes of betterment is the self-existent entity, the "intelligencies," 
with the tremendous fact of his consciousness and his moral freedom, 
and his indestructibility; — he has his choice of moving upward or down- 
ward in every estate he occupies; often defeating, for a time, at least, 
the benevolent purposes of God respecting him, through his own perverse- 
ness; he passes through dire experiences, suffers terribly, yet learns 
by what he suffers, so that his very suffering becomes a means to his 
improvement; he learns swiftly, or slowly, according to the inherent 
nature of him, obedience to law; he learns that "that which is governed 
by law, is also preserved by law, and perfected and sanctified by the 
same; and that which breaketh law abideth not by law, but seeketh to 
become a law unto itself and willeth to abide in sin, cannot be sanctified 
by law, neither by mercy, justice nor judgment. Therefore they must 
remain filthy still." (Doc. & Gov. sec. 88: 34, 35.) This conception of 
things relieves God of the responsibility for the nature and status of in- 
telligences in all stages of their development; their inherent nature and 
their volition make them primarily what they are, and this nature they 
may change, slowly, perhaps, yet change it they may. God has put 
them in the way of changing it by enlarging their intejligence through 


change of environment, through experiences; the only way (Jod effects 
these self-existent beings is favorably; he creates not their inherent! 
nature; he is not responsible for the use they make of their freedom; 
nor is he the author of their suflerings when they fall into sin: that arises 
out of the violations of law to which the "inteQligence" subscribed, and 
must be endured until its lessons are learned. 

*To the class teachers. When giving this lesson make your appoint- 
ment for lesson six, which is a discourse. This will give plenty of time 
for preparation. The class ought to expect much from him or those who 
receive the assignment. Make it an occasion. 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I, The Purpose of God in the Earth-exist- 
ence of Man. 


The Pre-Creation Council in Heaven. 

1. Character of Lucifer — his Proposi- 

2. Character 

of Messiah — His Propo- 

Job xxxviii: 4-7. Pearl 
of Great Price, Book of 
Moses, ch. i: 27-40. II 
Nephi ii — the whole chap- 
ter, especially verses 22-26. 
Doc. and Cov. Sec. cxiii: 
30-35. Notes 1, 2, 3. 

Pearl of Great Price, 
Book of Moses, ch. iv: 1-4. 
Ibid, Book of Abraham, ch. 
iii: 22-28. Rev. xii:7-17. 
II Nephi ii: 17, 18. Ibid, 
ch. ix 8, 9. Doc. and Cov. 
Sec. xxix: 36-39. Ibid, 
Ixxvi: 25-29, Jude 6. II 
Peter ii: 4, and note 4. 

1. The purpose of God in His Creations: "And it came to pass 
that Moses called upon God, saying: Tell me I pray thee why these things 
[the creations of God upon which Moses had looked] are so, and by 
what Thou madest them. * * * And the Lord God said unto Moses: 
For mine own purpose have I made these things. ***** And by the Word 
of my power, have I created them, which is mine Only Begotten Son, 
who is full of grace and truth. And worlds without number have I 
created; and I also created them for mine own purpose; and by the 
Son I created them, which is mine Only begotten. And the first man of 
all men have I called Adam, which is many. * * * And it came to pass 
that Moses spake unto the Lord, saying: Be merciful unto thy servant, 
O God, and tell me concerning this earth, and the inhabitants thereof, 
and also the heavens, and then thy servant will be content. And the 
Lord God spake unto Moses, saying: The heavens, they are manj', and 
they cannot be numbered unto man; but they are numbered unto me, for 
they are mine. And as one earth shall pass away, and the heavens 
thereof, even so shall another come; and there is no end to my works, 
neither to my words. For behold, this is my work and my glory — to bring 
to pass the immortality and eternal life of man." — (Pearl of Great Price, 
Book of Moses, ch. i: 30-39.) 

2. The Purpose of Man's Earth-Existence: "Q. For What purpose 
are the spirits of men sent to take bodies upon the earth? 

"A. That they may be educated, developed, and perfected; that they 
may enjoy a fulness of knowledge, power, and glory forever, and thus in- 
crease the dominion and glory of God. (Jacques' Catechism, ch. 6.) 

"We came to this earth that we might have a body and present it 


pure before God in the celestial kingdom. The great principle of happi- 
ness consists in having a body. The devil has no body, and herein is his 
punishment. He is pleased when he can obtain the tabernicle of man, 
and when cast out by the Savior he asked to go into the herd of swine, 
showing that he would prefer a swine's body to having none." — .Joseph 
Smith, Richards & Little's Compendium— "Gems", p. 2^S. 

3. "Man is Spirit: The elements an eternal, and spirit and element, 
inseparably connected receive a fulness of joy; and when separated, man 
cannot receive a fulness of joy. The elements are the tabernacle of 
God; yea, man is the tabernacle of God, even temples." (Doc. & Gov. 
sec. xciii, 33-35.) 

4. All Present at the Pre-creaticn Council: "The first step in the 
salvation of man is the laws of eternal and self-existent principles. Spirits 
are eternal. At the first organization in heaven we were all present, and 
saw the Savior chosen and appointed and the plan of salvation made, and 
we sanctioned it." — Joseph Smith, Richard and Little's Compendium, 
"Gems," p. 288. 

5. Council of the Gods: 

In Solemn council sat the Gods; 

From Kolob's height supreme. 
Celestial light blazed forth afar 

O'er countless kokaubeam; 
And faintest tinge, the fiery fringe 

Of that resplendent day, 
'Lumined the dark abysmal realm 

Where earth in chaos lay. 

Silence self-spelled; the hour was one 

When thought doth most avail; 
Of worlds unborn the destiny 

Hung trembling in the scale. 
Silence o'er all, and there arose. 

Those kings and priests among, 
A Power sublime, than whom appeared 

None nobler 'mid the throng. 

A stature mingling strength with grace, 

Of meek though God-like mien. 
The love-revealing countenance 

Lustrous as lightning sheen; 
Whiter his hair than ocean spray. 

Or frost of alpine hill. 
He spake; — attention grew more grave. 

The stillness e'en more still. 

"Father!" — the voice like music fell, 

Clear as the murmuring flow 
Of mountain streamlet trickling down 

From heights of virgin snow. 
"Father," it said, "since one must die, 

Thy children to redeem. 
Whilst earth, as yet unformed and void. 

With pulsing life shall teem; 


"And thou, great Michael, foremost fall, 

That mortal man may be, 
And chosen Saviour yet must send, 

Lo, here am I — send me I 
I ask, I seek no recompense. 

Save that which then were mine; 
Mine be the willing sacrifice, 

The endless glory. Thine! 

"Give me to lead to this lorn world, 

When wandered from the fold, 
Twelve legions of the noble ones 

That now thy face behold; 
Tried souls, mid untried spirits found; 

That captained these may be, 
And crowned the dispensations ail 

With powers of Diety. 

"A love that hath redeemed all worlds, 

All worlds must still redeem; 
But mercy cannot justice rob — 

Or where were Elohim? 
Freedom — man's faith, man's work, God's grace — 

Must span the great gulf o'er; 
Life, death, the guerdon or the doom. 

Rejoice we or deplore." 

Silence once more. Then sudden rose 

Aloft a towering form. 
Proudly erect as towexing peak 

'Lumed by the gathering storm ; 
A presence bright and beautiful, 

With eye of flashing fire, 
A lip whose haughty curl bespoke 

A sense of inward ire. 

"Give me to go!" thus boldly cried. 

With scarce concealed disdain; 
"And hence shall none, from heaven to earth, 

That shall not rise again. 
My saving plan exception scorns; 

Man's agency unknown; 
As recompense, 1 claim the right 

To sit on yonder throne!" 

Ceased Lucifer. The breathless hush 

Resumed and denser grew. 
All eyes were turned; the general gaze 

One common magnet drew. 
A moment there was solemn pause; 

Then, like the thunder-burst. 
Rolled forth from lips omnipotent — 

From Him both last and first: 

"Immanuel! thou my Messenger, 
Till time's probation end. 


And one shall go thy face before, 

\Miile twelve thy steps attend. 
And many more, on that far shore, 

The pathway shall prepare. 
That I, the First, the last may come. 

And earth my glory share. 

"Go forth, thou chosen of the Gtods, 

Whose strength shall in thee dwell! 
Go down betime and rescue earth, 
y Dethroning death and hell. 
On thee alone man's fate depends, 

The fate of beings all. 
Thou shalt not fail, though thou art free — 
Free, but too great, to fall. 

—Whitney's "Ellas," Canto III. 

*A careful study of all the scriptural references should be made of 

all lessons, but particularly of this lesson. 



(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 


ANALYSIS. .. f^^^'T^^'f^^ 

Note 1, definition. 

Doc and Gov. Sec. xciii; 

I. The Fact of Agency. , 30-33. Ixxxvi: 46, 47: x: 

63-66; xxix: 34-37. 

Boole of Moses — (P. G. 

III. Nature of Agency. p.) ch. ill, ; iv:3 :vi: 56. 

Book of Mormon II Ne- 

III. Fact of Free Agency Assumed in Pract- ^ jj; ^: J; g; "^Z 

ical Life and in Jewish Scripture. ^^^. 3. Heiaman xiv: 31. 

Alma, xxix: 4; also ch 

IV. Effect of the Doctrine of Free Agency ^ Notes 2 and 3. 

Upon the Relationship of God and Notes 4 and 5. 

Other IntelligencieS. Note 3 in Lesson I. Al- 

so note 6, Lesson II. 

1. Free Agency: First as to the word "free." The authorities de- 
fine it to mean having liberty to follow ones own views, desires, inclina- 
tions, or choice. Possessed of self-initiatory povv-er. Hence exempt from 
the arbitration, dominion or direction of others. By "free agency" is 
meant the power or capacity of acting freely, that is, without constraint 
of the law. A rational agent whose actions are determined by his own 
unstrained will. Wayland in his University sermons says, man was en- 
dowed with the gift of free agency. He has the same power to dis- 
obey the law of God as to obey it. If a man is not a free agent he is 
not the authority of his actions, and has, therefore, no responsibility, no 
moral personality at all. (Standard Dictionary). The term "moral 
agent," means practically the same thing as "free agent." "A moral 
agent is a being that is capable of those actions that have a moral qual- 
ity, and which can properly be denominated good or evil in a moral 

2. Analysis of mind Operations in Free Agency: I believe the stu- 
dent of the subject of the "free agency of intelligencies" will find the 
following analysis on the freedom of the will, summarized from Guizot, 

(a) Power of Deliberation: The mind is conscious of a power of 
deliberation; before the intellect passes the different motives of action, 
interests, passions, opinions, etc. The intellect considers, compares, es- 


timates, and finally judges them. This is a preparatory work which pre- 
cedes the act of will. 

(b) Liberty, Free Agency or Will: When deliberation has taken 
place — when man has taken full cognizance of the motives which present 
themselves to him, he takes a resolution, of which he looks upon him- 
self as the author, which arises because he wishes it, and which would 
not arise unless he did wish it — here the fact of agency is shown; it 
resides complete in the resolution which man makes after deliberation; 
it is the resolution which is the proper act of man, which subsists by 
him alone; a simple fact independent of all the facts which predede it or 
surround it. ;-j 

(c) Free Will, or Agency iVlodified: At tlie same time that man feels 
himself free, he recognizes the fact that his freedom is not arbitrary, that 
it is placed under the dominion of a law which will preside over it and 
influence it. What that law is will depend upon the education of each in- 
dividual, upon his surroundings, etc. To act in harmony with that law 
is what man recognizes as his duty; it will be the task of his liberty. He 
will soon see, however, that he never fully acquits himself of his task, 
never acts in full harmony with his moral law. Morally capable of con- 
forming himself to his law, .he falls short of doing it. He does not ac- 
complish all that he ought, nor all that he can. This fact is evident, 
one of which all may give witness; and it often happens that the best 
men, that is, those who have best conformed their will to reason have 
often been the most struck with their insufRcience. 

(d) Necessity of Eternal Assistance: This weakness in man leads 
him to feel the necessity of an external support to operate as a fulcrum 
for the human will, a power that may be added to its present power and 
sustain it at need. Man seeks this fulcrum on all sides; he demands it 
in the encouragement of friends, in the councils of the wise; but as the 
visible world, the human society, do not always answer to his desires, 
the soul goes beyond the visible world, above human relations, to seek 
this fulcrum of which it has need. Hence the religious sentiment de- 
velops* itself: man addresses himself to God, and invokes his aid through 

(e) Man Finds the Help He Seeks: Such is the nature of man that 
when he sincerely asks this support he obtains it; that is, seeking it is 
almost sufficient to secure it. Whosoever feeling his will weak invokes 
the encouragement of a friend, the influence of wise councils, the sup- 
port of public opinion, or who addresses himself to God by prayer, soon 
feels his will fortified in a certain measure and for a certain time. 

(f) Influence of Spiritual World on Liberty: There are spiritual in- 
fluences at work on man— the empire of the spiritual world upon liber- 
ty. There are certain changes, certain moral events which manifest 
themselves in man without his being able to refer their origin to an act 
of his will, or being able to recognize the author. Certain facts occur 
in the interior of the human soul which it does not refer to itself, which 
it does not recognize as the work of its own will. There are certain days. 


certain moments in which it finds itself in a different moral state from 
that which it was last conscious of under the operations of its own 
will. In other words, the moral man does not wholly create himself; 
he is conscious that causes, that powers external to himself act upon 
and modify him imperceptibly — this fact has been called the grace of 
God which helps the will of man, while others see in it the evidences 
of predestination." 

3. Free Agency More Than a Mere Choice Between Alternatives: 
"When most people talk of believing in moral freedom, they mean by 
freedom a power which exhausts itself in acts of choice between a series 
of alternative courses: but, important though such choice as a function 
of freedom is, the root idea of freedom lies deeper still. It consists in 
the idea, not that a man is, as a personality, the first and the sole cause 
of his choice between alternative courses, but that he is, in a ture, even 
if in a qualified sense, the first cause of what he does, or feels, or is, 
whether this involves an act of choice, or consists of an imimpeded im- 
pulse. Freedom of choice between alternatives is the consequence of 
this primary faculty. It is the form in which the faculty is most notice- 
ably manifested; but it is not the primary faculty of personal freedom 
itself. That this faculty of the self-origination of impulse is ideally what 
we mean by freedom, and what we mean by personality also, is shown 
by the only supposition which is open to us, if we reject this. If a man is 
not in any degree, be this ever so limited, the first cause or originator 
of his own actions or impulses, he must be the mere transmitter or quot- 
ient of forces external to his conscious self, like a man pushed against 
another by the pressure of a crowd behind him. In other words, he would 
have no true self — no true personality at all." (Mallock, see note 4.) 

4. Free Agency in Practical Life— Literature— History: In his work 
on the "Reconstruction of Religious Belief," (a work by the way, we 
recommend to our Seventies) W. H. Mallock devotes a chapter to "Men- 
tal Civilization and the BeUef in Human Freedom," the tenor of which 
assumes that in the practical affairs of life, in literature and in histroy, 
we proceed upon the assumption that man is a free agent and can de- 
termine, within certain limits at least, both his physical and moral con- 
duct; and argues that without this power, the life of man would be mean- 
ingless. In the matter of love he decides with Shakespear's lago that 
"It is in ourselves that we are thus or thus. Our bodies are the gardens 
to the which our wills are gardeners." That this is true he holds to bo 
"attested not only by the private experiences of most civilized men, but 
also by all the great poetry in which the passion of love is dealt with." 
"Such poetry is," in Shakespeare's words, "a mirror held up to nature; 
and it is only recognized as great because it reflects faithfully." In the 
matter of heroism in the face of physical danger, he holds that the same 
story repeats itself. "A man who for some great end undergoes prolonged 
peril, and deliberately wills to die for the sake of that end if necessary, 
is no doubt valued, because such conduct 'originates in the man's con- 
scious self, which he has deliberately chosen, when he might just as well 

have chosen its opposite and which is not imposed on him by conditions, 
whether within his organism or outside it." The virtue which arises 
from forgiveness of sin exists in consequence of recognition of this force 
we call agency in man. "Forgiveness," says our author, "is an act which, 
in the absence of a belief in freedom, (free agency) not only would lose 
its meaning, but could not take place at all. To forgive an injury, implies 
that bad as the offence may have been, the man who committed it was 
better than his own act, and was for this reason not constrained to com- 
mit it; and while it is only the assumption of the better potential self in 
him that makes him a subject to whom moral blame is applicable, it is 
only for the sake of this self that forgiveness can abstain from blaming. 
The believer in freedom says to the offending party, T forgive you for 
the offense of not having done your best.' The determinist (one who be- 
lieves that man has not the power of free will) says: 'I neither forgive 
nor blame you; for although you have done your worst, your worst was 
your best also.' " Of the great characters of literature, Mr. Mallock also 
says: "They interest us as born to freedom, and not natui'ally slaves, 
and they pass before us like kings in a Roman triumph. Once let us 
suppose these characters to be mere puppets of heredity and circum- 
stance, and they and the works that deal with them lose all intelligible 
content, and we find ourselves confused and wearied with the fury of an 
idiot's tale." Historical characters are placed in the same category. All 
praise or blame only has meaning as we regard these historical charac- 
ters as free moral agents: "All this praising and blaming is based on 
the assumption that the person praised or blamed is the originator of his 
own actions, and not a mere transmitter of forces. Man's significance 
for men in the whole category of human experiences 'resides primarily 
in what he makes of himself, not in what he has been made by an organ- 
ism derived from his parents, and the various external stimuli to which 
it has automatically responded." ("The Reconstruction of Religious Be- 
lief," W. H. Mallock.) 

5. The Fact of Free Agency Assumed in the Jewish Scripture: It 
will be matter of surprise perhaps to the student that in the scriptural 
references upon the subject of free agency of intelligencies no references 
are cited in either the Old or the New Testament. The reason is that 
so far as the writer knows there is no explicit text in either covering the 
exact point. The "freedom" of man, however, free agency, power to obey 
or disobey the law of God, is everywhere pre-supposed throughout both 
the Old and New Testaments. It is a doctrine nowhere in doubt from the 
first commandment in Genesis to the last in the Book of Revelation. Of 
what significance is the commandment in Genesis: "Of every tree of the 
garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of knowledge of good 
and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof 
thou Shalt surely die" — of what significancje, I say, is this law to man if 
he possesses not the power within himself to obey it or disobey it? 

Then in the last chapter of the last book of the Bible (as now ar- 
ranged) it is written: "Blessed are they that do his commandments, that 


they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the 
gates into the city. * * * And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And 
let him that heareth say. Come. And let him that is athirst come. And 
whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely" — of what signifi- 
cance to man is this scripture if he has not the power of his own volition. 
to keep the commandments of God that he may have right to the tree of 
life; or to accept the invitation of the Lamb and the Bride to come and 
"take of the water of life freely?" "Whosoever will, let him take the 
water of life freely!" What a mockery is here if man cannot 'will" to 
take of the waters of life! Is it thinkable that the "Lamb," the loving 
Christ, would issue an invitation to man in a matter so important as 
partaking of the water of life, if man has no power to accept such invi- 
tation? Is the Christ capable of such mockery? One could think it of 
some malicious demon; but of Messiah, never! 

I have said that so far as known to this writer there is no passage 
either in the Old or New Testament that explicitly teaches the free agency 
of intelligencies of men; but implicitly free agency is taught in many 
passages throughout the Jewish scriptures of which the above quoted 
passages are but examples. In lesson IX of Part II of the First Year 
Book (p. 53) attention is called to the fact that in the Book of Esther 
the name of Diety does not occur; and yet it may be said to be the 
general opinion of all Bible scholars that in no book in the sacred col- 
lection is the presence of God more felt than in that same Book of Esther! 
So it is in respect of this doctrine of free agency and the Jewish scrip- 
tures. Though this doctrine is nowhere explicitly designated in terms 
in the Old or New Testament, yet every where throughout the sacred 
book its presence is felt, and the fact of it is everywhere assumed. 

* This is a brief treatise on the spiritual and natural creations, but is 
too long for insertion in the notes of this lesson. Where available I sug- 
gest it be read to the quorums. 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



Note 1, Definition; notes 
2, 3, 4, 5, 6. "Materialitj'" 

I. Matter — External Existence and Ex- —See Mormon Doctrine of 

tension of. Diety, p. 254 et. seq. Note 

— 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, Genesis 
chs. i and ii. Key to The- 
ology cli. -^i, Ed. 1891. 

Book of Moses. (P. G. 

P.) ch. i: 4, 5, 8, 28-42, also 

II. Creation — * ch. li and ch. iii: 1-15; and 

1. Spiritual. note 7 and 8. 

2. Natural. o ?°^^"^ :^.^o«^°i/^' ?" 

p.) ch. ni: 24-26. Also ch. 
iv and v. 

Doc. and Co v. Sec. xxix: 
30-35. "The Gospel" (3rd 
Edition),pp. 274-284. 

III. The Revelations of Scripture Local. Book of Moses ch. i: 27- 

40. Also ch. ii: 1. 
Note — 


1. Matter: That of which the sensible universe and all existent 
bodies are composed; anything which has extension, occupies space, or 
is perceptible by the senses; body, substance. 

Matter is usually divided by philosophical writers into three kinds or 
classes; solid, liquid, and aeriform. Solid substances are those whose 
parts firmly cohere and resist impression, as wood or stone. Liquids have 
free motion among their parts, and easily yield to impression, as water 
and wine. Aeriform substances are elastic fluids, called vapors and gases, 
as air and oxygen gas. (Webster's International Dictionary.) 

2. Matter in Itself: AATiat matter is, in itself and by itself, is quite 
hopeless of answer and concerns only metaphysicians. The "Ding an 
sich" * * * is forever outside the province of science. If all men 
stopped to quarrel over the inner inwardness of things, progress, of 
course, would cease. Science is naive; she takes things as they come, 
and rests content with some such practical definition as will serve to 

* This is to be but a glimpse of a very great subject, which some 
day may be expanded by the author of this Year Book into a treatise on 
the "Mormon Doctrine of Creation." 


differentiate matter from all other forms of non-matter. This may be 
done strictly provisionally in this place, by defining matter as that which 
occupies space and possesses weight. Using these two properties it is 
readily possible to sift out matter from all the heterogeneous phenomena 
that present themselves to the senses, and that, in this place, is what we 
want. Thus, wood, water, copper, oil and air are forms of matter for 
they evidently possess weight and fill space. But light, heat, electricity and 
magnetism we cannot consider to fill so many quarts or weigh so many 
pounds. [Light, heat, electricity — are properties of matter.] They are, 
therefore, forms of non-matter. In like manner, things such as grace, 
mercy, justice and truth, while they are existing entities as much as mat- 
ter, are unquestionably non-matter" [Gi'ace, mercy, etc., are qualities of 
spirit, which itself is doubtless matter, but of finer quality than that 
which is recognized by the senses.] ("The New Knowledge," R. K. Dun- 
can, p. 2.) 

3. Indestructibility of Matter: The gradual accumulation of expe- 
riences, has tended slowly to reverse this conviction [i. e. that matter 
may be annihilated] ; until now, the doctrine that matter is indestructible 
has become a commonplace. All the apparent proofs that something can 
come out of nothing, a wider knowledge has one by one cancelled. The 
comet that is suddenly discovered in the heavens and nightly waxes 
larger, is proved not to be a newly-created body, but a body that was 
until lately beyond the range of vision. The cloud which in the course 
of a few minutes forms in the sky, consists not of substance that has 
just begun to be, but of substance that previously existed in a more 
diffused and transparent form. And similarly with a crystal or precipi- 
tate in relation to the fluid depositing it. Conversely, the seeming an- 
nihilations of matter turn out, on close observation, to be only changes of 
state. It is found that the evaporated water, though it has become invis- 
ible, may be brought by condensation to its original shape. The dis- 
charged fowling-piece gives evidence that though the gunpowder has dis- 
appeared, there have appeared in place of it certain gases, which in as- 
suming a larger volume, have caused the explosion." "First Principles, 
(Herbert Spencer), p. 177, Appleton Edition, 1896. 

4. Uncreatibility of Matter: "Conceive the space before you to be 
cleared of all bodies save one. Now imagine the remaining one not to be 
removed from its place, but to lapse into nothing while standing in that 
place. You fail. The space which was solid you cannot conceive becoming 
empty, save by transfer of that which made it solid. * * * However 
small the bulk to which we conceive a piece of matter reduced, it is im- 
possible to conceive it reduced into nothing. While we can represent to 
ourselves the parts of the matter as approximated, we cannot represent 
to ourselves the quantity of matter as made less. To do this would be to 
imagine some of the constituent parts compressed into nothing; which is 
no more possible than to imagine compression of the whole into nothing. 


Our inability to conceive matter becoming non-existent, is immediately 
consequent on the nature of thought. Thought consists in the establish- 
ment of relations. There can be no relation established, and therefore 
no thought framed, when one of the related terms is absent from con- 
sciousness. Hence it is impossible to think of something becoming noth- 
ing, for the same reason that it is impossible to think of nothing becom- 
ng something — the reason, namely, that nothing cannot become an object 
of consciousness. The annihilation of matter is unthinkable for the same 
reason that the creation of matter is unthinkable." — First Principles, p. 

5. Conservation of Mass: 'This law, known as the law of the con- 
servation of mass, states that no particle of matter, however small, may 
be created or destroyed. All the king's horses and all the king's men 
cannot destroy a pin's head. We may smash that pin's head, dissolve 
it in acid, burn it in the electric furnace, employ, in a word, every an- 
nihilating agency, and yet that pin's head persists in being. Again, it is 
as uncreatable as it is indestructible. In other words, we cannot create 
something out of nothing. The material must be furnished for every 
existent articje. The sum of matter in the universe is 'X' pounds, — and, 
while it may be carried through a myriad forms, when all is said and 
done, it is just-'X' pounds." (The New Knowledge, R. K. Duncan, p. 3, 

6. Extension of Matter Tlirough Infinite Space: "Through all eter- 
nity the infinite universe has been, and is, subject to the law of substance. 
* * * The extent of the universe is infinite and unbounded; it is 
empty in no part, but everywhere filled with substance. The duration 
of the world (i. e. universe) is equally infinite and unbounded; it has no 
beginning and no end: it is eternity. Substance is everywhere and always 
in uninterrupted movement and transformation: nowhere is there perfect 
repose and rigidity; yet the infinite quantity of matter and of eternally 
changing force remains constant." (The Riddle of the Universe, Ernst*. 
Haeckel, p. 242., 

Compare the foregoing note with the Book of Moses (P. G. P.-, chap, 
i; also chap, vii: 30,31; also Book of Abraham chap, iii: 1-19. 

7. The Prophet Joseph Smith's Views of Creation: "There is no 
such thing as immaterial matter. All spirit is matter, but it is more fine 
or pure, and can only be discerned by purer eyes. We cannot see it; 
but when our bodies are purified, we shall see that it is all matter. (Doc. 
& Gov. Sec. cxxxi.) * * * You ask the learned doctors why they 
say the world was made out of nothing, and they will answer, "Don't the 
Bible say He created the world?" And they infer from that word 'create' 
that it must be made out of nothing. Now the word create came from 
the word baurau, which does not mean to create out of nothing; it means 
to organize, the same as man would organize material and build a ship. 
Hence we infer that God had materials to organize the world out of — 


chaos — chaotic matter, which is element and in which dwells all the glory. 
Elements had an existence from the time He [God] had. The pure prin- 
ciples of elements can never be destroyed, they may be organized and re- 
organized, but not destroyed. They had no beginning, and can have 
no end." (Mill. Star, vol. 23, p. 248.) 

"The world and earth are not synonymous terms. The world is the 
human family. The earth was organized or formed out of other planets 
which were broken up and remodeled and made into the one on which we 
live. The elements are eternal. * * * in the translation 'without form 
and void' [Gen. i: 2] it should read, 'empty and desolate.' The word 
'created' should be 'formed,' or 'organized.' " (Richards & Little's 
"Compendium," p. 287 — "Gems,") 

"Professor Luther T. Townsend of Boston University in a new book 
entitled Adam and Eve, in which he discusses the question as to whether 
the first chapters of Genesis are history or myth, dealing with the 
second verse of the first chapter of Genesis — 'And the earth was without 
form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep — " he claims 
that the literal i-endering of it is this: 'And the earth had become (past 
perfect tense) 'tohu' a wreck and 'lohu' without inhabitant. This desolate 
and tenantless condition agrees perfectly with what science reports of 
the general epoch ; and there can be little doubt on scientific grounds," 
continues Prof. Townsend, "that during the break up of the ice age a 
darkness denser than that of the densest London fogs was upon the 
face of the floods." (Press Comment, Prof. Townsend's book.) 

This sustains the position of the Prophet Joseph stated above. 

8. New Theory of Earth Structure: — "In recent years theories of 
mountain formation have changed like everything else scientific. * * ♦ 
The new theories hark back to the original formation of the earth. The 
conception of a hot drop of a world swinging in space, gradually cooling 
and forming a shell as smooth as a billiard ball, has been partly aban- 
doned. The nebular hypothesis has been modified, the so-called me- 
teoritic hypothesis has been found inadequate; and the more plausible 
planetessimal theory of Professors Chamberlin and Salisbury has been 
put forth. 

"The latest theory argues the formation of the world by gradual ac- 
cretions from planetary bodies. It assumes the origin of our solar system 
in a common spiral nebula — the nebula being in a thin solid or liquid 
state, as suggested by the spectrum analysis of it. The knots or por- 
tions of the nebula showing the most concentration, are the nuclei of 
future planets, and the thinner haze the portions from Avhich the knots 
are formed. All these knots move about the central mass (the sun) in 
elliptical orbits of considerable eccentricity. The planetessimals are 
gathered in, and through accretions from such a world as ours, by the 
crossing of the elliptical orbits in the course of their inevitable shiftings." 


("The High Alps," by John C. Van Dyke, Scribner's Magazine, June, 

9. Worlds Organized on Pre-Arranged Plan: "The organization of 
the spiritual and heavenly worlds, and of spiritual and heavenly beings, 
was agreeable to the most perfect order and harmony: their limits and 
bounds were fixed irrevocably, and involuntarily subscribed to in their 
heavenly estate by themselves, and were by our first parents subscribed 
to upon the earth. Hence the importance of embracing and subscribing 
to principles of eternal truth by all men upon the earth that expect eter- 
nal life." (Joseph Smith, Conference at Nauvoo, Oct. 8, 1843, Millennial 
Star, vol. XXII, p. 231.) 

10. Our Revelations Local: That is, our revelations in the Scrip- 
tures — all four books — pertain to our earth, and its heavens; to those in- 
telligencies, spirits, men, angels, arch-angels, God, and Gods, pertaining 
to that order of existences to which we belong. I call attention to the 
fact for the reason that I believe the principle indicated is very important, 
not only in the discussion in hand, but it has an important bearing upon 
the whole phraseology and meaning of our scriptures. When God's word 
says, for instance, "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth," 
etc.; and "thus the heavens and the earth were finished and all the hosts 
of them," he has reference not to any absolute "beginning" or absolute 
"finishing," but only the "beginning" and "finishing" as pertaining to our 
earth and the order of creation with which it Is connected; and the 
"hosts" that pertain to our order of existence, not absolutely to all exis- 
tences. The revelations we have received of God, let it be said again, 
are local, they relate to us and our order of existence; they may not at 
all, except in the most casual and general way, refer to that order of 
worlds connected with and governed by the Pleiades, or of Orion, much 
less to the further removed constellations and their systems of worlds. 

We learn from the Pearl of Great Price that when the Lord gave 
those revelations to Moses by which the prophet was enabled to write 
the creation story of our earth, the local character of those revelations 
was expressly stated: "Worlds without number," said the Lord to Moses, 
have I created — but ©nly an account of this earth and the inhabitants 
thereof give I unto you — Behold, I reveal unto you concerning this heaven, 
and this earth; write the words which I speak. * * * In the begin- 
ning I created the heavens and the earth on which thou standest." The 
subject is too important for treatment in a mere note, but in passing I 
desired to call attention to the important bearing it has upon the 
subject in hand, as also upon our whole system of thought and exposi- 
tion of the scriptures. 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 

(A Discourse) 


1. Suggestion on the Lesson Treatment: No analysis is given to 
this lesson. It is designed to give those to whom the subject is assigned 
— and one, two, or even more may be assigned to the subject — an oppor- 
tunity to make their own sub-divisions and work out their own treatment 
in their own way. It should be said in passing, however, that it is to 
be hoped that the treatment will have some relationship to previous les- 
sons in part I of the present Year Book. It could receive such a treat- 
ment, for instance, as would lead to the justification of the doctrine set 
forth in lesson V on the fact of our scripture revelations being local; that 
is, revelations that pertain to our earth and its heavens as set forth in 
the Book of Moses, chapters i and ii. Also it could be made to contrib- 
ute to the reasonableness of the existence of Great and Presiding intel- 
ligencies in various parts of the universe, of their controlling and di- 
recting their worlds and world-systems in harmony with the great and eter- 
nal laws by which the universe is evidently governed. This much to sug- 
gest merely that there is a relationship between this subject and the 
lessons that have preceded it. 

2. Sources of Information: Almost any school text book on as- 
tronomy will give information on the extent and grandeur of the universe. 
Especially would I recommend Newcomb's "Popular Astronomy," Harper 
& Brothers, Publishers, New York; Gillet & Rolf's Astronomy; and 
"Other Worlds than Ours," by Richard A. Proctor, in which the plurality 
of worlds studied under the light of recent scientific researches, could be 
consulted to advantage. "A history of the Warfare of Science with The- 
ology in Christendom," by Andrew D. WTiite, vol. I, chap. 3, could be con- 

* In lieu of the usual detached notes, in lesson viii and ix, I present 
an unbroken discussion of the Fall of Adam and the Purpose of Man's 
Earth Life, which I think will be more satisfactory than any collection 
of detached notes that I could present to the students upon this very 
important subject. The students will be under the necessity of selecting 
from the discussion such ideas and data as will apply to the part of the 
subject assigned to him. 

Suggestion to the class teacher: Make your assignment today for 
Lesson XIII, a discussion and see note on Lesson six. 


suited to advantage; not so much with reference to a description of the 
extent or grandeur of the universe, as for the light he throws upon the 
stiniggle that took place in the development of the ideas which led to 
the modern conception of the structure of the universe and the laws that 
governed therein. For a description of the extent and grandeur of the 
universe, as also for an account of the resistence to scientific ideiis in 
relation thereto. Draper's "Intellectual Development of Europe," Volume 
II, chapter viii, could be consulted, and the same authors "Conflict Be- 
tween Religion and Science." Some valuable quotations on the same sub- 
ject are to be found in "New Witness For God," Chapters xxviii, xxix. 

3. Suggestions Upon the Structure of Discourses and Lectures: 
In the Seventy's Year Book No. 1, there were six lessons in which sug- 
gestions were made on the matter of the formation of lectures, or dis- 
courses. The six lessons, however, were really but one. The suggestions 
then given went no further than to admonish the student to give defin- 
ite form to his discourse, urging that there should be 

1. An Introduction. 

2. A Discussion. 

3. A Conclusion. 

We again call attention to the necessity of adhering to this definite 
plan, if the discourse is to be instructive or intellectually entertaining. 

4. Clearness: The most important concern of a speaker is to make 
himself understood. If he fails in this he fails in everything. This is 
true of every speaker. It is doubly true of one who has a message from 
God to deliver to the world. Clearness then in the expression of ideas is 
the first quality to be considered. The first essential to clearness in the 
expression of his ideas is for the speaker himself to have definite know- 
ledge of his subject. Clearness of expression must be preceded by de- 
finite knowledge and clear thinking. The chief cause of obscurity in 
expression is a lack of systematic, clear-cut thinking. Men speak as 
they train themselves to think. If men will only train themselves to do 
systematic thinking, speech, or expression of thought, will largely take 
care of itself. Men generally may not be conscious of it, but it is true 
nevertheless that the mind is constantly thinking. It seems to be an 
essential of its nature to do so. One cannot stop thinking even if he 
would, so long as he is awake and conscious. What we call the mind 
will think about something, but we usually allow it to drift aimlessly in 
its thought. It is carried away hither and thither by every passing ob- 
ject, noise, or word that suggests an idea; or else we allow it to be driv- 
en to and fro in the realm of our imagination by every passing fancy. 
No effort is made to control it. We think of everything in general and 
nothing in particular. What is needed in our intellectual development 
is mind-control. Obedience of the mental faculties to the will. The mind 
should be compelled to work out lines of thought upon any subject that 
is given to it to reflect upon, until it has arranged in orderly fashion all 
the present knowledge and ideas possessed on the given subject. And 


thinking, be it remembered, is but arranging knowledge in orderly fashion 
in relation to our ideas, with the view of arriving at definite conclu- 
sions. Elsewhere in illustration of these views, I have said: 'Ere now I 
have been a visitor in families where parents have undertaken to put the 
children of the households on their good behaviour. I have seen the 
father and mother undertake instanter to make the children polite to 
each other, considerate to parents, gentle in word and deed; and I have 
seen the children look up in astonishment and then go on in the same 
boisterous and quarrelsome way to which they were accustomed. The 
father and mother on this dress parade occasion could not make their 
children understand what had not previously been made a habit to 
them. The children could not understand for the simple reason that 
perhaps never before, or only once or twice before, with long intervals 
between, were they corrected in their manners. Parents in order to have 
their children appear well must give them daily training until polite- 
ness and good behaviour become habitual to them. And only in this way 
can they become ladies and gentlemen — gentle in speech towards father 
and mother, gentle in conduct towards brother and sister, respectful to 
strangers and well behaved in all the relations of child life. In order to 
produce this the training must be continuous. Not harsh or rough but 
exacting, nevertheless. So it is with the powers of the mind. A man who 
has never trained his mental powers in logical methods of thought can- 
not hope to stand before an audience and succeed as a public teacher. 
To bring together beautiful and logical thoughts that will be instructive 
to those who listen and satisfactory to himself — this power can only be 
acquired by thorough and constant mental discipline. It is only to be ac- 
quired by earnest effort, by hard work. But remember, to be a Seventy 
means just that — work, mental activity, leading to intellectual develop- 
ment, and to the attainment of spiritual power. 

5. The Cultivation of Thought-Power: Thought upon a subject in 
any broad sense embraces substantial knowledge of all the facts, and all 
the reasoning that may be based upon the facts. Education in the proper 
sense is the cultivation of the power of thought, with the added power 
of expressing those thoughts in some forceful manner. "How then," 
asks Mr. Pittinger, whom we so frequently quoted in lessons of this 
class in Year Book No.l, "How, then, shall thought-power be increased? 
There is no royal road. EveiT one of the faculities by which know- 
ledge is accumulated and arranged or digested into new forms grows 
stronger by being employed upon its own appropriate objects." Mental 
activity is the means by which the material of knowledge is gathered, 
and all faculties strenghtened for future gathering. Bach fact gained 
adds to the treasury of thought. A broad and liberal education is of 
exceeding advantage. This may or may not be of the schools. Indeed, 
they too often substitute a knowledge of words for a knowledge of 
things. That fault is very serious ***** for the only way by which 
even language can be effectively taught, is by giving terms to objects. 


the nature of which has been previously learned. But many persons 
need to speak who cannot obtain an education in the usual sense ol me 
word — that is, college or seminary training. Must they keep their lips 
forever closed on that account? By no means. A thousand examples, 
some of them the most eminent speakers the world has produced, en- 
courage them to hope. Let such persons learn all they can. Wide, well- 
selected, and systematic reading will do wonders in supplying the neces- 
sary thought-material. Every book of history, biography, travels, popu- 
lar science, which is carefully read, and its contents fixed in the mind, 
will be available for the purposes of public speech. Here a word of ad- 
vice may be offered, which, if heeded, will be worth many months of 
technical education at the best colleges in the land; it is this: Have 
always at hand some work that in its own sphere possesses real and perm- 
anent merit, and read it daily until completed. If notes are made of its 
contents, and the book itself kept on hand for reference, so much the bet- 
ter. If some friend can be found who will hear you relate in your own 
words what you have read, this also will be of great value. Many per- 
sons, especially in our own country, [America] spend time enough in 
reading the minute details of the daily papers to make them thoroughly 
acquainted in ten years with forty volumes of the most useful books in 
the world. Think of it! This number may include nearly all the literary 
masterpieces. Which merle of spending the time will produce the best 
results? One newspaper read daily would amount to more than three 
hundred in a year, and allowing each paper to be equal to ten ordinary 
book pages, the result would be three thousand pages annually, or six 
volumes of five hundred pages each. In ten years this would reach sixty 
volumes! This number, com.prising the world's best books in history, 
poetry, science, and general literature, might be read slowly, with medi- 
tation and diligent note-taking by the most busy man who was willing to 
employ his leisure in that way. ***** Neither will the speaker have 
to wait until any definite quantity of reading has been accomplished be- 
fore it becomes serviceable to him. All that he leai-ns will be immedi- 
ately available, and, with proper effort, the facility of speech and the 
material for speaking will keep pace with each other." 

Antidiluvian Dispensations. 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. Dispensation — Definition of. Note i. 

Gen. ii: 26, 27, c. f. ch.ii: 
• 4-9. Book of Moses ch. ii: 

26,27, cf. ch. iii:4-8. Boole 
of Abraham ch. iv: 26-31; 
also v:7-9 and 14-18. Key 
to Theology ch. \'i, Mormon 
Doctrine of Diety ch. vii. 
Note 2. 

II. Advent of Adam upon the Earth. J^^""- 'J^' J^°°^ «/ ^°^®« 

•^ ch. u: 28. Book of Abra- 

ham iv: 28. Note 3. 

III. The Commandments Given. ,,^^°- [i= }^'\l\J^''°} °^ 

1 Tl TT ■+f 1 Moses ch. in: 15-17; ch. v: 

1. ^el^rUltlUi. 8,9,11-13. Mormon Doc- 

2. Partake not Forbidden Fruit. trine of Diety ch. vii. 

Note 4. 
1. Dispensation: A dispensation, without reference to any specific 
application or limitations of the term, is the act of dealing out or dis- 
tributing, such as the dispensation of justice by courts, the dispensation, 
of blessings or afflictions by the hand of Providence. Theologically a dis- 
pensation is defined as one of the several systems of bodies of law in 
which at different periods God has revealed His mind and will to man, such 
as the Patriarchal Dispensation, the Mosaic Dispensation, or the Christian 
Dispensation. The word is also sometimes applied to the periods of time 
during which the said laws obtain. That is, the period from Adam to 
Noah is usually called the Patriarchal Dispensation. From Noah to the 
calling of Abraham, the Noachian Dispensation; and from Abraham to 
the calling of Moses, the Abrahamic Dispensation. But the word dis- 
pensation as connected with the Gospel of Jesus Christ means the open- 
ing of the heavens to men; the giving out or dispensing to them the word 
of God; the revealing to men in whole or in part the principles and 


ordinances of the Gospel; the conferring of divine authority upon cer- 
tain chosen ones, by which they are empowered to act in the name, 
that is, in the authority of God, and for Him. That is a dispensation 
as relating to the Gospel. 

2. The Advent of Adam on Earth: The earth, "warmed and dried 
by the cheering rays of the now resplendent sun, is prepared for the 
first seeds of vegetation. A royal planter now descends from yonder 
world of older date, and bearing in his hand the choice seeds of the 
older Paradise, he plants them in the virgin soil of our new born earth. 
They grow and flourish there, and, bearing seed, replant themselves, and 
thus clothed the naked earth with scenes of beauty and the air with 
fragrant incense. Ripening fruits and herbs at length abound. When 
lo! from yonder world is tranferred every species of animal life. Male 
and female, they come, with blessings on their heads, and a voice is 
heard again, "Be fruitful and multiply." Earth, its mineral, vegetable 
and animal wealth, its Paradise prepared, down comes from yonder world 
on high a son of God, with his beloved spouse. And thus a colony from 
heaven ***** jg transplanted on our soil. The blessings of their 
Father are upon them, and the first great law of heaven and earth is again 
repeated, 'Be fruitful and multiply." Hence, the nations which have 
swarmed our earth. In after years, when Paradise was lost by sin; when 
man was driven from the face of his heavenly Father, to toil, and droop, 
and die; when heaven was veiled from view, and, with few exceptions, 
man was no longer counted worthy to retain the knowledge of his 
heavenly origin; then darkness veiled the past and future from the 
heathen mind; man neither knew himself, from whence he came, nor 
whither he was bound. At length a Moses came, who knew his God, 
and would fain have led mankind to know Him too, and see Him face to 
face. But they could not receive His heavenly laws or bide His pres- 
ence. Thus the holy man was forced again to veil the past in mystery, 
and in the beginning of his history assign to man an earthly origin. Man, 
moulded from the earth as a brick! Woman, manufactured from a rib! 
Thus, parents still would fain conceal from budding manhood the mys- 
teries of procreation, or the sources of life's everflowing river, by relating 
some childish tale of new-born life, engendered in the hollow trunk of 
some old tree, or springing with spontaneous growth like mushrooms 
from out the heaps of rubbish. O man! when wilt thou cease to be a 
child in knowledge?"— Parley P. Pratt's "Key to the Science of Theology" 
chap. VI.) 

3. "Be Fruitful"; It has already been shown (Lesson II) that the 
purpose of God in the earth-life of man was to bring to him an increase 
of joy, by enlargement of capacity to enjoy, by adding upon him new 
powers of self expression; by adding an earth-body to a heavenly-born 
spirit; "for man is spirit:" but "spirit" in order to receive "a fulness of 
joy" must be inseparably connected with element (Doc. & Gov. Sec. xciii. 
32-35, also note 2 Lesson II); hence the earth-life of Intelligences; hence 


the advent of Adam and his wife Eve upon our earth; hence the com- 
mandment "Be Fruitful;" hence the importance of man obtaining his body 
(Lesson II note 2) ; hence the resurrection from the dead, which brings 
to pass the eternal union of spirit and body (element), to be sanctified 
as a "soul;" for "the spirit and the body is the soul [the whole] of man." 
(Doc. & Gov. Sec. xxxviii: 15). These principles enlarge the view of the 
importance of the earth-life of man, and give the idea of sanctity to the 
commandment, "Be Fruitful." Undoubtedly the most important thing in 
life is life itself, since there flows from life all other things, — experiences, 
joys, sorrows, sympathies, achievements, righteousness, honor, power — 
it is the root, the base of all. To protect and preserve life, whence 
spring all things else, God has issued his decree, "Thou shalt not kill" — 
the Everlasting's cannon, fixed alike against self-slaughter and the kill- 
ing of others; and on the crime of murder is placed the heaviest of all 
penalties — "whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed;" 
(Gen. ix; 6); "No murderer hath eternal abiding in him" (I John iii; 

And on the other hand, for the promotion of life, what encourage- 
ment has God not given? First, this commandment, "Be fruitful and 
multiply and replenish [refill] the earth;" second, in making sex desire 
and love of offspring the strongest of passions, refining both, however, 
by the sentiment of love, and confining by his law the exercise of these 
life-functions to the limits of wedlock relations. "Lo, children are no 
heritage of the Lord: and the fruit of the womb is his reward. As ar- 
rows are in the hand, of a mighty man; so are children of the youth. Hap- 
py is the man that hath his quiver full of them: they shall not be asham- 
ed, but they shall speak with the enemies in the gate" (Psalms 127: 3-5). 
And when the Lord would give his highest blessing to Abraham, his friend, 
for his supreme act of obedience, he could but say: "In blessing I 
will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars 
of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed 
shall possess the gate of his enemies; and in thy seed shall all the na- 
tions of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice." (Gene- 
sis, xxii, 17-18.) And to Jacob the Lord also said: "Behold, I will make 
thee fruitful, and multiply thee, and I will make of thee a multitude of 
people." — (Gen. xlviii, 4.) 

In nature, too, this law of life is written, until our philosophers who 
treat on life in its various forms, declare that the very "object of nature 
is function" — i. e. life. (Lester F. Ward, Outlines of Sociology, 1904, 
ch. V.) So superabundant is the fertility of all forms of life, animal and 
vegetable, that if it were not limited by destructive forces of life, the 
earth would soon be overwhelmed. "Every being," says Mr. Darwin, "which 
during its natural lifetime produces several eggs or seeds, must suffer 
destruction during some period of its life, and during some season or oc- 
casional year, otherwise, on the principle of geometrical increase, its 
numbers would quickly become so inordinately great that no country could 


support the product. ***** There is no exception to the rule that every 
organic being naturally increases at so high a rate, that, if not destroyed, 
the earth would soon be covered by the progeny of a single pair. Even 
slow-breeding man has doubled in twenty-five years, and at this rate, 
in less than a thousand years, there would literally not be standing-room 
for his progeny. ***** In a state of nature almost every full-grown 
plant annually produces seed, and amongst animals there are very few 
which do not annually pair. Hence we may confidently assert, that all 
plants and animals are tending to increase at a geometrical ratio, — that 
all would rapidly stock every station in which they could any how exist — 
and that this geometrical tendency to increase must be checked by de- 
struction at some period of life." — (The Origin of Species," p. 50, 51, 52.) 
What is the significance of this rich endowment with the power of 
reproduction in all forms of life, animal and vegetable, until it assumes 
the appearance of actual redundancy? Is it not nature's testimony to 
the fact of the desirability of life? And hence she has equipped the vari- 
ous species with power to perpetuate life, not withstanding the destruc- 
tive forces with which life in its great variety of forms has to con- 
tend. Is life — especially human life — worth living? Undoubtedly, since 
nature has so abundantly provided the means for its perpetuation, and 
God has given the commandment, "Be fruitful and replenish the earth." 
4. The Symbols of Life and Death: "The Tree of Life. — so called 
from its symbolic character as a sign and seal of immortal life. Its 
prominent position in the midst of the garden where it must have been 
an object of daily observation and interest, was admirably fitted to keep 
them [Adam and Eve] habitually in mind of God and futurity." 

"Tree of tlie Knowledge of Good and Evil. — so called because it was a 
test of obedience by whick our first parents were to be tried, whether 
they would be good or bad, obey God or break his commandments.' 

"Thou Shalt not Eat of it. * * * Thou Shalt Surely Die. — no rea- 
son assigned for the prohibition, but death was to be the punishment of 
disobedience. A positive command like this was not only the simplest 
and easiest, but the only trial to which their fidelity could be exposed." 
(Commentary Critical and Explanatory of the Old and New Testament, 

In the above symbols, together with the commandment and penalty 
to follow disobedience, we have assembled the great mysteries of this 
world — Life, Death, Good, Evil, the fact of man's Agency — power to order 
his own course, to obey or disobey; continued life for obedience, which 
is but conformation to the law of life; and death for disobedience, or 
departure from the conditions on which life is predicated. The Tree of 
Life was the symbol of eternal life, for later when man had partaken of 
the fruit of the Tree of Death — the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and 
Evil — God is represented as saying, in effect, since the man has become 
as one of us to know good and evil, lest he put forth his hand now and 
partake also of the tree of life and eat and live forever, let us send him 


forth from the garden and guard the tree of life by cherubims with flaming 
sword. And so it was ordered. — (Genesis iii: 22-25) See also Alma ch. 
xii: 22-27; also Alma ch. xii, 1-10. 

Death was symbolized in the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and 
Evil — in the day thou eatest of it, thou shalt surely die — hence the Tree 
of Death. Death we learn from other scriptures than Genesis, is both 
temporal and spiritual. "What is here called temporal death is physical 
death, separation of spirit and body, the dust returning to the eartjh 
whence it came; but the spirit, being as we have seen a thing im- 
mortal, survives in conscious life and goes to the world of spirits. "Dust 
thou art, and to dust thou shalt return," was not written of the spirit 
of man. The spiritual death is the breaking of the union of the soul 
with God, separation, alienation from God. (See Alma, chapters 12, 13, 
42.) Man's disobedience to God would break this union of the soul 
with God, and hence spiritual death. But while partaking of the fruit of 
the Tree of Knowledge would bring death, both spiritual and temporal, 
yet it would bring also the knowledge that would make men as Gods, 
to know good and evil; and to this end, doubtless, was planned the 
whole scheme of man's earth-life. This to be developed in lessons that 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I The Fall Genesis cli. iii. Book of 

■. m, rr. , -. j -r-, „ . . , Moses (P. G. P.) cli. iv. II 

1. Ihe iemptation and Fall of Adam. Nepiii ii: 14-20. Alma xii: 

22-27. Also Alma xiii: 1- 

II. Sectarian View of the Fall of Adam. ii Nephi; ii Alma xiii 

and xiii: and the treaties 
ITT n I >• s/r TT. » , ^ ,. which takes the place of 

III. Book of Morman View of the Fall. notes. 

The Fall of Adam — The Purpose of Man's Earth-Life. 
In the second book of Nephi occurs the following direct, explicit state- 
ment: "Adam fell that man might be, and men are that they might have 

This assertion concerns two of the migMiest problems of theology: 

1st, The reason for Adam's fall; 

2nd, The purpose of man's earth-existence. 

Silence of the Creeds. 
No where in the creeds of men — the creeds of men! those great crys- 
tallizations of Christian truths as men have conceived those truths to be; 
those embodied deductions of the teachings of Holy Scripture — no where 
in them, I repeat, are these two great theological questions disposed of 
on scriptural authority. 

Presbyterian Vieiv. 
The Westminster Confession of Faith, which embodies the ac- 
cepted doctrine of one of the largest bodies of Protestant Christendom, 
ascribes the purpose of all the creative acts of God to be "The manifesta- 
tion of the glory of his eternal power, wisdom and goodness. "f And in an 
authoritative explanation of this part of the creed it is said, "The design 
of God in creation was the manifestation of his own glory." And again, 
"Our confession very explicitly takes the position that the chief end of 
God in his eternal purposes and in their temporal execution in creation 

* In Lessons VIII and IX, in place of detached notes a brief treatise is 
given upon The Fall of Adam; and the Purpose of Man's Creation; re- 
counting the various views entertained upon that subject by the great 
divisions of Christendom, as also the views set forth in the revelations 
of God. This treatment is rendered necessary by the nature of the sub- 

f Westminster Confession, chap, iv — Of Creation-Section 1. 

^Commentary on the Confession; (Hodge) chapter iv. 


and providence is the manifestation of his own glory. ***** 
The scriptures explicitly assert that this is the chief end of God in 
creation. * * * * The manifestation of his own glory is intrinsically 
the highest and worthiest end that God could propose to Himself."* 

The only business I have here with this declaration of the purpose 
of (jod in creation — including the creation of man, of course — is simply 
to call attention to the fact that it no where has the direct warrant of 

Episcopalian View. 
The great Protestant body of Christians known as the "Episcopal 
Church" whose chief doctrines are embodied in "The Book of Common 
Prayer," is silent upon the two subjects in question, viz. "why" Adam 
fell; the "object" of man's existence. Their "Articles of Faith," it 
is true, speak of the "fall" of Adam, and its effect upon the human race, 
but nowhere do they attempt to say "why" it was that Adam 
fell; or give a "reason" for man's existence. Their creeds proclaim 
their faith in God, "the Maker and Preserver of all things, both visible 
and invisible;" but no where declare the purpose of that creation, and 
consequently have no word as to the "object" of man's existence. 

Roman Catholic View. 

The exposition of the Catholic creed on the same point, as set forth 
in the Douay Catechism is as follows: 

"Ques. What signify the words creation of heaven and earth? 

"Ans. They signify that God made heaven and earth and all crea- 
tures in them of nothing, by his word only. 

"Ques. ^Vhat moved God to make them? 

"Ans. His own goodness, so that he may communicate himself to 
angels and to man for whom he made all other creatures." 

Speaking of the creation of the angels, the same work continues: 

"Ques. For what end did God create them? [the angels]. 

"Ans. To be partakers of his glory and to be our guardians.' 

Referring again to man's creation the following occurs: 

"Ques. Do we owe much to God for creation? 

"Ans. Very much, because he made us in such a perfect state, creat- 
ing us for himself, and all things else for us."* 

From all which it may be summarized that the purposes of God in 
the creation of man and angels, according to Catholic theology, is— 

First, that God might communicate himself to them; 

Second, that they might be partakers of his glory. 

*In proof of this last declaration the expounder cites Col. i: 16; 
Prov. xvi 4; Rev. iv 11; Rom. xi. 36. See Commentary on the Con- 
fession of Faith with questions for theological students and Bible classes 
by the Rev. A. A. Hodge D. D. chapter iv. The reading of the passages 
quoted will convince any one that the statement of the creed is but 
poorly or not at all sustained by them. 

fDouay Catechism chapter iii. 


Third, that he created them for himself, and all things else for them. 

While this may be in part the truth, and so far excellent, it has no 
higher warrant of authority than human deduction, based on conjecture, 
not scripture; and it certainly falls far short of giving to man that "pride 
of place" in existence to which his higher nature and his dignity as a son 
of God entitles him. 

Mormon View. 

"Adam fell that man might be." 

I think it cannot be doubted when the whole story of man's fall is 
taken into account, that in some way — however hidden it may be under 
allegory — his fall was closely associated with the propagation of the race. 
Before the fall we are told that Adam and Eve "were both naked, the 
man and his wife, and were not ashamed."* But after the fall "The eyes 
of them both were opened and they knew that they were naked, and they 
sewed fig leaves together and made themselves aprons,"-;- and also hid 
from the presence of the Lord. 

In an incidental way Paul gives us to understand that Adam in the 
matter of the first transgression was not deceived, but that the woman 
was.f It therefore follows that Adam must have sinned knowingly, and 
perhaps deliberately; making choice of obedience between two laws press- 
ing upon him. With his spouse. Eve, he had received a commandment 
from God to be fruitful, to perpetuate his race in the earth. He had also 
been told not to partake of a certain fruit of the Garden of Eden; but ac- 
cording to the story of Genesis, as also according to the assertion of Paul, 
Eve, who with Adam received the comandment to multiply in the earth, 
was deceived, and by the persuasion of Lucifer induced to partake of the 
forbidden fruit. She, therefore, was in transgression, and subject to the 
penalty of that law which from the scriptures we learn included banish- 
ment from Eden, banishment from the presence of God, and also the 
death of the body. This meant, if Eve were permitted to stand alone in. 
her transgression, that she must be alone also in suffering the penalty. 
In that event she would have been seperated from Adam, which neces- 
sarily would have prevented obedience to the commandment given to 
them conjointly to multiply in the earth. In the presence of this situa- 
tion it is therefore to be believed that Adam not deceived either by the 
cunning of Lucifer or the blandishments of the woman, deliberately, and 

*Gen. il: 25. 
ylbidiii: 7. alsoLehi: "And now, behold, if Adam had not transgressed, 
he would not have fallen; but he would have remained in the Garden of 
Eden. And all things which were created, must have remained in the 
same state [in] which they were, after they were created; and they 
must have remained forever, and had no end. And they would have had 
no children; wherefore, they would have remained in a state of innocence, 
having no joy, for they knew no misery; doing no good, for they knew no 
sin. But behold, all things have been done in the wisdom of him who 
knoweth all things." (II Nephi ii: 22-24. See also Book of Moses chap 
v. 11.) 

tTim. 11: 14. 


with full knowledge of his act and its consequences, and in order to car- 
ry out the purpose of God, in the creation of man, shared alike the wo- 
man's transgression and its effects, and this in order that the first great 
commandment he had received from God, viz. — "Be fruitful and multiply 
and replenish the earth and subdue it" — might not fail of fulfillment. Thus 
'Adam fell that man might be." 

The effect of this doctrine upon the ideas of men concerning the 
great Patriarch of our race will be revolutionary. It seems to be the 
fashion of those who assume to teach the Christian religion to denounce 
Adam in unmeasured terms: as if the fall of man had surprised, if in- 
deed it did not altogether thwart, the original ylan of God, respecting the 
existence of man in the earth. The creeds of the churches generally fail 
to consider the 'fall' as part of God's purpose regarding this world; and, 
in its way, as essential to the accomplishment of that purpose as the 
"redemption" through Jesns Christ. Certainly there would have been no 
occasion for the "redemption" had there been no "fall;" and hence no 
occasion for the display of all that wealth of grace and mercy and justice 
and love — all that richness of experience involved in the gospel of Jesus 
Christ, had there been no "fall." It cannot be but that it was part of 
God's purpose to display these qualities in their true relation, for the 
benefit and blessing and experience and enlargement of man; and since 
there would have been no occasion for displaying them but for the "fall," 
it logically follows that the 'fall," no less than the "redemption," must 
have been part of God's original plan respecting the earth-probation of 
man. The "fall," undoubtedly was a fact as much present to the fore- 
knowledge of God as was the "redemption;" and the act which encom- 
passed it must be regarded as more praise-worthy than blame-worthy, 
since it was essential to the accomplishment of the divine purpose. Yet, 
as I say, those who assume to teach Christianity roundly denounce Adam 
for his transgression. "The Catholic Church teaches," says Joseph Faa' 
Di Bruno, D. D., "that Adam by his sin has not only caused harm to him- 
self, but to the whole human race; that by it he lost the supernatural 
justice and holiness which he received gratuitously from God, and lost it, 
not only for himself, but also for all of us; and that he, having stained 
himself with the sin of disobedience, has transmitted not only death and 
other bodily pains and infirmities to the whole human race, but also sin, 
which is the death of the soul."* 

And again: 

"Unhappily, Adam by his sin of disobedience, which was also a sin 
of pride, disbelief, and ambition, forfeited, or, more properly speaking, 
rejected that original justice; and we, as members of the human family, 
of which he was the head, are also implicated in that guilt of self-spolia- 
tion, or rejection and deprivation of those supernatural gifts; not indeed 
on account of our having willed it with our personal will, but by having 
willed it with the will of our first parent, to whom we are linked by nature 
as members to their head."f 

*Catholio Belief, p. 6. 
f Catholic Belief, p. 330. 


Still again, and this from the Catholic Catechism: 
"Q. How did we lose original justice? 

"A. By Adam's disobedience to God in eating the forbidden fruit. 
"Q. How do you prove that? 

"A. Out of Rom. v: 12. 'By one man sin entered into the world, and 
by sin death; and so unto all men death did pass, in whom all have sinned.' 
"Q. Had man ever died if he had never sinned? 

"A. He would not, but would live in a state of justice and at length 
would be translated alive to the fellowship of the angels."* 
From a Protestant source I quote the following: 

"In the fall of man we may observe, 1. The greatest infidelity. 2. 
Prodigious pride. 3. Horrid ingratitude. 4. Visible contempt of God's 
majesty and justice. 5. Unaccountable folly. 6. A cruelty to himself 
and to all his posterity. Infidels, however, have treated the account of 
the fall and its effects, with contempt, and considered the whole as ab- 
surd; but their objections to the manner have been ably answered by a 
variety of authors; and as to the effects, one would hardly think any body 
could deny. For, that man is a fallen creature, is evident, if we consider 
his misery, as an inhabitant of the natural world; the disorders of the 
globe we inhabit, and the dreadful scourges with which it is visited; the 
deplorable and shocking circumstances of our birth; the painful and dan- 
gerous tavail of women; our natural uncleanliness, helplessness, ignor- 
ance, and nakedness, the gross darkness in which we naturally are, both 
with respect to God and a future state; the general rebellion of the brute 
creation against us; the various poisons that lurk in the animal, vege- 
table, and mineral world, ready to destroy us; the heavy curse of toil 
and sweat to which we are liable; the innumerable calamities of life, and 
the pangs of death."f 

In its article on man the dictionary just quoted also says: 
"God, it is said, made man upright, (Eccl. vii: 29), without any imper- 
fection, corruption, or principle of corruption in his body or soul; with 
light in his understanding, holiness in his wtll, and purity in his affection. 
This constituted his original righteousness, which was universal, both 
with respect to the subject of it, the whole man, and the object of it, the 
whole law. Being thus in a state of holiness, he was necessarily in a 
state of happiness. He was a very glorious creature, the favorite of 
heaven, the lord of the world, possessing perfect tranquility in his own 
breast, and immortal. Yet he was not without law: for the law of nature, 
which was impressed on his heart, God superadded a positive law, not to 
eat of the forbidden fruit (Gen. ii: 17) under the penalty of death natural, 
spiritual, and eternal. Had he obeyed this law, he might have had reason 
to expect that he would not only have had the continuance of the nat- 
ural and spiritual life, but have been transported to the upper paradise. 
Man's righteousness, however, though universal, was not immutable, as 
the event has proved. How long he lived in a state of innocence cannot 
easily be ascertained, yet most suppose it was but a short time. The 
tion, or rejection and deprivation of those supernatural gifts; not indeed 
ix)sitive law which God gave him he broke, by eating the forbidden fruit. 
The consequence of this evil act was, that man lost the chief good; his 
nature was corrupted; his powers depraved, his body subject to corrup- 
tion, his soul exposed to misery, his posterity all involved in ruin, subject 
to eternal condemnation, and for ever incapable to restore themselves to 
the favor of God, to obey his commands perfectly, and to satisfy his 

* Douay Catechism, p. 13. 

f Buck's Theological Dictionary, p. 335. 

t Buck's Theological Dictionary, p. 182. 


Another Protestant authority says: 

"The tree of knowlea^v. ^i good and evil revealed to those who ate 
its fruit secrets of which they had better have remained ignorant; for the 
purity of man's happiness consisted in doing and loving good without 
even knowing evil."* 

From these several passages as also indeed from the whole tenor of 
Christian writings upon this subject, the fall of Adam is quite generally 
deplored and upon him is laid a very heavy burden of responsibility. It 
was he, they complain, who. 

"Brought death into the world, and all our woe." 

One great division of Christendom in its creed, it is true, in dealing 
with the fall, concedes that "God was pleased according to his wise and 
holy counsel, to permit [the fall] having purposed to order it to his own 

And in an authoritative explanation of this section they say, "That 
this sin [the fall] was permissively embraced in the sovereign purpose 
of God." And still further in explanation: "Its purpose being God's 
general plan, and one eminently wise and righteous, to introduce all the 
new created subjects of moral government into a state of probation for a 
time in which he makes their permanent character and destiny depend 
upon their own action." Still, this sin described as being permissively 
embraced in the sovereign purpose of the Deity, God designed "to order 
it to his own glory;" but it no where appears according to this confession 
of faith that the results of the fall are to be of any benefit to man. The 
only thing consulted in the theory of this creed seems to be the manifes- 
tation of the glory of God — a thing which represents God as a most selfish 
being — but just how the glory of God can be manifested by the "fall" 
which, according to this creed, results in the eternal damnation of the 
overwhelming majority of his "creatures," is not quite apparent. 

Those who made this Westminster Confession, as also the large fol- 
lowing which accept it, concede that their theory involves them at least 
in two difficulties which they confess it is impossible for them to meet. 
These are, respectively: 

First, "How could sinful desires or volitions originate in the soul of 
moral agents created holy like Adam and Eve;" and, second, "how can 
sin be permissively embraced in the eternal purpose of God and not in- 
volve him as responsible for the sin?" "If it be asked," say they "why 
God, who abhors sin, and who benevolently desires the excellence and 
happiness of his creatures, should sovereignly determine to permit such a 
fountain of pollution, degration, dnd misery to be opened, we can only 
say, with profound reverence, 'Even so, Father, for so it seemed good in 

thy sight.' "± 

These difficulties, however, are the creed's and those who accept it, 

not ours, and do not further concern our discussion at this point. 

* Old Testament History William Smith, L. L.D., chap. ii. 

f Westminster Confession chapter vi, section 1, 

J Commentary on the Confession of Faith, A. D. Hodge, pp. 105-108. 


Infidels — under which general term (and I do not use it offensively) 
I mean all those who do not accept the Christian creeds, nor believe the 
Bible to be a revelation — infidels, I say, quite generally deride the fall of 
man as represented both in the creeds of Christendom and in the Bible. 
They regard the tremendous consequences attendant upon eating the for- 
bidden fruit as altogether out of proportion with the act itself, and uni- 
versally hold that a moral economy which would either design or permit 
such a calamity as the fall is generally supposed to be, as altogether un- 
worthy of an all-merciful and just Deity. Thomas Paine referring to it 

"Putting aside everything that might excite laughter by its absur- 
dity, or detestation by its profaneness, and confining ourselves merely to 
an examination of the parts, it is impossible to conceive a story more de- 
rogatory to the Almighty, more inconsistent with his wisdom, more con- 
tradictory to his power than this story is." 

In their contentions against the story of Genesis, no less than iu 
their war upon "the fall" and "original sin" in the men-made creeds of 
Christendom, infidels have denounced God in most blasphemous terms 
as the author of all the evil in this world by permitting, through not pre- 
venting, the fall; and they have as soundly ridiculed and abused Adam 
for the part he took in the affair. He has been held up by them as weak 
and cowardly, because he referred his partaking of the forbidden fruit 
to the fact that the woman gave to him and he did eat; a circumstance 
into which they read an effort on the part of the man to escape censure, 
perhaps punishment, and to cast the blame for his transgression upon the 
woman. These scoffers proclaim their preference for the variations of 
this story of a "fall of man" as found in the mythologies of various peo- 
ples, say those of Greece or India.* But all this aside. The truth is that 
nothing could be more courageous, sympathetic, or nobly honorable than 
the course of this world's great Patriarch in his relations to his wife Eve 
and the "fall." The woman by deception is led into transgerssion, 
and stands under the penalty of a broken law. Banishment 
from the presence of God, banishment from the presence of her 
husband — death, await her. Thereupon the man, not deceived, but 
knowingly (as we are assured by Paul), also transgresses. Why? In one 
aspect of the case in order that he might share the woman's banishment 
from the comfortable presence of God, and with her die — than which ho 
higher proof of love could be given — no nobler act of chivalry performed. 
But primarily he transgressed that "Man might be." He transgressed a 
less important law that he might comply with one more important, if 
one may so speak of any of God's laws. The facts are, as we have already 
seen, that the conditions which confronted Adam in his earth-life were 
afore time known to him; that of his own volition he accepted them, and 
came to earth to meet them. 

* See Ingersoll's Lectures, "Liberty of Man, Woman and Child," 
where the great orator, contrasts the story of the Fall given in the Bible 
with that of Brahma in the Hindoo mythology, and extravagantly praises 
the latter to the disparagement of the former. 



(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. The Purpose of Man's Earth Life. ^^^^ ^^ Mormon-Nephi 

II. Epicurean Doctrine. ii- Alma xUiandxlii, and 

III. Book of Mormon Doctrine — Men Are the notes of this lesson. 
That They Might Have Joy. 


The Purpose of Man's Earth-Life.— "Men are that they might have joy." 

Tliat is to say, the purpose of man's eartli-life is in some way to be 
made to contribute to his joy, which is but another way of saying that 
man's earth-life is to eventuate in his advantage. 

"Men are that they might have joy!" What is meant by that? Have 
we here the reappearance of the old Epicurean doctrine, "pleasure is the 
supreme good, and chief end of life?" No, verily! Nor any form of an- 
cient or modern Hedonism* whatsoever. For mark, in the first place, the 
different words "joy" and "pleasure." They are not synonymous. The 
first does not necessarily arise from the second. Joy may arise from 
quite other sources than "pleasure," even from pain, when the endurance 
of pain is to eventuate in the achievement of some good: such as the tra- 
vail of a mother in bringing forth her offspring; the weariness and pain 
and danger of toil by a father, to secure comforts for loved ones. More- 
over, whatever apologists may say, it is very clear that the "pleasure" of 
the Epicurean philosophy, hailed as "the supreme good and chief end of 
life," was to arise from agreeable sensations, or what ever gratified the 
senses, and hence was, in the last analysis of it — in its roots and branches 
— in its theory and in its practice — "sensualism." It was to result in 
physical ease and comfort, and mental inactivity — other than a conscious, 
self-complacence — being regarded as "the supreme good and chief end of 
life." I judge this to be the net result of this philosophy since these are 

"* Hedonism: The doctrine of certain Greek philosophers; in ethics, 
gross self-interest. Hedonism is the form of eudemonism that regards 
pleasure (including avoidance of pain) as the only conceivable object in 
life, and teaches that as between the lower pleasures of sense and the 
higher enjoyments of reason or satisfactory satisfied-respect, there is no 
difference except in the degree, duration and hedonic value of the expe- 
rience, there being, in strictness, no such thing as ethical or moral value." 
Standard Dictionary. 


the very conditions in which Epicureans describe even the gods to 
exist;* and surely men could not hope for more "pleasure," or greater 
happiness than that possessed by their gods. Cicero even charges that 
the sensualism of Epicurus was so gross that he represents him as blam- 
ing his brother, Timocrates, 'because he would not allow that everything 
which had any reference to a happy life was to be measured by the belly; 
nor has he," continues Cicero, "said this once only, but often." 

This is not the "joy," it is needless to say, contemplated in the Book 
of Mormon. Nor is the "joy" there contemplated the "joy" of mere in- 
nocence — mere innocence, which, say what you will of it, is but a nega- 
tive sort of virtue. A virtue that is colorless, never quite sure of itself, 
always more or less uncertain, because untried. Such a virtue — if mere 
absence of vice may be called virtue — would be unproductive of that 
'•joy' 'the attainment of which is set forth in the Book of Mormon as 
the purpose of man's existence; for in the context it is written, "They 
[Adam and Eve] would have remained in a state of 'innocence,' having 
no joy, for they know no misery; doing no good, for they knew no sin.f 
From which it appears that the "joy" contemplated in our Book of Mor- 
mon passage is to arise from something more than mere innocence, which 
is, impliedly, unproductive of "joy." The "joy" contemplated in the 
Book of Mormon passage is to arise out of man's rough and thorough 
knowledge of evil, of sin; through knowing misery, sorrow, pain and suf- 
fering; through seeing good and evil locked in awful conflict; through a 
consciousness of having chosen in that conflict the better part, the good; 
and not only in having chosen it, but in having wedded it by eternal 
compact; made it his by right of conquest over evil. It is "joy" that will 
will arise from a consciousness of having "fought the good fight," of 
having "kept the faith." It will arise from a consciousness of moral, 
spiritual and physical strength. Of strength gained in conflict. The 
strength that comes from experience; from having sounded the depths 
of the soul; from experiencing all the emotions of which mind is sus- 
ceptible; from testing all the qualities and strength of the intellect. A 
"joy" that will come to man from a contemplation of the universe, and 
a consciousness that he is an heir to all that is — a joint heir with Jesus 

* In Cicero's description of the Epicurean conception of the gods he 
says: "That which is truly happy cannot be burdened with any labor 
Itself, nor can it impose any labor on another, nor can it be influenced 
by resentment or favor, because things which are liable to such failings 
must be weak and frail. * * Their life [i. e. of the gods] is most happy and 
the most abounding with all kinds of blessings which can be conceived. 
They do nothing. They are embarrassed with no business; nor do they 
perform any work. They rejoice in the possession of their own wisdom 
and virtue. They are satisfied that they shall ever enjoy the fulness of 
eternal pleasure. * * * Nothing can be happy that is not at ease. 
(Tusculan Disputations, The Nature of the Gods). 

fll Nephi il: 23. 


Christ and God; from knowing that he is an essential part of all that is. 
It is a joy that will be bom of the consciousness of existence itself — 
tha,t will reve.l in existence — in thoughts of and realization of existence's 
limitless possibilities. A "joy'" born of the consciousness of the power 
of eternal increase. A 'joy" arising from association with the Intelli- 
gences of innumerable heavens — the Gods of all eternities. A "joy" born 
of a consciousness of being, of intelligence, of faith, knowledge, light, 
truth, mercy, justice, love, glory, dominion, wisdom, power; all feelings, 
affections, emotions, passions; all heights and all depths. "Men are 
that they might have joy;" and that "joy" is based upon and contemplates 
all that is here set down. 

Here, then, stands the truth so far as it may be gathered from God's 
word and the nature of things: There is in man an eternal, uncreated, 
self existing entity, call it "intelligence," "mind," "spirit," "soul" — what 
you will, so long as you recognize it, and regard its nature as eternal. 
There came a time when in the progress of things, (which is only another 
way of saying in the "nature of things") an earth-career, or earth exis- 
tence, because of the things it has to teach, was necessary to the en- 
largement, to the advancement of these "intelligences," these "spirits," 
"souls." Hence an earth is prepared; and one sufficiently advanced and 
able, by the nature of him to bring to pass the events, is chosen, through 
whom all earth-existence, with all its train of events — its mingled mis- 
eries and comforts, its sorrows and joys, its pains and pleasures, its good, 
and its evil — may be brought to pass. He comes to earth with his ap- 
pointed spouse. He comes primarily to bring to pass man's earth-life. 
He comes to the earth with the solemn injunction upon him. "Be fruit- 
ful and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it." But he comes 
with the knowledge that this earth-existence of eternal "Intelligences" 
is to be lived under circumstances that will contribute to their enlarge- 
ment, to their advancement. They are to experience joy and sorrow, 
pain and pleasure; witness the effect of good and evil, and exercise their 
agency in the choice of good or of evil. To accomplish this end, the lo- 
cal, or earth harmony of things must be broken. Evil to be seen, and 
experienced, must enter the world, which can only come to pass through 
the violation of law. The law is given: — "Of the tree of the knowledge 
of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day thou eatest of 
it thou Shalt surely die." The woman, forgetful of the purpose of the 
earth mission of herself and spouse is led by flattery and deceit into a 
violation of that law, and becomes subject to its penalty. But the man, 
not deceived, but discerning clearly the path of duty, and in order that 
earth-existence may be provided for the great host of "spirits" to come 
to earth under the conditions prescribed — he also transgresses the law. 

* I John iii 4. 

* Doc. & Gov. Sec. Ixxxvlii. 


not only that men might be, but that they might have that being under 
the very circumstances deemed essential to the enlargement, to the 
progress of eternal Intelligences. Adam did not sin because deceived by 
another. He did not sin maliciously, or with evil intent; or to gratify 
an inclination to rebellion against God, or to thwart the Divine purposes, 
or to manifest his own pride. Had his act of sin involved the taking 
of life rather than eating a forbidden fruit, it would be regarded as a 
"sacrifice'.' rather than a "murder." This to show the nature of Adam's 
transgression. It was a transgression of the law — "for sin is the trans- 
gression of the law"* — that conditions deemed necessary to the progress 
of eternal Intelligences might obtain. Adam sinned that men might be, 
and not only "be," but have that existence under conditions essential to 
progress. But Adam did sin. He did break the law; and violation of 
law involves the violator in its penalties, as surely as effect follows cause. 
Upon this principle depends the dignity and majesty of law. Take this 
fact away from moral government and your moral laws become mere 
nullities. Therefore, notwithstanding Adam fell that men might be, and 
in his transgression there was at bottom a really exalted motive — a mo- 
tive that contemplated nothing less than bringing to pass the highly 
necessary purposes of God with respect to man's existence in the earth — 
yet his transgression of law was followed by certain moral effects in 
the nature of men and in the world. The harmony of things was broken; 
discord ruled; changed relations between God and men took place; dark- 
ness, sin and death stalked through the world, and conditions were 
brought to pass in the midst of which the eternal Intelligences might 
gain those experiences that such conditions had to teach. 

Now as to the second part of the great truth — "men are that they 
might have joy" — viewed also in the light of the "Intelligence" or 
"spirit" in man being an eternal, uncreated, self-existing entity. Remem- 
bering what I have already said in these pages as to the nature of this 
"joy" which it is the purpose of earth existence to secure, remembering 
from what it is to arise — from the highest possible development — the 
highest conceivable enlargement of physical, intellectual, moral and 
spiritual power — what other conceivable purpose for existence in earth- 
life could there be for eternal Intelligences than this attainment of "joy" 
springing from progress? Man's existence for the manifestation alone 
of God's glory, as taught by the creeds of men, is not equal to it. That 
view represents man as but a thing created, and God as selfish and vain 
of glory. True, the Book of Mormon idea of the purpose of man's ex- 
istence, is accompanied by a manifestation of God's glory; for with the 
progress of Intelligences there must be an ever widening manifestation 
of the glory of God. It is written that "the glory of God is Intelligence;" 
and it must follow, as clearly as the day follows night, that with the 
enlargement, with the progress of Intelligences, there must ever be a 
constantly increasing splendor in the manifestation of the glory of God. 


But in the Book of Mormon doctrine, the manifestation of that glory Is 
incidental. The primary purpose is not in that manifestation but the 
"joy" arising from the progress of Intelligences. And yet that fact adds 
to the glory of God, since it represents the Lord as seeking the enlarge- 
ment and "joy" of kindred Intelligences, rather than the mere selfish 
manifestation of his own, personal glory. "This is the mere selfish 
manifestation of his own, personal glory. This is my work and my glory," 
says the Lord, in another "Mormon" scripture, "to bring to pass the im- 
mortalitj' and eternal life of man;"* and therein is God's "joy." A "joy" 
that grows from the progress of others; from bringing to pass the im- 
mortality and eternal life of "man." Not the immortality of the "spirit" 
of man, mark you, for that immortality is already existent; but to 
bring to pass the immortality of the spirit and body in their united con- 
dition, and which together constitutes "man," "the soul" — the whole man; 
for "the spirit and the body is the soul of man;" and the resurrection 
of the dead is the redemption of the soul" — the whole man. And the 
purpose for which man is, is that he might have "joy;" that "joy" which, 
in the last analysis of things, should be even as God's "joy," and God's 
glory, namely, the bringing to pass the progress, enlargement and "joy" 
of others. 

* Pearl of Great Price i: 39. 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. The Problem of Evil. ,, " .^^p^^. "= f-?^- f^ 

TT T^u T c /-^ "^ 1- • Treatis which takes the 

II. The Law of Opposite Existence. pi^^e of notes 


1. The Problem of the Existence of Moral Evil: Ttie existence of 
evil in the world has ever been a vexed problem for both theologians and 
philosophers, and has led to the wildest speci'ilations imaginable. It will 
be sufficient here, however, if I note the recognition by high authority 
of the difficulties involved in the problem. Of those who have felt and 
expressed these difficulties, I know of no one who has done so in 
better terms than Henry L. Mansel in his celebrated Lectures on "The 
Limits of Religious Thought" (18.58), in the course of which he says: 

"The real riddle of existence — the problem which confounds all phil- 
osophy, aye, and all religion too, so far as religion is a thing of man's 
reason, is the fact that evil exists at all; not that it exists for a longer 
or a short duration. Is not God infinitely wise and holy and powerful 
now? and does not sin exist along with that infinite holiness and wis- 
dom and power? Is God to become more holy, more wise, more powerful 
hereafter; and must evil be annihilated to make room for his perfections 
to expand? Does the infinity of his eternal nature ebb and flow with 
every increase or diminution in the sum of human guilt and misery? 
Against the immovable barrier of the existence of evil, the waves of phil- 
osophy have dashed themselves unceasingly since the birthday of 
human thought, and have retired broken and powerless, without dis- 
placing the minutest fragment of the stubborn rock, without softening 
one feature of its dark and rugged surface.' 

This truly great writer then proceeds by plain implication to make 
it clear that religion no more than philosophy has solved the problem 
of the existence of evil: 

"But this mystery, [i. e. the existence- of evil], vast and inscrutable 
as it is, is but one aspect of a more general problem; it is but the 
moral form of the ever-recurring secret of the Infinite. How the In- 
finite and the Finite, in any form of antagonism or other relation, can 
exist together; how infinite power can co-exist with finite activity ;' how 
infinite wisdom can co-exist with finite contingency; how infinite goodness 
can co-exist with finite evil ; how the Infinite can exist in any manner with- 

*As in the case of lesson viii and ix it is thought that the brief 
treatis which is here given on "The Problem of Moral Evil" will be more 
serviceable than detached notes, and hence it is given in their stead. 
It might be well also to assign the subject of the lesson to one of the more 
experienced of the elders for a discourse, giving ample time for prepara- 


out exhausting the universe of reality; — this is the riddle which Infinite 
Wisdom alone can solve, the problem whose very conception belongs only 
to that Universal Knowledge which fills and embraces the Universe of 

In the presence of these reflections it cannot be doubted, then, that 
the existence of moral evil is one of the world's serious difficulties; 
and any solution which may be given of it that is really helpful, will 
be a valuable contribution to the world's enlightenment, a real revela- 
tion "a ray of light from the inner facts of things." 

In the Book of Mormon there is such ray of light, a word that is 

The statement of the doctrine in question occurs in a discourse 
of Lehi's on the subject of the Atonement. The aged prophet represents 
happiness or misery as growing out of the acceptance or rejection of the 
Atonement of the Christ, and adds that the misery consequent upon its 
rejection is in opposition to the happiness which is affixed to its ac- 
ceptance: "For it must needs be," he continues, "that there is an op- 
position in all things. If [it were] not so * * * righteousness could 
not be brought to pass; neither wickedness; neither holiness nor misery; 
neither good nor bad. Wherefore [that is, if this fact of opposites did not 
exist], all things must needs be a compound in one; wherefore, if it [the 
sum of things] should be one body, it must needs remain as dead, having 
no life neither death, nor corruption nor incorruption, happiness nor mis- 
ery, neither sense nor insensibility. Wherefore, it must needs have been 
created for a thing of naught; wherefore there would have been no pur- 
pose in the end of its creation. Wherefore, this thing [i. e. the absence 
of opposite existences which Lehi is supposing] must needs destroy the 
wisdom of God, and his eternal purposes; and also the power, and the 
mercy, and the justice of God." 

The inspired man, however, even goes beyond this, and makes ex- 
istences themselves depend upon this law of opposites: 

"And if ye shall say there is no law, ye shall also say there is no 
sin. If ye shall say there is no sin, ye shall also say there is no 
righteousness. And if there be no righteousness, there be no happiness. 
And if there be no righteousness nor happiness, there be no punishment 
nor misery. And if these things are not, there is no God. And if 
there is no God, we are not, neither the earth; for there could have 
been no creation of things; neither to act nor to be acted upon, where- 
fore, all things must have vanished away." 

This may be regarded as a very bold setting forth of the doctrine of 
antinomies, and yet I think the logic of it, and the inevitableness of the 
conclusion unassailable. "The world presents us with a picture of unity 
and distinction," says S. Baring-Gould, in his excellent work "Origin and 
Development of Religious Beliefs" "Unity without uniformity, and dis- 
tinction without antagonism. ***** Everywhere, around us and within 
us, we see that radical antimony. The whole astronomic order resolves 
itself into attraction and repulsion — a centripetal and a centrifugal force: 

* II Nephi ii. 


the chemical order into the antimony of positive and negative electricity, 
decomposing substances and recomposing them. The whole visible uni- 
verse presents the antimony of light and darkness, movement and repose, 
force and matter, heat and cold, the one and the multiple. The order of 
life is resumed in the antimony of the individual and the species, the 
particular and the general; the order of our sentiments in that of hap- 
piness and sorrow, pleasure and pain; that of our conceptions in the an- 
timony of the ideal and the I'eal; that of our will in the conditions of ac- 
tivity and passivity.* The American Philosopher, Emerson, also has 
something like this. He says: Polarity, or action and reaction, we meet 
in every part of nature; in darkness and light; in heat and cold; in the 
ebb and flow of waters; in male and female; in the inspiration and expira- 
tion of plants and animals; in the systole and diastole of the heart; in the 
undulations of fluids and of sound; in the centrifugal and centripetal grav- 
ity; in electricity, galvanism and chemical affinity. Superinduce magnetism 
at one end of the needle, the opposite magnetism takes place at the other 
end. If the south attracts, the north repels. To empty here, you must con- 
dense there.' An inevitable dualism bisects nature, so that each thing 
is a half, and suggests another thing to make it whole; as, spirit, mat- 
ter; man, woman; subjective, objective; in, out; upper, under; motion, 
rest; yea, nay. ***** Every sweet hath its sour, every evil its good." 
(Emerson's "Compensation.") 

In view of the utterances of the Book of Mormon already quoted I 
am justified in saying that evil as well as good is among the eternal 
things. Its existence did not begin with its appearance on our earth. 
Evil existed even in heaven; for Lucifer and many other spirits sinned 
there; rebelled against heaven's matchless King, waged war, and were 
thrust out into the earth for their transgression. 

Evil is not a created quality. It has always existed as the back- 
ground of good. It is as eternal as goodness; it is as eternal as law; 
it is as eternal as the agency of intelligences. Sin, which is evil ac- 
tive, is trangression of law; and so long as the agency of intelligences 
and law have existed, the possibility of the trangression of law has 
existed; and as the agency of intelligences and law have eternally existed, 
so, too, evil has existed, eternally, either potentially or active, and will 
always so exist. 

Evil may not be referred to God for its origin. He is not its cre- 
ator,-[- it is one of those independent existences that is uncreate, and 
stauds in the category of qualities of eternal things. While not pre- 

*"Origin and Development of Religious Belief" Vol. II pp. 22, 23. 

•j-Lest some text-proofer should extort, upon the me and cite the words 
of Isaiah — "I make peace and create evil" — the only text of scripture 
ascribing the creation of evil to God — I will anticipate so far as to 
say that it is quite generally agreed that no reference is made in the 
words of Isaiah to "moral evil;" but to such evils as may come as 
judgments upon people for their correction, such as famine or tempest 


pared to accept the doctrine of some philosophers that "good and evil 
are two sides of one thing." I am prepared to believe that evil is a 
necessary antithesis to good, and essential to the realization of the 
harmony of the universe. "The good cannot exist without the antithesis 
of the evil — the foil on which it produces itself and becomes knowa." 
As remarked by Orlando J. Smith, "Evil exists in the balance of natural 
forces. ***** It is also the background of good, the incentive to good, 
and the trial of good, without which good could not be. As the virtue 
of courage could not exist without the evil of danger, and as the virtue 
of sympathy could not exist without the evil of suffering, so no other vir- 
tue could exist without its corresponding evil. In a world without evil — 
if such a world be really conceivable, all men would have perfect health, 
perfect intelligence, and perfect morals. No one could gain or impart 
information, each one's cup of knowledge being full. The temperature 
would stand forever at seventy degrees, both heat and cold being evil. 
There could be no progress, since progress is the overcoming of evil. 
A world without evil would be as toil without exertion, as light with- 
out darkness, as a battle with no antagonist. It would be a world 
without meaning." Or, as Lehi puts it, in still stronger terms — after 
describing what conditions would be without the existence of opposites — 
"Wherefore, all things must needs be a compound in one; wherefore, 
if it [i. e. the sum of things] should be one body, [i .e. of one character — 
so called good without evil] it must needs remain as dead, having no 
life neither death, nor corruption nor incorruption, happiness nor mis- 
ery, neither sense nor insensibility. Wherefore, it [the sum of things] 
must needs have been created for a thing of naught; wherefore there 
would have been no purpose in the end of its creation. Wherefore, this 
thing [the absence of opposites] must needs destroy the wisdom of 
God, and his eternal purposes; and also, the power, and the mercy, and 
the justice of God."* 

As there can be no good without the antimony of evil, so there 
can be no evil without its antimony, or antithesis — good. The ex- 
istence of one implies the existence of the other; and. conversely, the 

or war: such an "evil" as would stand in natural antithesis to "peace," 
which word precedes, "I create evil," in the text — "I make peace and 
create" — the opposite to peace, "The evil of afflictions and punishments, 
but not the evil of sin" (Catholic Comment on Isaiah 45: 7). Meantime 
we have the clearest scriptural evidence that moral evil is not a pro- 
duct of God's: "Let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of 
God; for God cannot be tempted with evil, neither tempteth he any 
man." That is to say, God has nothing to do wnth the creation of 
moral evil; "But every man is tempted when he is drawn away of his 
own lust, and enticed. Then when lust hath conceived, it bringeth 
forth sin; and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death." (James 
i: 13-15). 

♦Nephi il: 13. 


non-existence of the latter would imply the non-existence of the former. 
It is from this basis that Lehi reached the conclusion that either his 
doctrine of antinomies, or the existence of opposites, is true, or else there 
are no existences. That is to say — to use his own words — "If ye shall 
say there is no law, ye shall also say there is no sin. If ye shall say 
there is no sin, ye shall also say there is no righteousness. And if there 
is no sin, ye shall also say there is no righteousness. And if there 
be no righteousness, there be no happiness. And if there be no righteous- 
ness nor happiness, there be no punishment nor misery. And if these 
things are not, there is no God, and if there is no God, we are not, 
neither the earth; for there could have been no creation of things, neither 
to act nor to be acted upon: wherefore, all things must have vanished 

But as things have not vanished away, as there are real existences, 
the whole series of things for which he contends are verities. For there 
is a God," he declares, "and he hath created all things, both the heavens 
and the earth, and all things that in them is; both things to act, and 
things to be acted upon." 

After arriving at this conclusion, Lehi, proceeding from the general 
to the particular, deals with the introduction of this universal antimony 
into our world as follows: 

"To bring about his [God's] eternal purposes in the end of man, af- 
ter he had created our first parents, ***** it must needs be that 
there was an opposition; even the forbidden fruit in opposition to the 
tree of life; the one being sweet and the other bitter; "Wherefore, the 
Lord God gave unto man that he should act for himself. Where- 
fore man could not act for himself, save it should be that he was en- 
ticed by the one or the other.j And I, Lehi, according to the things 
which I have read, must needs suppose, that an angel of God, ac- 
cording to that which is written, had fallen from heaven; wherefore 
he became a devil, having sought that which was evil before God. And 
because he had fallen from heaven, and had become miserable for ever 
he said unto Eve, yea, even that old serpent, who is the devil, who is 
the father of all lies; wherefore he said, Partake of the forbidden fruit, 

*Nephi ii: 13. 

rOn such a proposition Dr. Jacob Cooper, of Rutgers College, at the 
head of an article on "Theodicy," the justification of the divine providence 
by the attempt to reconcile the existence of evil with the goodness and 
sovereignty of God), says (August, 1903), "There must be an alternative 
to any line of conduct, in order to give it a moral quality. We have to 
deal with, not an imaginary, but a real world; not with a state of things 
wholly different from those by which character is developed. If there 
are to be such qualities as righteousnesss, virtue, merit, as the result of 
good action, there must be a condtiion by which these things are possible. 
And this can only be where there is an alternative which may be em- 
braced by a free choice. If the work of man on earth is to build up 
character, if his experience is disciplinary, by which he constantly be- 
comes better fitted for greater good and a wider sphere of action, then 
he must have the responsibility of choosing for himself a course different 
from one which appeals to the lower qualities in his nature." 


and ye shall not die, but ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil. And 
after Adam and Eve had partaken of the forbidden fruit, they were 
driven out of the garden of Eden, to till the earth. And they have brought 
forth children; yea, even the family of all the earth. And the days of 
the children of men were prolonged, according to the will of God, that 
they might repent while in the flesh; wherefore, their state became a state 
of probation, and their time was lengthened, according to the command- 
ments which the Lord God gave unto the children of men. For he gave 
commandment that all men must repent; for he showed unto all men 
that they were lost, because of the transgression of their parents. And 
now, behold, if Adam had not transgressed, he would not have fallen; 
but he would have remained in the garden of Eden. And all things which 
were created, must have remained in the same state in which they 
were, after they were created; and they must have remained forever, 
and had no end. And they would have had no children; wherefore, 
they would have remained in a state of innocence, having no joy, for 
they knew no misery; doing no good, for they knew no sin. But behold, 
all things have been done in the wisdom of him who knoweth all things. 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. The Family of Adam. Gen. iv: i, 2. Book of 

1 . Descendants of Cain. ^^^^^.^^ '^: ^= l:^' /^tf f "t 

, , f r, ,1 .-Vntiquities Bk. I, bee. u 

2. Descendants Ot beth. and m. Book of Moses ch. 

vd: 1-16 Notes 1, 2, 3, 4. 

II. The Commandment to offer Sacrifice. , ^^^'^ °^ ^i^"' '^'- ''• ^' 

5. Gen. iv: 4-0. 
III. Explanation of the Sacrifice. Book of Moses, ch. v:G-S. 

IV. A Gospel Dispensation Given to Adam. Qg^°totT^^' ''^' '^' ^^' 


1. The Descendants of Adam: Tlie account of the family of Adam in 
the Booli of Genesis is painfully brief and gives no idea of the number 
of sons and daughters born to him. During the first one hundred and 
thirty years it gives an account of but three sons; Cain, Abel, and Seth. 
"And the days of Adam after he had begotten Seth were eight hundred 
/ears, and he beget sons and daughters." (Gen. 5:3). Before the account 
of the birth of Cain is given, however, the sacred historian says: "And 
Adam called his wife's name Eve; because she was the mother of all 
living." (Gen. 3: 20). In the Book of Moses (P. G. P.) there is an ac- 
count of sons and daughters being l)Orn to the pair sometime before 
the birth of Cain, and even an account of their beginning to divide two and 
two and to till the land and to tend flocks; "and they also begot sons 
and daughters," all this previous to the birth of Cain. (Book of Moses, 
ch. 5: 2, 3). Even in the Genesis' account of Cain's birth there seems to 
be something of an inference that sons and daughters had been born 
to Adam and Eve preceding Cain's birth, because some special hope 
seems to attach to the birth of Cain, Eve saying, when she bore him, 
"I have gotten a man from the Lord;" and the Book of Moses adds this 
conclusion to her words, "Wherefore he may not reject his (the Lord's) 
words." But alas! how that mother's hopes were to be blighted, for 
the record just quoted says, "But behold, Cain hearkened not." (Book 
of Moses, ch. 5: 16). And the final result of his rejection of God's coun- 
sels are perhaps the saddest of all history. 

2. The Wickedness of Cain: The Book of Moses represents the des- 
cendants of Adam an being early influenced by the flattery and evil per- 
suasion.s of Lucifer who had been cast out of heaven to the earth. 
(Book of Moses, ch. 5: 13.) Cain seemed especially subject to his in- 
fluence and "loved Satan" more than God. (Ibid 28). A league and 

covenant was made in fact between the pair, and Satan even abdicated 
his place of bad eminence as chief rebel against God in favor of Cain. 
"And Satan swear unto Cain that he would do according to his com- 
mands. And all these things were done in secret, and Cain said 
truly, I am Mahan the master of this great secret, that I may murder 
and get gain, wherefore Cain was called Master Mahan and he gloried 
in his wickedness." (Book of Moses, ch. 5: 30, 31.) This throws some 
light upon an obscure passage in Gejiesis (IV: 7), "If thou doest well," 
the Lord is represented as saying to Cain on the latter's displeasure at 
his offering to the Lord not being accepted, 'shalt thou not be accepted? 
And if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his 
[Lucifer's] desire, and thou shalt rule over him." The question is whose 
desire shall be unto Cain? And who shall Cain rule over? The com- 
mentators usually assume that it is Abel who is to have the desires unto 
Cain, and over whom Cain is to rule, a most absurb conclusion, unless 
we can believe that God designed to place righteous Abel under the 
dominion of the evil minded Cain which is unthinkable. The truth of the 
matter is, that the record in Genesis is evidently imperfect, and should 
be as we find It in the Book of Moses, which represents that Satan's 
desires shall be towards Cain; He shall rejoice in Cain because the lat- 
ter is a wicked man; and to win him completely to his kingdom Satan 
is even willing to abdicate his throne and consent for Cain to rule 
over him. All of which indicates the desperate wicked disposition of 
Cain before he reached the climax of his crimes in the murder of 
his brother, Abel. 

3. Josephus on the Wickedness of Cain and His Descendants: "And 
when Cain had travelled over many countries, (after God's sentence 
upon him) he, with his wife, built a city named Nod, which is a place 
so called, and there he settled his abode; where also he had children. 
However, he did not accept of his punishment in order to amendment, 
but to increase his wickedness; for he only aimed to procure everything 
that was for his own bodily pleasure, though it obliged him to be in- 
jurious to his neighbors. He augmented his household substance with 
much wealth, by rapine and violence; he excited his acquaintance to 
procure pleasure and spoils by robbery, and became a great leader 
of men into wicked courses. Tie also introduced a change in that way 
of simplicity wherein men lived before; and was the author of measures 
and weights; and whereas they lived innocently and generously while 
they knew nothing of such arts, he changed the world into cunning 
craftiness. ***** Even while Adam was alive, it came to pass, that 
the posterity of Cain became exceeding wicked, every one successively 
dying, one after another, more wicked than the former. They were in- 
tolerable in war, and vehement in robberies; and if any one were slow 
to murder people, yet was he, bold in his profligate behavior, in acting 
unjustly, and doing injuries for gain." (Josephus' "Antiquities" Book I 
chap. II). 


4. Seth and His Descendants: Adam was more fortunate in his 
son Seth and his posterity. It is written that "God revealed himself unto 
Seth and he reblled not, but offered an acceptable sacrifice like unto 
his brother Abel. And to him also was born a son and he called his name 
Enos, and then began these men to call upon the name of the Lord, 
and the Lord blessed them. And a book of remembrance was kept, 
in which was recorded, in the language of Adam, for it was given unto 
as many as called upon God to write by the spirit of inspiration; and 
by them their children were taught to read and write, having a language 
which was pure and undefiled." (Book of Moses, ch. V. 3-6.) 

Of the righteousness of Seth's posterity, Josephus himself says: 
"Now this posterity of Seth continued to esteem God as the Lord of 
the universe, and to have an entire regard to virtue for seven genera- 
tions; but in process of time they were perverted, and forsook the 
practices of their forefathers; and did neither pay those honors to God 
which were appointed them, nor had they any concern to do justice 
toward men; but for what degree of zeal they had foi-merly shown for 
virtue, they now showed by their actions a double degree of wicked- 
ness, whereby they made God to be their enemy." 

But notwithstanding the wickedness even among the descendants 
of Seth, (Book of Moses, ch. VI: 15) still there was a line of righteous 
men preserved through whom the holy priesthood continued in the earth 
and among them were preachers of righteousness. (Book of Moses, 
ch. VI: 7). 

5. The offering of Sacrifices Commanded: No explanation is given 
in Genesis as to the reason why sacrifice was to be offered. There is 
simply a statement of fact that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground 
an offering unto the Lord, but that Abel brought of the firstlings of his 
flock and that the Lord had respect unto Abel's offering, but not unto 
Cain's. It must be evident that this effort at honoring God was taught 
by their father, but why they were so taught is not stated. In the 
Book of Moses (P. G. P.), however, the matter is made very clear. "And 
Adam and Eve, his wife, called upon the name of the Lord, and they 
heard the voice of the Lord from the way toward the Garden of Eden, 
speaking unto them, and they saw him not; for they were shut out from 
his presence. And he gave unto them commandments, that they should 
worship the Lord their God, and should offer the firstlings of their 
flocks, for an offering unto the Lord. And Adam was obedient unto the 
commandments of the Lord." (Book of Moses, ch. V: 4, 5). There ap- 
pears as yet, however, no explanation for this offering of sacrifices. 
With the fall of Adam there seems to have come a forgetfulness of the 
plan of salvation devised in the counsels of the Eloheim before Adam's 
earth-life began. And it needed the aforesaid commandment to Adam 
to bring to pass the introduction of those symbols which were intend- 
ed to figure forth the Atonment of the Christ. And though Adam, in 

^s fallen state, had apparently lost his recollection of thes© things 


ordained before the foundations of the world, yet he was obedient to the 
commands of the Lord. "And after many days an angei of the Lord 
appeared unto Adam, saying: Why dost thou offer sacrifices unto the 
Lord? And Adam said unto him: I know not, save the Lord commanded 
me. And then the angel spake, saying: This thing is a similitude of 
the sacrifice of the Only Begotten of the Father, which is full of grace 
and truth. Wherefore, thou shalt do all that thou dost in the name of 
the Son, and thou shalt repent and call upon God in the name of the 
Son for evermore. And in that day the Holy Ghost fell upon Adam, 
which beareth record of the Father and the Son, saying: I am the Only 
Begotten of the Father from the beginning, henceforth and for ever, 
that as thou hast fallen thou may est be redeemed, and all mankind, 
even as many as will." (Book of Moses, ch. VI, 6-9). 

6. The Gospel Fully Revealed to Adam: It would seem also that 
Adam about this time received even more full explanations respecting 
his redemption than is given in the passage of the Book of Moses, 
quoted in the foregoing note; for in the passage attributed to Enoch 
sometime after the event above quoted, it is said: "And he [God] 
called upon * * * Adam by his own voice, saying: I am Gad; I made 
the world, and men before they were in the flesh. And he also said 
unto him: If thou wilt turn unto me, and hearken unto my voice, and 
believe, and repent of all thy transgressions, and be baptized, even 
in water, in the name of mine Only Begotten Son, who is full of grace 
and truth, which is Jesus Christ, the only name which shall be given 
under heaven, whereby salvation shall come unto the children of men. 
ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost, asking all things in his name, 
and whatsoever ye shall ask, it shall be given you. And our father 
Adam spake unto the Lord, and said: Why is it that men must repent 
and be baptized in water? And the Lord said unto Adam: Behold I have 
forgiven thee thy transgression in the Garden of Eden. Hence came the 
saying abroad among the people. That the Son of God hath atoned for 
original guilt, wherein the sins of the parents cannot be answered upon 
the heads of the children, for they are wholp from the foundation of tha 
world. And the Lord spake unto Adam, saying: Inasmuch as thy 
children .are conceived in sin, even so when they begin to grow up, sin 
conceiveth in their hearts, and they taste the bitter, that they may know 
to prize the good. And it is given unto them to know good from 
evil; wherefore they are agents unto themselves, and I have given unto 
you another law and commandment. Wherefore teach it unto your 
children, that all men, everywhere, must repent, or they can in no wise 
inherit the kingdom of God, for no unclean thing can dwell there, or 
dwell in his presence; for, in the language of Adam, Man of Holiness 
is His name, and the name of his Only Begotten is the Son of Man, 
even Jesus Christ, a righteous judge, who shall come in the meridian 
of time. Therefore, I give unto you a commandment, to teach these 
things freely unto your children, saying: That by reason of transgression 

Cometh the fall, which fall bringeth death, and inasmuch as ye were 
born into the world by water, and blood, and spirit, which I have made, 
and so became of dust a living soul, even so ye must be born again 
into the kingdom of heaven, of water, and of the Spirit, and be cleansed 
by blood, even the blood of mine Only Begotten; that ye might be sancti- 
fied from all sin, and enjoy the words of eternal life in this world, and 
eternal life in the world to come, even immortal glory. * * * * And 
it came to pass, when the Lord had spoken with Adam, our father, that 
Adam cried unto the Lord, and he was caught away by the Spirit of the 
Lord, and was carried dovvn into the water, and was laid under the 
water, and was brought forth out of the water. And thus he was 
baptized, and the Spirit of God descended upon him, and thus he was 
born of the Spirit, and became quickened in the inner man. And he 
heard a voice out of heaven, saying: Thou art baptized with fire, and 
with the Holy Ghost. This is the record of the Father, and the Son, 
from hencef6rth and forever; and thou art after the order of him who 
was without beginning of days or end of years, from all eternity to all 
eternity. Behold, thou art one in me, a Son of God; and thus may 
all become my sons". Amen." (Book of Moses, chs. VI: 51-59, 64-68). 

Thus a dispensation of the Gospel was committed unto Adam, and 
the means of his redemption was clearly made known unto him. He was 
not left to perish in ignorance of God's purposes in respect of his earth 
life, and whatever intellectual or spiritual darkness, had come over 
him as a consequence of his fall and his banishment from Eden it was 
now dispelled by this dispensation of the gospel given unto him, grant- 
ing to him a knowledge of that eternal life "which God that cannot lie, 
promised before the world began." (Titus, i; 2.) 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



1 . The Rejoicing of Adam and Eve on Bookof Moses, ch. v: lui 

Receiving a Dispensation of the Gos- ^^- ^'°*® ^' 

i I. The Place of Adam in the Divine Econ- Miiieuniai Star, Voi. 

omy of the Gospel Dispensation. xvii, pp. 310-311. Also 

^ ^ ^ Vol. XVIII, pp. 164-S,* 

Mormon Doctrine of Diety. 
pp. 243-251. Doc. and Gov. 
Sec. cvii: 53-56. 
Notes 2, 3, 4. 


1. Joy in the Gospel: The rejoicing of Adam and Eve on receiv- 
ing a dispensation of the Gospel, which rejoicing went to the extent 
of condoning the fact of their fall, (See Book of Moses, V: 10, 12) could 
arise from no other circumstance than that their former knowledge 
of what was to be accomplished by the earth-life of man had been 
restored to them. Which knowledge possessed by the pre-existent spirits 
of man before the foundations of the earth were laid, caused "The Morn- 
ing Stars to sing together, and all the sons of God to shout for joy." 
(Job 38: 7). Doubtless the contemplation of that "eternal life which 
God, that cannot lie, promised before the world began" (Titus I: 2) was 
sufficient cause for their joy; and it brings home to us the truth, that 
notwithstanding the presence of evil and sorrow in this world, there has 
been no blundering in the creation of the earth and the placing of men 
upon it under circumstances in the midst of which they are called upon 
to work out their salvation. The purposes of God have not been sur- 
prised, nor have they ran awry. On the contrary they are moving for- 
ward in majestic procession to the attainment of their ejid. God is in 
his world, reconciling it unto himself. Man is here in this world in one 
of the departments of God's great university to learn of good and evil; 
of joy and sorrow; to take upon his spirit a clothing of flesh and bone, — 
elements through which, and only through which, (See Doc. & Gov. Sec. 
xciii; 33, 34) he may have a larger, nobler and higher life than was 
possible for him when existing only in spirit form. And the coming in 
contact with evil and engaging in the struggle with it, brief or more 
or less prolonged, is but an incident, a means of education, and over 
evil he will ultimately triumph, and conform his life to the law of God — 


the law of righteousness. And so, too, will the race, those who succumb 
permanently to evil will be so few in comparison with those who will 
triumph, that the calamity of their misfortunes should not weigh against 
the larger good that shall come to the race, or check the rejoicings of 
the first pair upon gaining the full vision of God's meaning when he 
ordained man's earth-existence. 

2. The Priesthood of Adam: The Priesthood was first given to 
Adam; he obtained the First Presidency, and held the keys of it from 
generation to generation. He obtained it in the Creation, before the 
world was foi-med, (Genesis i, 20, 26, 28). He had dominion given him 
over every living creature. He is Michael, the Arch-Angel, spoken of 
in the Scriptures. Then to Noah, who is Gabriel; he stands next in 
authority to Adam in the Priesthood; he was called of God to this 
office, and was the Father of all living in his day, and to him was 
given the dominion. These men held keys first on Earth, and then in 
Heaven. The Priesthood is an everlasting principle, and existed with 
God from eternity, and will to eternity, without beginning of days or 
end of years. The keys have to be brought from Heaven whenever 
the Gospel is sent. When they are revealed from Heaven, it is by 
Adam's authority. Daniel vii, speaks of the Ancient of Days; he means 
the oldest man, our Father Adam, Michael; he will call his children to- 
gether and hold a council with them to prepare them for tha coming of 
the Son of Man. He (Adam) is the Father of the human family, and 
presides over the spirits of all men, and all that have had the keys must 
stand before him in this grand council. This may take place before 
some of us leave this stage of action. The Son of Man stands be- 
fore him, and there is given him glory and dominion. Adam delivers 
up his stewardship to Christ, that which was delivered to him as holding 
the keys of the Universe, but retains his standing as head of the human 
family. ***** The Father called all spirits before him at the creation 
of man, and organized them. He (Adam) is the head, and was told to 
multiply. The Keys were first given to him, and by him to others. 
He will have to give an account of his stewardship, and they to him. 
***** How ha-e we cone at the P-if^thood in the last days? It came 
down, down in regular succession. Peter, James, and John had it given 
to them, and they gave it to others. Christ is the Great High Priest; 
Adam next. Paul speaks of the Church coming to an innumerable com- 
pany of angels — to God the Judge of all— the spirits of just men made 
perfect; to Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant, etc. (Heb. xii. 23.) 
I saw Adam in the valley of Adam-ondi-Ahman. He called together his 
children and blessed them with a patriarchal blessing. The Lord ap- 
peared in their midst, and he (Adam) blessed them all, and foretold 
what should befall them to the latest generation." — Joseph Smith, Mil- 
lennial Star, Vol. XVII, p. 310-311. 

3. Adam in the Land of Adam-ondi-Ahman: The vision alluded to 


in the closing sentences of the preceding note was doubtless the founda- 
tion of the following passage in the Book of Doctrine & Covenants, "Three 
years previous to the death of Adam, he called Seth, Enos, Cainan, 
Mahalaleel, Jared, Enoch, and Methuselah, who were all High Priests, 
with the residue of his posterity who were righteous, into the valley 
of Adam-ondi-Ahman, and there bestowed upon them his last blessing. 
And the Lord appeared unto them, and they rose up and blessed Adam, 
and called him Michael, the Prince, the Archangel. And the Loi'd ad- 
ministered comfort unto Adam, and said unto him, I have set thee to be 
at the head — a multitude of nations shall come of thee, and thou art 
a Prince over them for ever. And Adam stood up in the midst of the 
congregation, and notwithstanding he was bowed down with age, be- 
ing full of the Holy Ghost, predicted whatsoever should befall his poster- 
ity unto the latest generation. These things were all written in the 
book of Enoch, and are to be testified of in due time." (Doc. & Cov. Sec. 
107, vers. 53-57. 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 


(A Discourse.) 


1. A Suggestion to the Speakci: The discourse is to be argumenta- 
tive. The form in which the theme is stated necessarily mal<;es it so. 
It is expected that the Sectarian views will be fairly presented and con- 
sidered, after which will come the presentation of the views that arise 
from what God has revealed to his Church concerning the great Patriarch 
of our race, and the superiority of those views over the conceptions of the 
Christian Sects be made to appear. 

Let the suggestions respecting speech structure in Lesson VI, and 
also the same instruction in Year Book I, be remembered and reviewed 
in the course of preparation. 

2. Argumentative Speaking: "In expository and argumentative com- 
position the writer is compelled to thinlv, and to think connectedly. Struc- 
ture is all-important in these forms of composition. A successful narra- 
tive or description may be given without a strict plan or organization, for 
much depends upon vivid words and happy phrasing, well-turned sen- 
tences, and apt details. In exposition and argument, however, a glib use 
of language, rounded sentences, and good illustration will not save the 
writer from failure if his thought is not exact and carefully developed." 
(Composition and Rhetoric, Herrick and Damon.) 

Governing Principles in Argumentative Discourse: "The argumenta- 
tive Discourse is a composition in which the writer lays down a propo- 
sition, and endeavors to persuade others that it is true. The statements 
or reasons used for this purpose are called Argumeats. * * * in the 
conduct of * * * argumentative discourses, six formal divisions were 
adopted by the ancients: (1) the Exordium or Introduction, (2) the Di- 
vision, (?!) the Statement, (4) the Reasoning, (o) the Appeal to the Feel- 
ings, and (6) the Peroration. It is by no means necessary, however, that 
these six parts should enter into every discourse. To employ them all 
would inevitably, in some cases, produce an appearance of stiffness and 
pedantry. Yet, as any of them may be used, we proceed to define and 


treat briefly of each. The object of the Exordium, or Introduction, is to 
render the reader or hearer well-disposed, attentive, and open to per- 
suasion. To accomplish the first of these ends, the writer must make a 
modest opening, and convey to his readers the impression that he is 
candidly maintaining the position of the truth of which he is himself 
assured. To awaken attention, he should hint at the importance, novelty, 
or dignity of the subject. Finally, to make his readers open to convic- 
tion, he should endeavor to remove any prejudices they may have formed 
against the side of the question he intends to espouse. The introduction 
of a discourse is its most difficult part. If it is important in other com- 
positions to make a good impression at the outset, it is doubly so whe.u 
we are endeavoring to persuade. The following suggestions will be found 
generally applicable: 

1. An introduction must be easy and natural. It must appear, as 
Cicero says, "to have sprung up of its own accord from the matter under 
consideration." To insure there qualities, it is recommended that the 
introduction should not be composed until the other parts of the discourse 
are written [prepared], or at least until its general scope and bearing 
are digested. * * * 

2. In the second place, modesty is essential in an introduction; it 
must not promise too much, and thus raise expectations in the listener 
which may be disappointed. 

3. An introduction is not the place for vehemence and passion. The 
minds of readers must be gradually prepared before the writer can ven- 
ture on strong and animated outbursts. * * * 

4. Introductions, moreover, should not anticipate any material part 
of the subject. If topics or arguments afterwards to be enlarged upon are 
hinted at or partially discussed in the introduction, they lose, when sub- 
sequently brought forward, the grace of novelty, and thereby a 'great 
portion of their effect. 

5. Lastly, the introduction should be accommodated, both in length 
and character, to the discourse that is to follow: in length, as nothing 
can be more absurd than to erect an immense vestibule before a diminu- 
tive building; and in character, as it is no less absurd to overcharge with 
superb ornaments the portico of a plain dwelling-house, or to make the 
entrance to a monument as gay as that to an arbor. The "Division" is 
that part of a discourse in which the writer [or speaker] makes known 
to his hearers the method to be pursued, and the heads he intends to 
take, in treating his subject. There are many cases in which the Division 
is unnecessary; some, in which its introduction would even be improper: 
as, for instance, when only a single ai'gument is to be used. * * * The 
third division of a discourse is the Statement, in which the facts con- 
nected with the subject are laid open. This generally forms an important 
part of legal pleadings. The statement should be put forth in a clear 
and forcible style. The writer [speaker] must state his facts in such a 


way as to keep strictly within the bounds of truth, and yet to present 
them under the colors that are most favorable to his cause; to place in 
the most striking light every circumstance that is to his advantage, and 
explain away, as far as possible, such as make against him. The fourth 
division is the Reasoning; and on this everything depends. It is here 
that the arguments are found which are to induce conviction, and to 
prepare for which is the object of the parts already discussed. The 
following suggestions should be regarded: 

1. "The speaker should select such arguments only as he feels to 
be solid and convincing. He must not expect to impose on the world 
by mere arts of language; but, placing himself in the situation of a hearer, 
should think how he would be affected by the reasoning which he pro- 
poses to use for the persuasion of others." 

2. "When the arguments employed are strong and satisfactory, the 
more they are distinguished and treated apart from each other, the bet- 
ter; but, when they are weak or doubtful, it is expedient rather to throw 
them together, than to present each in a clear and separate light." 

3. "When we have a number of arguments of different degrees of 
strength, it is best to begin and close with the stronger, placing the weak- 
er in the midde, whei-e they will naturally attract least attention." 

.4 "Arguments should not be multiplied too much, or extended too 
far. Besides burdening the memory, and lessening the effect of individ- 
ual points, such diffuseness renders a cause suspected." 

5. "The fifth division is the Appeal to the Feelings. This should be 
short and to the point. All appearance of art should be strictly avoided. 
To move his hearers, the speaker must be moved himself. The last di- 
vision of a discourse is the peroration; in which the speaker sums up all 
that has been said, and endeavors to leave a forcible impression on the 
hearer's mind." (Course of Composition and Rhetoric, Quackenbos, pp. 

The "Appeal" and the "Peroration," I suggest, should be combined 
and called "the conclusion," and if in that conclusion there is to be an 
"appeal" it should, in argumentative discourses, be made to the reason 
rather than to the feelings, since argument is addressed to the intellect 
rather than to the emotions. 

One other suggestion I offer in the argumentative discourse — let the 
statement of the theory you intend to overthrow be presented in absolute 
fairness; so fair that those who are advocates of it could have no pos- 
sible grounds of complaint against you if they were present and listening 
to your discourse. Assume that they are present, and so proceed as if 
they were to answer you. Remember, that not only in argumentative 
discourse, but also in expository discourse, and in all things else, truth 
only will endure. Let truth, then, its unfolding, its exposition, its estab- 
lishment be the object of your endeavor. 

Clearness: In Lesson VI. I called attention to the importance of clear- 


tiess in thought expression, or speech. I now return to the subject. The 
quality of clearness in the expression of thought "consists of such a use 
and arrangement of words or clauses as at once distinctly indicate the 
meaning of the writer" [or speaker] (Quackenbos). "A writer [or speak- 
er] should choose that word or phrase which will convey his meaning 
with clearness. It is not enough to use language that may be understood; 
he should use language that must be understood." "Any writer who has 
read even a little will know what is meant by the word 'intelligible.' It 
is not sufficient that there be a meaning that may be hammered out of 
the sentence, but that the language should be so clear that the meaning 
should be rendered without an effort of the hearer; and not only some 
proposition of meaning, but the very sense, no more and no less, which 
the speaker has intended to put into his words." (Principles of Rhetoric, 
Hill, p. 82.) 

Perhaps one of the most forceful writers of English was Lord 
Macaulay; remembered chiefly by his History of England, though his 
essays and speeches in Parliament are well nigh of equal literary value. 
The one quality of his literary style which stands out more prominently 
than any other is the quality of clearness: "What he saw at all he saw 
distinctly; what he believed he believed with his whole strength; he 
wrote on subjects with which he had long been familiar; and he made 
lucidity his primary object in composition. For him, in short, there was 
no difficulty in securing clearness, except that which is inherent in the 
nature of language. This difficulty he overcame with unusual success, 
as all his critics admit." (Hill's Rhetoric, p. 83.) 

One of the means by which Macaulay secured that clearness which dis- 
tinguishes all his writings is noted by a later historian. "I learned from 
Macaulay," says Mr. Freeman, 'never to be afraid of using the same 
word or name over and over again, if by that means anj^thing could be 
added to clearness or force. Macaulay never goes on, like some writers, 
talking about 'the former' and 'the latter;' 'he,' 'she,' 'it,' 'they' through 
clause after clause, while his reader has to look back to see which of 
several persons it is that is so darkly referred to. From the point of 
view of clearness, it is always better to repeat a noun than to substitute 
for it a pronoun which fails to suggest that noun unmistakeably and at 
once. No fault is, however, more common than the use of an obscure 
or equivocal pronoun. 

Examples: "I must go and help Alice with the heifer; she is not 
very quiet yet, and I see her going out with her pail." 

Corrected: I must go and help Alice with the heifer; the heifer is 
not very quiet yet, and I see Alice going out with her pail. 

Example: Steele's father, who is said to have been a lawyer, died 
before he had reached his sixth year." 

Corrected: Steele's father, who is said to have been a lawyer, died 
before his son had reached his sixth year." 

Example: "There was also a number of cousins, who were about the 


same age, and were always laughing, though it was never quite clear what 
it was about." 

Corrected: * * * * "though it was never quite clear what their 
laughing was about." 

Example; "Rasselas was the fourth son of the mighty emperor in 
whose dominions the Fathers of Waters begins his course; whose bounty 
pours down the streams of plenty, and scatters over half the world the 
harvests of Egypt." 

Corrected: * * * the rivers bounty pours down, etc." (Hill's 
Rhetoric, p. 84-5.) 

Let the student, then, remember this the first essential to thought-ex- 
pression in speech or writing is clearness. It is not enough that one may 
be understood, one must be understood — less than this is dire failure. 
To secure the quality of clearness in thought-expression sacrifice any- 
thing, everything, seeming elegance, high sounding phrases, harmonious 
-ounding sentences, brave tautology even, but make yourself under- 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 




I. Enoch's Place in the Line of the Pa- ^.^en 7: I8-24. Jude 14, 

II. The Visions of Enoch. 

lo; Hebrews xi: 5. Note 
1 2 

Bnc.k <jl W<'«6 {f. G. P.) 
ch \ :'2I 'o8. Ibid, ch \'ii 

III. The Founding of the City of Enoch- See Article "Enoch/' 

Trfln«:lfltion Smitli s Bible Dictionary. 

iransiation. ^j^^ j-j^^.^ ^^^^ ^i^ig 

Josephus' Antiquities, Bk. 
I, ch. iii. 

IV. The Writings of Enoch. J^de u, is. And see 

Article "Book of Enoch 
in Sevent3''s Bible Diction- 
ary, and Smith and Kitto 
cited above, on same title. 
Notes 3, 4. 


1. Enoch: Enoch is said to be the seventh from Adam (Jude 14). 
This is counting bbth Cain and Abel among the patriarchs. From the 
time of Seth until the birth and calling of Enoch there was an unin- 
terrupted line of righteous men holding the priesthood, but a special 
dispensation of the Gospel seems, nevertheless, to have been given unto 
Enoch. The information we have of this patriarch in the Bible is ex- 
tremely meagre, the references being found in Gen. v: 18-24, in the brief 
allusion to him in Jude 14, 15 and in Hebrew xi: 5. Apart from these 
references the only reliable information we have of Enoch is to be 
found in the Book of Moses, (P. G. P.) chaps, vi, vii. The occasion for 
giving the dispensation of the Gospel to Enoch seems to have been the 
development of very great wickedness among the antidiluvians and the 
Lord called unto Enoch out of heaven appointing him to prophesy unto 
the people concerning the impending calamities to fall upon them, and 
to cry repentance unto them. It is from the Book of iMoses, ch. vi that 
we learn how complete was the dispensation of the Gospel committed 
unto Enoch; for therein is the cause of Adam's fall, the means of re- 
demption provided, as also an account of Adam's acceptance of the Gospel 
is set forth in considerable detail. Among the great events of the dispen- 
sation committed unto Enoch is, first, the accoimt given by prophecy of 


great battles between the people of Canaan, who were the descendants 
of Cain, the murderer, and other inhabitants of the earth, chiefly the 
people of Shum. Second, the fact that the rest of the descendants of 
Adam hold aloof from association with the descendants of Cain, who were 
cursed with blackness and their land made a desert, (Book of Moses, ch. 
vii). Third, the separation of the righteous following of Enoch from 
their enemies who fought against God. Fourth, of God taking up his 
abode in the city of Enoch, Zion, the home of the people of one heart 
and one mind, called also the city of Holiness, ("for this is Zion, the 
pure in heart, Doc. & Cov. xcvii). And finally, of the separation of the 
city of Enoch from the earth by translation; from which circumstance 
there went forth the saying among the inhabitants of the earth, "Zion 
is fled." Doubtless among all the dispensations of the Gospel committed 
to man the dispensation given to Enoch was one of the most glorious. 

Of Enoch Josephus says: "Jared lived nine hundred and sixty-two 
years; and then his son Enoch succeeded him, who was born when his 
father was one hundred and sixty-two years old. Now he, when he had 
lived three hundred and sixty-five years, departed, and wejit to God; 
whence it is that they have not written down his death." (Josephus' An- 
tiquities, p. 28.) 

2. Enoch's Place in History: "According to the Old Testament, he 
[Enoch] walked with God; and, after 365 years, he was not, for God 
took him (Gen. v. 24). The inspired writer of the Epistle to the Hebrew 
says, 'By faith Enoch was translated that he should not see death, and 
was not found, because God had translated him (xi 5). Walking with God 
implies the close fellowship with Jehovah which it is possible for a 
human being to enjoy on earth. As a reward, therefore, of his extra- 
ordinary sanctity, he was transported into heaven without the experience 
of death. Elijah was in like manner translated; and thus was the doc- 
trine of immortality ])alpably taught under the ancient dispensation. 
The traditions of the Jews have ascribed to Enoch many fabulous qual- 
ities. They have invested him with various attributes and excellencies 
for which the Bible furnishes no foundation. Accordingly, he is repre- 
sented as the inventor of letters, arithmetic, and astronomy; as the first 
author, from whom several books emanated. Visions and prophecies 
were commonly ascribed to him, which he is said to have arranged in a 
book. This book was delivered to his son, and preserved by Noah in the 
ark. After the flood it was made known to the world, and handed down 
from one generation to another. Hence the Arabians call him Edris." 
(Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature, Kitto, p. 639.) 

3. Outline of the Book of Enoch: "In its present shape the book 
consists of a series of revelations supposed to have been given to Enoch 
and Noah, which extend to the most varied aspects of nature and life, 
and are designed to offer a comprehensive vindication of the action of 
Providence. It is divided into five parts. The first part, after a general 
introduction, contains an account of the fall of the angels, and of the 


judgment to come upon them and upon the giants, their offspring; and 
this is followed by the description of the journey of Enoch through the 
earth and lower heaven in company with an angel, who showed to him 
many of the great mysteries of nature, the treasure-houses of the storms 
and winds, and fires of heaven, the prison of the fallen and the land of 
the blessed. The second part is styled 'A Vision of Wisdom,' and con- 
sists of three 'parables," in which Enoch relates the revelations of the 
higher secrets of heaven and of the spiritual world which were given to 
him. The first parable gives chiefly a picture of the future blessings 
and manifestation of the righteous, with further details as to the heavenly 
bodies; the second describes in splendid imagery the coming of Messiah 
and the results which it should work among 'the elect' and the gainsay- 
ers; the third draws out at further length the blessedness of 'the elect 
and holy,' and the confusion and wretchedness of the sinful rulers of the 
world. The third part is styled 'the Book of the Course of the Lights 
of Heaven,' and deals with the motions of the sun and moon, and the 
changes of the seasons: and with this the narrative of the journey of 
Enoch closes. The fourth part is not distinguished by any special name, 
but contains the record of a dream which was granted to Enoch in his 
youth, in which he saw the history of the kingdoms of God and of the 
world up to the final establishment of the throne of Messiah. The fifth 
part cpntains the last addresses of Enoch to his children, in which the 
teaching of the former chaptei-s is made the groundwork of earnest ex- 
hortation. The signs which attended the birth of Noah are next noticed 
and another short writing of Enoch, forms the close to the whole book." 
(Smith's Bible Dictionary, Hackett, p. 739.) 

4. Doctrinal outline of the Book of Enoch: "In doctrine the book 
of Enoch exhibits a great advance of thought within the limits of reve- 
lation in each of the great divisions of knowledge. The teaching on 
nature is a curious attempt to reduce the scattered images of the Old 
Testament to a physical system. The view of society and man, of the 
temporary triumph and final discomfiture of the oppressors of God's 
people, carries out into elaborate detail the pregnant images of Daniel 
The figure of the Messiah is invested with majestic dignity as 'the Son 
of God,' 'whose name was named before the sun was made,' and who ex 
isted 'aforetime in the presence of God.' And at the same time his hu 
man attributes as "the son of man,' 'the. son of woman,' 'the elect one, 
'the righteous one,' 'the anointed,' are brought into conspicuous notice 
The mysteries of the spiritual world, the connection of angels and men 
the classes and ministeries of the hosts of heaven, the power of Satan 
and the legions of darkness, the doctrines of resurrection, retribution 
and eternal punishment are dwelt upon with growing earnestness as the 
horizon of speculation was extended by intercourse with Greece. But 
the message of the book is emphatically one of 'faith and truth,' and 
while the writer combines and repeats the thoughts of Scripture, he adds 
no new element to the teaching of the prophets. His errors spring from 


an undisciplined attempt to explain their words, and from a proud ex- 
ultation in present success. For the great characteristic by which the 
book is distinguished from the later apocalypse of Ezra (Esdras, 2n 
Book) is the tone of triumphant expectation by which it is pervaded. 
It seems to repeat in every form the great principle that the world, 
na,tural, moral, and spiritual, is under the immediate government of 
God. Hence it follows that there is a terrible retribution reserved for 
sinners, and a glorious kingdom prepared for the righteous, and Mes- 
siah is regarded as the divine mediator of this double issue. Nor is it 
without a striking fitness that a patriarch translated from earth, and ad- 
mitted to look upon the divine majesty, is chosen as 'the herald of wis- 
dom, rig'iteousness, and judgment' to a people who, even in suffering, 
saw in tl ^ir tyrants only the victims of a coming vengeance." (Smith's 
Bible Dictionary, Hackett Edition, p. 740.) 

The 'ao I leceding notes, giving an outline of the Book of Enoch and 
:t:3 docL - t'.-, deal with a version of the writings of Enoch that doubt- 
less have been more or less corrupted; but even in mutilated form one 
may discern the cum outline of a great and important work dealing with 
the Gospel of Christ as kno" -^ to the ancients. A history of the book — 
so well known and freqi'duj ^ed by many of the Christian fathers — 

and its being brought to Europ? and translated into the English language 
will be found in both Kitto and Smith's works. 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. Noah Before the Flood: Gen. v: 28-32. Book of 

1. Birth, Character, and place in His- ^^°f^ ^"^ ^-i'^- ^'°tes 1 

, ' ' ir and 2. 

^^- . Gen. ^^: 1-13. Note 3. 

2. Conditions of Society in days of Book of Moses, ch. \-iii: 
Noah. 13, 15, 17, 19, 23, 24. See 

3. The calling of Noah and the Nature ^{^^ r?43-^GS^^' ^""^ ''^' 
of the Gospel committed to him. . • - • 

II. The Flood. Gen. \-ii and viii. Jo- 

sephus Antiquities. 
Smitti's Dictionary- of the 
Bible, Art. Noali." 

III. Noah After the Flood. ^^°- >^- ^-^^ 

1. Renewal of the Covenant — Its sign. Gen. ix: 18-29. 

2. The Curse upon Canaan. 

3. The Seven Precepts of Noah — His 


Note 3, 4. 

1. Why a Dispensation of the Gospel was Given to Noah: The rea- 
son for giving a dispensation of the Gospel to Noah seems to have been 
the same as that which led to the giving of a dispensation of it to Enoch — 
viz., the increasing wickedness of the people. There had been no brealv 
in the line of righteous men who held the priesthood; but the increasing 
wickedness of the people, and the necessity of warning them of impending 
calamities required the dispensation of the Gospel given to Noah. In 
order to understand how complete the dispensation of the Gospel given 
to them was, it is necessary that the student compare Book of Moses ch. 
viii: 19, with ch. vi: 43-68, as suggested in the references given in 
the analysis; since it is said that Noah was commanded to "go forth 
and declare his Gospel unto the children of men even as it was given 
unto Enoch" (ch. viii: 19): and how fully the Gospel was given unto 
Enoch can only be appreciated by a coraparasion of the texts given 

2. The Character of Noah: "That the conduct of Noah corresponded 
to the faith and hope of his father we have no reason to doubt. The 
brevity of the history satisfies not human curiosity. He was born six 
hundred years before the Deluge. We may reasonably suppose that 


through that period he maintained the character given of hira: 'Noah 
found favour in the eyes of the Lord. Noah was a just man, and per- 
fect in his generations. Noah walked with God.' (Gen. vi: 8, 9.) These 
words declare his piety, sincerity, and integrity, that he maintained habit- 
ual communion with the Father of Mercies, by the exercises of devotion, 
and that he was an inspired instrument of conveying the will of God to 
mankind. The wickedness of the human race had long called upon the 
wisdom and justice of God for some signal display of his displeasure, as 
a measure of righteous government and as example to future ages. 
For a long time, probably many centuries, the better part of men, the 
descendants of Seth, had kept themselves from society with the families 
of the Cainite race. The former class had become designated as 'the 
sons of God,' faithful and obedient: the latter were called by a term 
evidently designated to form an appellation of the contrary import, 
"daughters of men,' of impious and licentious men. These women pos- 
sessed beauty and blandishments, by which they won the affections of 
unwary men, and intermarriages upon a great scale took place. As is 
usual in such alliances, the worst part gained the ascendency. The off- 
spring become more depraved than the parents, and a universal corrup- 
tion of minds and morals took place. Many of them became 'giants,' 
the mighty men of old, men of renown (nephilism) apostates (as the word 
implies), heroes, warriors, plunderers, 'filling the earth with violence.' God 
mercifully afforded a respite of one hundred and twenty years (Gen. vi: 3; 
I Pet. iii:20; 2 Pet. ii:5), during which Noah sought to work salutary 
impressions upon their minds, and to bring them to repentance. Thus he 
was 'a preacher of righteousness,' exercising faith in the testimony of 
God, moved with holy reverence, obeying the divine commands, and, by 
the contrast of his conduct, condemning the world (Heb. xi:7); and 
probably he had during a long previous period laboured in that benev- 
olent and pious work." (Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature, Kitto, vol. II, 
p. 425.) 

3. Conditions of Society in Days of Noaii: "Very remarkable, how- 
ever, is the glimpse which we get [from the Bible] of the state of society 
in the antediluvian world. The narrative it is true is brief, and on many 
points obscure: a mystery hangs over it which we cannot penetrate. But 
some few facts are clear. The wickedness of the world is described as 
having reached a desperate pitch, owing, it would seem, in a great 
measure to the fusion of two races which had hitherto been distinct. And 
further the marked features of the wickedness of the age were lust and 
brutal outrage. "They took them wives of all which they chose:" and, 
"the earth was filled with violence." "The earth was corrupt for all flesh 
had corrupted his way upon the earth. * * * ^^d it came to pass 
when men (the Adam) began to multiply on the face of the ground and 
daughters were bom unto them; then the sons of (jod (the Elohim) saw 
the daughters of men (the Adam) that they were fair, and they took to 
them wives of all that they chose. And Jehovah said. My spirit shall 


not for ever rule (or be humbled) in men, seeing that they are (or, in 
their error they are) but flesh, and their days shall be a hundred and 
twenty years. The Nephilim [the giants] were in the earth in those 
days; and also afterwards when the sons of God (the Elohim) came in 
unto the daughters of men (Adam) and children were born to them, 
these were the heroes which were of old, men of renown." (Smith's 
Bible Dictionary, Art, Noah.) 

4. Of Several Bible Difficulties in the Noachian Dispensation: (1) 
The name "Noah" has presented a difficulty to Bible Expounders. Noah's 
father, Lamech, assigns as a reason for giving him the name Noah — 
"This same shall comfort us concerning our work and toil of our hands, 
because of the ground which the Lord hath cursed." (Gen. v:29.) This 
is usually made to refer to the general curse put upon the land because 
of the fall of Adam (see Art. "Noah" Smith's Bible Dictionary) ; but the 
Book of Moses (P. G. P.), explains that "there came a great famine into 
the land, and the Lord cursed the earth with a sore curse, and many 
of the inhabitants thereof died." (Book of Moses, viii: 4). This was 
doubtless the cause of Lamech naming his son Noah, which signifies 
"rest," in the hope that there would be a "rest," or relief from the fam- 
ine which had so long distressed them. 

(2). The second difficulty is in respect of the passage "When men 
began to multiply on the face of the earth; and daughters were born 
unto them, the sons of God saw the daughters of men and they took 
them wives of all which they chose.!' Who were these sons of God? 
Who were these daughters of men? A variety of interpretations has 
been given, (a) The "sons of Elohim" (sons of the Gods) were ex- 
plained to mean sons of princes, or men of high rank, who degraded 
themselves by contracting marriages with the "daughters of men," i. e. 
with women of inferior position." (b) A second interpretation, not less 
ancient, understands by the sons of Elohim (sons of the Gods), angels. 
And a long list of authorities may be cited for the belief that the angels 
consorted with women of the earth and begot a race of Giants (see Smith's 
Bible Dictionary Art. Noah, also Kitto same title.) A third interpreta- 
tion, however, suggests that the sons of Elohim (the Gods) refers to 
the family and descendants of Seth, and by "the daughters of men," the 
women of the faimly of Cain (Smith's Dictionary, Art. Noah). In the 
Book of Moses, however, is found a complete explanation of the matter: 
"And Noah and his sons hearkened unto the Lord, and gave heed, and 
they were called the sons of God." (Book of Moses ,ch. viii: 13.) This 
does away with the necessity of believing that angels became the con- 
sorts of earthly beings, the daughters of men. StrangeJy enough the 
Book of Moses, in the Pearl of Great Price, gives the reverse order of 
the matter to that related in Genesis. In Genesis it is stated that 'The 
sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; "and they 
took them wives of all which they chose (Gen. vi: 1-2). In the Book of 
Moses it is stated that "when these men [the sons of Noahl began to mul- 


tiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, the 
sons of men saw that those daughters were fair, and they took wives, 
even as they chose." (Book of Moses, viii: 14.) The facts in the case, 
however, seem to be that there was a willingness on both sides to this 
amalgamation of races forbidden to each other. The grand daughters of 
Noah seemed willing to consort with the descendants of Cain, "the 
sons of men." (Book of Lloses viii: 14); and later the sons of Caia, 
having in mind that they too, were descendants of Adam, through Cain 
could retort — "We are the sons of God; have we not taken unto ourselves 
the daughters of men?" The fact is, however, that the other descendants 
of Adam were forbidden to inter-marry with the seed of Cain — "the sons 
of men;" (cf. Book of Moses, ch. viii: 13-15, 21; with Book of Abraham, 
ch. i: 21-27.) It is gratifying to know that the results of the latest deduc- 
tions of Biblical scholars favors the views presented in the Book of 
Moses: "The interpretation, however, which is now most generally re- 
ceived, is that which understands by 'the sons of the Elohim' the family 
and descendants of Seth, and by 'the daughters of man (Adam),' the 
women of the family of Cain. So the Clementine Recognitions interpret 
"the sons of the Elohim." So Ephrem, and the "Christian Adam-Book" 
of the East: so also Theodoret, Chrysostom, Cyril of Alexandria, Jerome, 
Augustine, and others; and in later times Luther, Melancthon, Calvin, 
and a whole host of recent commentators. They all suppose that whereas 
the two lines of descent from Adam — the family of Seth who preserved 
their faith in Gk)d, and the family of Cain who lived only for this world — 
had hitherto kept distinct, now a mingling of the two races took place 
which resulted in the thorough corruption of the former, who falling 
away, plunged into the deepest abyss of wickedness, and that it was 
this universal corruption which provoked the judgment of the Flood." 
(Smith's Dictionary, Art. Noah.) 

(3) The third difficulty is found in the passage: "And God saw that 
the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination 
of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. And it repented 
the Lord that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his 
heart. And the Lord said, I will destroy man whom I have created from 
the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and 
the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them." (Gen. 
vi: 5-7.) 

If it "repented the Lord that he had made man on the earth, and 
grieved him at his heart" — why then did he make him? For surely God's 
fore-knowledge was such as to fore-know what man would become in the 
earth. Then why be sorry that he had created him, since God's fore- 
knowledge must have taught him what kind of a being man would 
be? The matter is set right in the Book of Moses revealed to 
Joseph Smith, where it is said: "And it repented Noah, and his heart 
was pained that the Lord had made man on the earth, and it grieved him 
at the heart. And the Lord said: I will destroy man whom I have created. 


from the face of the earth, both man and beast, and the creeping things, 
and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth Noah that I have created them, 
and that I have made them; and he hath called upon me; for they have 
sought his life." (Book of Moses, ch. viii: 25-26.) 

5. A Covenant of the Lord with Noah: Among the first acts of Noah, 
who may be regarded as the "second father" of the human race, was one of 
worship, for he built an altar unto the Lord and offered burnt offerings 
unto him. Renewed communion in fact with God. And the Lord cov- 
enanted with him in that day, that while the earth should remain, seed- 
time and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day 
and night should not cease. (Gen. viii: 20-22.) And in token of this per- 
petual covenant." I do set my bow in cloud, said the Lord, and it shall 
be for the token of the covenant between me and the earth. * * * * 
And I will remember my covenant which is between me and you (Noah) 
and every living creature of all flesh, and the waters shall no more be- 
come a flood to destroy all flesh." (Gen. ix: 13-15.) Of course 
it must not be supposed that the Lord at this time created the rain-bow 
for the sign of his covenant, for since ever there was sunshine and rain 
and dark clouds, there have been rain-hows and will be. But the Lord 
pointed to this beautiful phenomenon already existing, and made '' the 
sign of his covenant with man. 

6. The Seven Precepts of Noah: "It is an old tradition of the Rabbi- 
nical Jews, on which they lay great stress, that at this juncture Noah 
delivered to his children seven precepts, to be enjoined upon all tl eir 
descendants. These prohibit, 1, idolatry; 2, irreverence to the Diety; 3. 
homicide; 4, unchastity; 5, fraud and plundering; the 6th enjoins gcv- 
ernment and obedience; and the 7th forbids to eat any part of an animal 
still living. Mr. Selden has largely illustrated these precepts, and re- 
gards them as a concise tablet of the Law of Nature. Though we have 
no positive evidences of their .having been formally enjoined by the 
great patriarch, we can have no great reason for rejecting such an 
hypothesis." (iBblical Literature, Kitto, * 427.) 

At least one of these precepts is very emphatically set forth in Gen- 
esis, given with the penalty of it; namely, the great law against taking 
human life and the penalty which every where justifies the law of man;, 
namely, "who so sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed, 
for in the image of God made he man." (Gen. ix: 6.) Unhappily, how- 
ever, the law in executing this penalty does it in such manner that the 
blood of condemned murderers is not shed, since in the majority of coun- 
tries the death penalty is executed by strangulation instead of by the 
shedding of blood. The phrase, "for in the image of God made he man" 
is significant, and is fatal to the claims of those theologians who interpret 
the scriptural saying, that man was created in the image of God, to mean 
that man was created in God's "moral image," a most absurd conclusion. 
As if there could be a moral image. But the phrase here quoted carries 
this significance: Thou shalt not kill a man, for he stands in the image 


of God. And thou shalt not mar that image of God, thou shalt not 
bring death unto it. It is sacred. It must not be marred by mortal 

7. The Death of Noah: — It is said that Noah lived after the flood 
three hundred and fifty years, but the manner of his life and where he 
spent it is not given. He must have been alive at the confusion of tongues 
at Babel, but whether or not he was in the valley of the Uphrates at that 
time may not be learned. There have been those who seek to identify 
him with the Chinese character Fohi whose tradition was that Fohi's 
advent among them was preceded by a flood which wholly covered the 
earth, but all here is conjecture. (See Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, 
Kitto's Biblical Literature, Art. Noah.) 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 

(A Discourse) 




1. Suggestions to the Speaker: Naturally the subjec^t of this lesson 
will be something of a review of the period covered by the preceding 
lessons on the Antediluvian dispensations with Enoch as the ceaitral figure, 
but the matter of these lessons should not be too closely followed. Let 
those to whom the assignment of this lesson is given draw their own 
lines of treatment. As the subject is stated in the lesson it would be 
treated as historical narrative, or as a biography of Enoch. It could, 
however, be treated in an argumentative form. Thus: The Justice of God 
Requires that the Gtospel should be Revealed to the Antediluvians; or, 
Was the Gospel Revealed to the Antediluvians? If the historical or bio- 
graphical form of treatment is decided upon the speaker should bear in 
mind that his work in the main would be narrative, and the first essen- 
tials of narrative, after the truth of it, is movement and method. "A 
narrative," says A. S. Hill in his Principles of Rhetoric, "should move 
from the beginning to the end, and it should move with method. If the 
action haults the listener's attention haults with it. If the action is con- 
fused or self-repeating the hearers mind is soon fatigued. Movement 
and method, the life and the logic of disctourse, are then the essentials 
of a good narrative." In another place our author says, 'It is not enough 
that a narrative should move, it should move forward, it should have 
method. ***** The philosopher may contribute attached sayings (aphor- 
isms) to the general stock of wisdom. An essayist may be charming as 
he rambles in pleasant fields of thought and gossip with his readers, but 
a narrator fails as a narrator in so far as he does not go straight on from 
the beginning to the end." 

"A narrator," says another author, "must not spend undue time or 
space upon any episode in his tale to the disadvantage of other parts. 
Whatever his scale is, he should follow it. Otherwise he will give em- 
phasis to unimportant events, or slight important ones. The law of cli- 
max applies especially to narration, because the interest of the reader 
in the opening of a story is necessarily slight. When he becomes involved 
in the plot of the tale, his interest will either grow or disappear. As 
narrative becomes complex, as one event leads to a number of results, the 

reader's attention should be engaged more firmly. A weak ending is 
never so disappointing as in narration. Finally, every narrative should 
have as a center some one definite topic. (It is for this reason that we 
give Enoch as the center around which events in the Antediluvian dis- 
pensations gathered.) "For example, a history of the discovery of Amer- 
ica, containing many hundreds of pages, and relating numerous events, 
will have but one principal subject — the early explorations upon this 
hemisphere, — to which all the characters, actions, and events will be 
made subordinate. ***** a good narrative then will move rapidly; ac- 
tion will follow action in close succession. Only significant events will 
be dwelt upon; much will be passed over with brief mention. Yet the 
connection of events will be made plain; the reader will never lose the 
thread." No matter how complex the narration becomes, it will have 
a simple subject as the center, and will march on with increasing in- 
terest to the end." (Copmosition and Rhetoric for chools, Herrick and 
Damon, p. 428-9). 

If the subject is treated in an argumentative form, then the speaker 
should consider what has been already said on the subject of argumenta- 
tive discourse in Lesson XIII. 

3. Another Word on Clearness: In a former lesson (XIII) it was 
pointed out that Clearness consists of such a use and arrangement of 
words and clauses as at once distinctly indicate the meaning of the 
speaker; and pointed out how the obscure or equivocal use of pronouns 
was destructive of Clearness. 

In this lesson attention is called to the omission of words in a 
sentence nectessary to its exact meaning — what the text books call "im- 
proper ellipsis." 

"Whenever the omission of a word renders the meaning of a sen- 
tence unintelligible, the ellipsis becomes improper. A writer in "The 
Guardian" uses this expression: "He is inspired with a true sense of that 
function." The meaning is not intelligible till we put in the words 
improperly left out: "He is inspired with a true sense of the importance 
of that function." "Arbitrary power," says another, "I look upon as a 
greater evil than anarchy itself, as much as a savage is a happier state 
of life than a galley-slave." We can not properly call a savage or a gal- 
ley-slave a state of life, though we may with propriety compare their con- 
ditions. The obscurity is removed by doing away with the ellipsis: "as 
much as the state of a savage is happier than that of a galley-slave." 
(Course of Composition and Rhetoric, Quackenbos, p. 285.) 

Clearness Depends upon Unity in Sentences: "To be clear, a sen- 
tence must have unity; that is, it must not contain incongruous material, 
and must be so ejfpressed that it gives the reader the impression of being 
one thought. When a sentence contains incongruous statements, it is 
said to lack unity of thought. ^Tien a sentence fails to present its mean- 
ing as one obvious whole, it is said to lack unity of form. Each of the 


examples cited. * * * below, violates unity of thought, or unity of 
form, or both. Note how much clearer are the corrected sentences. 

1. Chaucer began to write at an early age, and as he was a page 
for some court lady, he went to France when she did. 

Corrected: Chaucer began to write at an early age. Being at this 
time the page of a court lady, he went in her train to Francle. 

2. Once I saw a college President as he walked upon the stage, and he 
held in his hand a whole basket of diplomas. 

Corrected: I once saw a college President walk upon the stage 
holding a whole basket of diplomas in his hand. 

3. A good paragraph must have unity of thought, and the different 
sentences of which it is composed must be logically cjonnected, and what 
is most important in the paragraph must be made prominent, and what is 
of small consequence merely hinted at. 

Corrected: A good paragraph must have unity of thought. A para- 
graph is unified if the different sentences in it are logically connected, 
and if what is most important is made prominent, what is of small con- 
sequence, merely hinted at. 


Post-diluvian Dispensations. 

(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. Melchizedek and Abraham— Relation- ^en. xi-xxv. 

, . . Heb. V. and vni. Psalms 

S"1P or. ex. Also Doc. and Cov 

Sec. cvii: 1-4. Alma (Book 
of Mormon) ch. xiii. Notes 
1, 2, 3, 4; also Art. Mel- 
chizedek and Abraham in 
Smith's Bible Dictionary 
and Kitto's Biblical Liter- 
ature. Seventy's Year 
Book I, pp. 37-39. Notes 
4, 5 and 1. 

II. The "Call" of Abraham. , Gen. xii: i-4 Book of 

Abraham ch. i: 15-19; ch. 
ii: 6-11. Note 6. 

III. The Gospel Given to Abraham. ^^^}- '}'■ ^1' h^\.?''^^ 

^ of Abraham (P. G. P.) chs. 

i-v. Note 7. "The Gos- 
pel," (3rd Ed.)* ch. xxiii. 


1. Melchizedek (king of righteousness): "Melchisedek, king of 
Salem and priest of the Most High God, who met Abram in the Val- 
ley of Shaveh (or, the level valley), which is the king's valley, brought 
out bread and wine, blessed Abram, and received tithes from him (Gen. 
xiv. 18-20). The other places in which Melchizedek is mentioned are 
Ps. ex. 4, where Messiah is described as a priest forever, "after the order 
of Melchizedek," and Heb. v., vi., vii., where these two passages of the 
O. T. are quoted, and the typical relation of Melchizedek to our Lord is 
stated at great length." 

2. Melchizedek in History: "There is something surprising and 
mysterious in the first appearance of Melchizedek, and in the subsequent 
references to him. Bearing a title which Jews in after ages would rec- 
ognize as designating their own soverign, bearing gifts which recall to 
Christians the Lord's Supper, this Canaanite crosses for a moment the 


path of Abram, and is unhesitatingly recognized as a person of higher 
spiritual rank than the friend of God. Disappearing as suddenly as he 
came in, he is lost to the sacred writings for a thousand years; and then 
a few emphatic words for another moment bring him into sight as a 
type of the Cjoming Lord of David. (Pslams ex). Once more, after 
another thousand years, the Hebrew Christians are taught to see in him 
a proof that it was the consistent purpose of God to abolish the Levitical 
priesthood.* (Heb. vii.) His person, his office, his relation to Christ, and 
the seat of his sovereignty, have given rise to innumerable discussions, 
which even now can scarcely be considered as settled. 

3. Conjectures Concerning Melchizedek: "The faith of early ages 
ventured to invest his person with superstitious awe. Perhaps it would 
be too much to ascribe to mere national jealousy the fact that Jewish 
tradition, as recorded in the Targums of Pseudo- Jonathan and Jerusalem, 
and in Rashi on Gen. xiv in some cabalistic writers, pronounces Melchi- 
zedek to be a survivor of the Deluge, the patriarch Shem, authorized by 
the superior dignity of old age to bless even the father of the faithful, 
and entitled, as the paramount lord of Canaan (Gen. ix. 26) to convey 
(xiv. 19) his right to Abram. Jerome in his Ep. Ixxiii. (ad Evangelum 
0pp. i. 438), which is entirely devoted to a consideration of the person 
and dwelling place of Melchizedek, states that this was the prevailing 
opinion of the Jews in his time; and it is ascribed to the Samaritans 
by Epiphanius, (Hae. Iv. 6, p. 472.) It was afterwards embraced by Luther 
and Melanchthon, by our own countrymen, H. Broughson, Selden, Light- 
foot, Jackson, and by many others. It should be noted that this supposi- 
tion does not appear in the Targum of Onkelos, — a presumption that it 
was not received by the Jews till after the Christian era — nor has it found 
favor with the Fathei's."' (Smith's Bible Dictionary, Hackett Edition, p. 

4. The Mystery About Melchizedek: Much of mystery is connected 
with the life and character of Melchizedek. "The Jews," says Kitto, in 
admitting Melchizedek's official superority to Abraham, "sought to ac- 
count for it by alleging that the royal priest was no other than Shem, 
the most pious of Noah's sons, who according to the shorter chronology 
might have lived to the time of Abraham." (Biblical Literature, Vol. II, 
Art. Mel(^hizedek). Others have seen in him Canaan the son of Ham; 
Ham himself, or even Enoch; while others have held that Melchizedek 
was no other than the son of God himself undea* human appearance, and 
still others take him to have been an angel, the latter being among the 
wild notions of Origen and his school. (Ibid, as above.) All this of 
course is conjecture, although it is not unreasonable that he may have 

*No; not "abolish" the Levitical priesthood, but supercede it as the 
dominating power by restoring the Melchizedek Priesthood which holds 
precedence of it in power and authority; but both may exist together as 
in the Mosaic dispensation before Moses and the Melchizedek Priesthood 
was taken from Israel, (cf. Doc. & Cov. Sec. Ixxxiv: 19-23 and Heh. 
vii. whole chapter but especially verse 12.) 

been Shem the son of Noah. The Book of Mormon gives this important 
information concerning him. 

"Now this Melchizedek was a king over the land of Salem; and his 
people had waxed strong in iniquity and abominations; yea, they had 
all gone astray; they were full of all manner of wickedness: But Melchi- 
zedek having exercised mighty faith, and received the ofBce of the High 
Priesthood, according to the holy order of God, did preach repentanc|e 
unto his people. And behold, they did repent; and Melchizedek did es- 
tablish peace in the land in his days; therefore he was called the prince 
of peace, for he was the king of Salem; and he did reign under his father. 
Now, there were many before him, and also there were many afterwards, 
but none were greater; therefore, of him they have more particularly 
made mention." (Alma xiii.) 

Fi-om the Doctrine and CoA'-enants we learn this important fact; 
namely, that the priesthood which Melchizedek held was formally call- 
ed "the Priesthood after the order of the Son of God;" but in order to 
avoid a too frequent repetition of the name of Deity "this Holy Priest- 
hood" was called Melchizedek, or Melchizedek Priesthood. (Doc. & 
Gov., Sec. 107, 1-4.) The mystery connected with Melchizedek arises 
doubtless from the language of Paul in Hebrew vii, where misapprehen- 
sion of the language of the Apostle seemingly represents Melchizedek 
as being "without father, without mother, without descent, having neither 
beginning of days nor end of life, but made like unto the Son of God, 
abideth a priest continually." The commentators generally interpret 
this as meaning that Melchizedek was without a recorded genealogy. 
The mystery, however, disappears when these descriptive words are ap- 
plied, not to the man INIelchizedek, but to the priesthood which he held, 
which priesthood is without beginning of days or end of years, that is, 
it is an eternal thing — "without father, without mother, and without de- 
scent, having neither beginning of days nor end of life," but endureth as 
a power eternally, even as God from whom said power eminates is eter- 
nal. With this interpretation of the language of Paul the necessity for 
wild conjectures concerning the personality of Melchizedek disappears, 
and it will be enough if we fix this in the mind concerning him; namely, 
he was a great High Priest, co-temporary with Abraham, and the one 
'oubtless from whom Abraham received his ordination to the patriarchal 
oflace in the priesthood, to which he had a right by reason of his descent 
from the patriarchs. (See Book of Abraham, chap. I. 1-4.) " 

5. The Book of Abraham: The Book of Abraham, to which reference 
is made in the analysis, consisting of five chapters, is but a fragment of 
Abraham's writings and history, and in it is found no reference to his 
meeting the Melchizedek, but reference is made of his rec)eiving the 
priesthood. It was conferred upon him, he tells us, "from the fathers; 
it came down from the fathers from the beginning of time, yea, even 
from the beginning or before the foundations of the earth to the present 


time, even the right of the first born, on the first man, who is Adam, 
our first father, through the fathers, unto me. I sought for mine ap- 
pointment unto the Priesthood according to the appointment of God unto 
the fathers concerning the seed." (Booli of Abraham, chap, i; 3-4.) 

This has reference doubtless to tlie patriarchal office in the Pi-iest- 
hood, since in the subsequent verses he says, "But the records of the 
fathers, even the patriarchs, concerning the right of Priesthood the 
Lord my God preserved in mine own hands; therefore a knowledge of 
the beginning of the creation, and also of the planets, and of the stars, 
as they were made known unto the fathers, have I kept even unto this 
day, and I shall endeavor to write some of these things upon this record 
for the benefit of my posterity that shall come after me." The manner 
in whicjh this sacred record "The Book of Abraham" came into the hands 
of the Prophet Joseph Smith, is to be found in the History of the Church, 
Vol. II, p. 236, 348-350 and foot note.) 

6. The "Call" of Abraham: "In that course of God's dealing with 
man which is traced in the sacred narrative, a new step was taken 
by the choice of a Family from which the promised seed of the woman 
was to spring, and which should meanwhile preserve the knowledge and 
worship of the true God. Jehovah, in the revelation of himself to man, 
retires, so to speak, from the whole compass of the race of Noah into 
the inner circle of the family of Abraham. It was a step required by 
the state of the world, which had relapsed into idolatry and profane- 
ness before the death of Noah. This is clear from the story of the 
building of Babel, and it is implied in the subsequent history. Joshua 
expressly says that the family of Terah were idolaters. ***** tj^^ 
patriarch whom God made the head of his chosen family was bom only 
two years after the death of Noah. ***** He was now seventy-five 
years old; and this is the period usually assigned to the 'Call' of Abra- 
ham; though it was, in fact, the second step of his career. In tracing 
these stages, it is important to observe the special form of promise 
and blessing of which each was the occasion. The first of these involves 
the germ of all the rest, though as yet but vaguely stated: — "I will make 
of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great, 
and. thou shalt be a blessing (to others) : and I will bless them that bless 
thee, and curse him that curseth thee, and in thee shall all families of 
the earth be blessed." The last words already involve the crowning 
blessing of the Old Covenant, the Promise of the Messiah, and that 
to the Gentiles, "all families of the earth." (Dr. Smith's Old Testament 
History, p. 67 and 70.) 

7. The Things Which God Revealed to Abraham: First his design 
to make of Abraham and his posterity in the earth the witness for him- 
self and the truth of the Gospel unto all nations. (Gen. 12: 193, Book 
of Abraham I: 16-19, Book of Abraham 2: 6-11). "I will bless them 
that bless thee, and curse them that curse thee," said the Lord; " and 


in thee (that is in thy priesthood) and in thy seed (that is, thy priest- 
hood) for I give unto thee a promise that this right shall continue in 
thee and in thy seed after thee (that is to say the literal seed or the seed 
of the body) shall all the families be blessed, even with the blessings" 
of the Gospel which are the blessings of salvation even of life eternal. 

Second, in the dispensation to Abraham he revealed the great doctrine 
of the eternal existence of intelligencies. (Book of Abraham 3: 16-23). 

Third, he made known to Abraham the covenant of eternal life to 
man, "which God, that cannot lie, pi'omised before the world began," 
(Titus 1: 2). God, according to Abraham's record, standing among the 
spirits in existence before the world began, said: "We will go down, 
for there is space there, and we will take of these materials, and we will 
make an earth whereon these may dwell; And we will prove them here- 
with, to see if they will do all things whatsoever the Lord their God 
shall command them; and they who keep their first estate shall be added 
upon; and they who keep not their first estate shall not have glory in 
the same kingdom with those who keep their first estate; and they who 
keep their second estate shall have glory added upon their heads for 
ever and ever. And the Lord said: Whom shall I send? And one an- 
swered like unto the Son of Man: Here am I, send me. And another 
answered and said: Here am I, send me. And the Lord said: I will send 
the first. And the second was angry, and kept not his first estate; and, 
at that day, many followed after him." (Book of Abraham, p. 66). From 
which it appears that the whole Gospel scheme of salvation was revealed 
to Abraham. 

Fourth, he revealed to Abraham, through Urim and Thummin great 
knowledge of the Universe, its planetary systems and their movements 
and relations (Book of Abraham, chap. 3) ; and also gave him an account 
of the preparation of the earth for man's abode, and the knowledge also 
of the advent of Adam upon it. (Book of Abraham, chaps. 4 and 5). 


(Scriptm-e Reading Exercise.) 



I. Interim Between Abraham and Moses. Gen. xxiv-i; and Exodus 

i. Josephus' Antiquities, 
Bk. I chs. x\'iii-xxii. Bk 
II, chs. i— X. 

Note 1, 2 and 3. 
II. Birth and Call of Moses. Exodus li and iiL Jo- 

sephus' Antiquities, Bk. 11, 
chs. ix, xii. 

III. The Gospel Given to Israel Before Heb. iii: 13-19 in connec- 
TheLaw." (i. e. the Law of Moses.) f S,r*^,^l^4;Voc.' and 

Gov. Sec. 84; vers. 20-22. 
Gal. i: 5-8, 16-19, 24. The 
Gospel, ch. xxiii. 

1. From Abraham to Moses: The Bible History of the period in- 
tervening between Abraham and Moses has little that indicates speciii- 
cally the existence of the Gospel among the Patriarchs. Yet the commun- 
ion of the Patriarchs Isaac, and Jacob as also Joseph, with the Lord, 
would argue the existence of a knowledge of the means by which such 
communion could be secured. Also the offering of sacrifice.s by these 
patriarchs, by which was figured forth the great Atonement of the future 
Messiah, bears witness to the same effect — they had the Gosp )1. The 
evident existence of the High Priesthood among them undoubtedly argues 
the existence of the Gospel also as a necessary concomitant of that 
Priesthood, since said priesthood exists for the purpose of "administering 
the Gospel," and holds the keys of the "mysteries of the kingdom, even 
the key of the knowledge of God; therefore, in the ordinances thereof, 
the power of Godliness is manifest; and without the ordinances thereof, 
and the authority of the Priesthood, the power of Godliness is not mani- 
fest unto men in the flesh; for without this no man can see the facie of 
God and live." (Doc. & Gov. Sec. 84; 16-22.) Therefore where ever this 
priesthood is found there also will a knowledge of the Gospel be had. 
If, then, the Patriarchs after Abraham had the Priesthood they undoubted- 
ly had also the Gospel. 

2. The Patriarch Joseph's Knowledge of the Covenant of Salvation — 
the Gospel: It is evident that Joseph, the son of Jacob, had larger know- 
ledge of the covenant of eternal life "which God that cannot lie promised 
before the world began, but hath in due times manifested his word through 
preaching (Titus i: 2) — than appears in the Bible history of that patriarch. 


From the last chapter of Genesis it is evident that God had revealed 
unto Joseph the fact that he would visit his people Israel, in Egypt, 
and deliver them from that land, and bring them unto the land which he 
promised to Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, as the land of their inherit- 
ance. The Book of Mormon enlarges that view of Joseph's knowledge 
of the purposes of God, by representing that God not only revealed the 
fact of a future deliverer of Israel from Egypt, but also promised him 
"that out of the fruit of his (Joseph's) loins, the Lord would raise up a 
righteous branch unto the House of Israel. Not the Messiah but a branch 
which was to be broken off, Nevertheless to be remembered in the 
covenants of the Lord, that the Messiah should be made manifest unto 
them in the latter days, in the Spirit of power, unto the bringing of 
them out of darkness unto light; yea, out of hidden darkness and out of 
captivity unto freedom. ***** For Joseph truly testified, saying: A 
seer shall the Lord my God raise up, who shall be a choice seer unto the 
fruit of my loins. ***** Thus saith the Lord unto me: A choice seer 
will I raise up out of the fruit of thy loins; and he shall be esteemed 
highly among the fruit of thy loins. And unto him will I give command- 
ment, that he shall do a work for the fruit of thy loins, his brethren, 
which shall be of great worth unto them, even to the bringing of them 
to the knowledge of the covenants which I have made with thy fathers. 
***** And he shall be great like unto Moses, whom I have said I 
would raise up unto you, to deliver my people, O house of Israel. And 
Moses will I raise up, to deliver thy people out of the land of Egypt. 
But a seer will I raise up out of the fruit of thy loins; and unto him will 
I give power to bring forth my word unto the seed of thy loins; ***** 
Wherefore, the fruit of thy loins shall write; and the fruit o| the loins 
of Judah shall write; and that which shall be written by the fruit of thy 
loins, and also that which shall be written by the fruit of the loins 
of Judah, shall grow together, unto the confounding of false doctrines, 
and laying down of contentions, and establishing peace among the fruit 
of thy loins, and bringing them to the knowledge of their fathers in the 
latter days; and also to the knowledge of my covenants, saith the Lord." 
(II Nephi, chap. 3). The thing whicji the Lord promised to bring forth 
by this future Seer, the patriarch Joseph saw would bring salvation unto 
his people. (II Nephi, chap, iii: 15). "And great were the covenants 
of the Lord which he made unto Joseph." (II Nephi iii: 4.) 

3. Effect of Israel's Bondage in Egypt: What may have been the 
effect of Israel's captivity in Egypt in the matter of perpetuating the 
Priesthood of their fathers and a knowledge of the Gospel cannot be as 
certained with any degree of certainty from what is written. It would 
appear, however, that God's chosen people were not without some know- 
ledge of God and of Christ during the period of their captivity; for the 
Hebrew mid-wives "feared God" and forebore to commit the acts of mur- 
der upon the male infants born in Israel as commanded by the Egyptian 
King (Exodus i: 15-22): "Therefore God dealt well with the mid-wives; 


and the people multiplied and waxed very mighty." (Ibid, verse 20). 
Moreover Paul says: 

"By faith Moses, when he was born, was hid three months of his 
parents, because they saw he was a proper child; and they were not 
afraid of the King's commandment. By faith Moses, when he was come 
to years, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter; Choosing 
rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the 
pleasures of sin for a season; Esteeming the reproach of Christ greater 
riches than the treasures in Egypt: for he had respect unto the re*- 
compense of the reward. By faith he forsook Egypt, not fearing the wrath 
of the king: for he endured, as seeing him who is invisible." (Heb. xi: 

"Esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches," etc. Query. — How 
could Moses "esteem the reproach of Christ greater riches than the 
treasures in Egypt" if he knew nothing of Christ? Evidently, whatever 
may have been the status of the Israelites in respect of the Gospel and its 
administration among them during the period of their captivity, they at 
least preserved among themselves some knowledge of the Gospel and 
of Christ who is ever the central figure of it; and this even before the 
call of Moses. 

4. The High Priesthood Held by Others Than the Direct Descendants 
of Abraham: We learn from the Doctrine and Covenants that the Priest- 
hood existed with others than with Abraham and his direct descendants. 
For instance, one Esaias is named as being contemporary with Abra- 
ham and blessed of Abraham, but that Esaias himself received the Priest- 
hood "under the hand of God." That he (Esaias) conferred it upon Gad; 
Gad upon .Jeremy, and .Jeremy upon Elihu, and Elihu upon Caleb, and 
Caleb, upon .Je.thro, Jethro, who was the priest of Median with whom 
Moses sojourned forty years after his flight from Egypt, and whose daugh- 
ter he married — Jethro conferred the priesthood upon Moses. (Doc. & 
Gov. Sedi. 84, 6-13.) So that Moses himself received the priesthood from 
a line of men holding it who were not descendants of Abraham. If what 
we have said in Note I of this lesson holds good; namely, that the Mel- 
chizedek priesthood and the Gospel are concometants of each other, and 
that the High Priesthood exists for the purpose of administering the Gospel, 
which conclusion is based on the quotation in that note from the Doctrine 
and Covenants, (Sec. 84. 17: 21), then the existence of the priesthood with 
this line of men above named, argues also that the existence of the 
Gospel of Jesus Christ among them: and therefore we have knowledge 
of the Gospel existing not only with Abraham and his successors, but 
with this independent line of men also. All of which tends to the con- 
clusion that there was a wider dissemination of the Gospel in those an- 
cient times than has generally been conceded. 

Early Proclamation and Wide Disfusion of the Gospel: "The tardy 
appearance and partial distribution of moral and religious knowledge in 
the world," . (Mansel, Limits of Religious Thought, Preface) has ever 
been regarded as one of the great religious difficulties, a difficulty consid- 
erably lessened when the view presented in this Outline. History of the 


Dispensations of the Gospel is accepted; for herein it is proven that there 
has neither a tardy appearance or even partial distribution of moral 
and religious knowledge in the world, but an early and widespread proc- 
lamation of the Gospel from the beginning and in nearly all ages there has 
been preach -d that "hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, 
promised before the world began." Commenting upon the supposed long 
interval between the fall of man and the proclamation of his redemp- 
tion (generally supposed to have been withheld from the world until 
the coming of Christ in the flesh), even a Roman Pope (Leo the Great, 
A. D. 440-461) said: 

"Let those who with impious murmurings find fault with the Divine 
dispensations, and who complain about the lateness of Our Lord's na- 
tivity, cease from their grievances, as if what was carried out in this last 
age of the world had not been impending in time past. * * * * 
What the apostles preached, the prophets had announced before, and what 
has always been believed cannot be said to have fulfilled too late. By 
this delay of his work of Salvation the wisdom and love of God have 
only made us more fitted for his call; so that, what had been announced 
before by many signs and words and mysteries during so many centuries, 

should not be doubtful or uncertain in the days of the gospel 

God has not provided for the interests of men by a new counsel or by a 
late compassion; but He had instituted from the beginning for all men 
one and the same path of salvation." (Science of Religion, MuUer, p. 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. There Arose not a Prophet since in Deut. xxxiv: 10-12. The 

Israel like unto Moses." ^°'P"^' '^- '^^"'- ^°*" ^• 

II. The Promise of a Future Prophet. Deut. xviii: 15-19 Acts. 

iii: 22-23; Acts vii: 37. 
History of the Church, Vol. 
I, p. 13; also Pearl of Great 
Price, p. 90. Note 2. 

III. What Remained with Israel. , ^°^.- ^^'!,« ^°J. ' p^"" 

lxxx\av: 17-28. Ihe Gos- 
pel, ch. xxlii; pp. 234-5. 
NotesS , 4, 5. 


1. There Arose Not a Prophet Since: In whatever light we view this 
extraordinary man, the eulogy pronounced in these inspired words will 
appear just. No Hebrew prophet or ruler equalled him in character, offi- 
cial dignity, as well as knowledge of God's will and opportunities of an- 
nouncing it. (Commentary — .Tameson-Fausset-Brown.) 

2. The Lord Thy God Will Raise up Unto Thee a Prophet: "The in- 
sertion of this promise, in connection with the preceding prohibition, 
(not to harken to soothsayers, verse 9-14) might warrant the application 

ivhich some make of it, to that order of true prophets whom God com- 
missioned in unbroken succession to instruct, to direct, and warn His 
people; and in this view the purport of it is, "There is no need to con- 
sult with diviners and soothsayers, as I shall afford you the benefit of 
divinely-appointed prophets, for judging of whose credentials a sure 
criterion is given.' (vs. 20-22). But the prophet here promised was pre- 
eminently the Messiah, for He alone was "like unto Moses (see on ch. 34. 
10) in his mediatorial character; in the peculiar excellence of his minis- 
try; in the number, variety, and magnitude of his miracles; in his close 
and familiar communion with God; and in his being the author of a new 
dispensation of religion." This prediction was fulfilled 1500 years after- 
wards, and was expressly applied to .Te.sus Christ by Peter (Acts 3, 22, 23), 
and by Stephen (Acts 7, 37). " (Commentary— as above.) 

3. The Gospel Plus the Law: After making the statement that the 
Gospel was preached to Abraham, Paul asks the question, ""Wherefore 
then serveth the law?" That is, If the Gospel was preached to Abraham 
how came the law of Moses into existence: why was it given to ancient 
Israel and binding on them? To which the apostle replies: 

"It was added because of transgression, till the seed should come 


to whom the promise was made. ***** wherefore the law was our 
school master to bring iis unto Christ, that we might be justified by 

The matter is still more plainly set forth in the Doctrine and Coven- 
ants. In speaking of the priesthood and the ordinances belonging there- 
to — through which ordinances "the power of godliness is manifest; and 
without the ordinances thereof, and the authority of the priesthood, the 
power of godliness is not manifest unto men in the flesh; for without 
this" — that is without the priesthood and its ordinances — "no man can 
see the face of God, even the Father, and live" (Doc. & Cov. Sec. Ixxxiv: 
20, 21, 22.) — the Lord says: "Now this Moses plainly taught to the child 
ren of Israel in the wilderness, and sought diligently to sanctify his people 
that they might behold the face of God: "But they hardened their hearts, 
and could not endure his presence therefore the Lord in his wrath (for 
his anger was kindled against them) swore that they should not enter 
into his rest while in the wilderness, which rest is the fullness of his 
glory. Therefore he took Moses out of their midst, and the holy priest- 
hood also; And the lesser priesthood continued, which priesthood holdeth 
the key of the ministering of angels and the preparatory Gospel; Which 
Gospel is the Gospel of repentance and of baptism, and the remission 
of sins, and the law of carnal commandments, which the Lord in his 
wrath caused to continue with the house of Aaron among the children of 
Israel until John.' (Doc. & Cov. Sec. Ixxxiv: 23-27.) 

The above is confirmed by the Jewish scriptures also; for it is writ- 
ten in the concluding chapter of Deuteronomy — 

"There arose not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom 
the Lord knew face to face. 

"In all the signs and the wonders, which the Lord sent him to do in 
the land of Egypt." (Deut. xxiv: 10-12.) 

Of the things we have spoken respecting the Gospel being presented 
to ancient Israel, this is the sum: the Lord gave them the Gospel, but 
because they would not observe its sacred requirements, he took it, that 
is in its fullness, from among them, and also the higher or Melchizedek 
Priesthood; but left with them the lesser or Aaronic Priesthood; [which 
holds "the key of the ministering of angels and the preparatory Gospel" 
(see above), "to minister in outward ordinances, the letter of the Gospel — 
the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins," (Doc. & Cov. Sec. 
cvii, 20.] and to the part of the Gospel which remained, viz., faith in God, 
repentancje and baptism for the remission of sins, was added the law of 
carnal commandments, which was to educate Israel for the fullness 
of the Gospel when Messiah should come with it. (The Gospel, pp. 233, 
234, 235.) 

4. Gospel Rites Among the Jews: In addition to the evidence sup- 
plied by the Scriptures in the above argumentative note, in the Article 
on baptism in Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, it is said: 

"There is an universal agreement among later Jewish writers that 
all the Israelites were brought into covenant with God by circumcision. 


baptism, and sacrifice, and that the same ceremonies were necessary in 
admitting proselytes. Thus Malmonides (Issure Biah, cap. 13) ; "Israel 
was admitted into covenant by three things, namely, by C'ircumcision, 
baptism, and sacrifice. Circumcision was in Egypt, as it is said, 'None 
uncircumcised shall eat of the passover.' Baptism was in the wilderness 
before the giving of the Law, as it is said,' 'Thou shalt sanctify them to- 
day and to-mori'ow, and let them wash their garments.' " And he adds, 
"So, whenever a Gentile desires to enter into the covenant of Israel, and 
place himself under the wings of the Divine Majesty, and take the yoke 
of the Law upon him, he must be circumcised, and baptized and bring 
a sacrifice; or if it be a woman, she must be baptized and bring a sacri- 
fice." The same is abundantly testified by earlier writers, as by the 
Jerusalem and Babylonian Talmud, although no reference to this custom 
can be found in Philo, Josephus, or the Targum of Onkelos. Its earliest 
mention appears to be in the Targum of Jonathan on Ex. xii. 44. 'Thou 
shalt circumcise him and baptize him." It should be added, that men, 
women, and children, were all baptized, and either two or three witnesses 
were required to be present. Some modern writers — Lardner, Ernesti, De 
Wette, Meyer, Paulus, and others — have doubted or denied that this 
baptism of proselytes had been in use among the Jews from times so 
early as those of the Gospel; but it is highly improbable that, after the 
rise of Christianity, the Jews should have adopted a rite so distinctively 
Christian as baptism had then become. (Smith's Bible Dictionary, Art. 
"Baptism," Vol. I, p. 233, 234.) 

In addition to the evidence cited in Smith's Dictionary, we may add 
as a convincing fact that before the advent of Jesus as a religious 
teacber, John the Baptist came to Israel crying repentance, and both 
teaching and administering baptism for the remission of sins. (See Matt, 
iii; Mark i; Luke iii; John i.) Which established the fact that this 
Gospel rite of baptism, was a well established institution among the Jews 
under the law of Moses and existed in connection with those ceremonies 
and sacrifices which figured forth the redemption to be wrought out by the 
Christ. Jesus also bears witness to the same effect in his conversation 
with Nicodemus, [John iii] where he teaches to that worthy man the 
mysteries of the second birth, saying that, "except a man be born of water 
[i. e. baptized] and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of 
God." And when Nicodemus could not c'ompreliend this doctrine "Jesus 
answered and said unto him, Ai't thou a Master of Israel and knowest 
not these things?" Clearly proving that Jesus was not advancing any 
new doctrine, but referring to the well established Gospel doctrine in 

5. The Book of Mormon Testimony: The Book of Mormon bears 
most important testimony upon the subject of the Mo^aid rites and cere- 
monies figuring forth the atonement to be made by Messiah and of the 
existence of the knowledge both of the coming and the mission of that 
Messiah. Also a knowledge that the law of Moses was of no efficiency 


in securing salvation for man only as it was associated with, and finally 
would be completed in, the coming and atonement of the Christ. 

The late President John Taylor in his work "Mediation and Atone- 
ment," has grouped in small compass the facts that are set forth in the 
Book of Mormon, bearing on this subject as follows: 

"From the Bible we turn to the Book of Mormon wih a view to dis- 
cover to what extent the law of sacrifice, as a type of the offering up of 
the promised of Israel which God planted on this continent. In perusing 
the pages of this sacred record, we shall find several important facts and 
ideas, in connection with this subject, presented very prominently by the 
ancient Nephite historians: among them — 

First, that the law of Moses, with all its rites, ordinances and sacri- 
fices was strictly observed by the faithful Nephites from the time of their 
arrival on the promised land until it was fulfilled in Christ, and by his 
command ceased to be observed. 

Second, that when the Nephites brought any of the Lamanites to the 
knowledge and worship of the true God, they taught them to observe this 

Third, that those who apostatized from the Nephites, as a general thing, 
ceased to observe this law. 

Fourth, that the true import of the law of Moses, and of its ceremon- 
ies and sacrifices, as typical of the atonement yet to be made by our Lord 
and Savior was thoroughly taught by the Priesthood among that people 
and very generally understood by them. 

Fifth, that associated with the observance of this law, there were con- 
tinued admonitions given that salvation was in Christ and not in the law, 
which was but the shadow and type of that of which he was the prototype 
and reality. 

Sixth, that temples were erected of the same pattern as that of 
Solomon at Jerusalem, evidently for the reason that they were to be used 
for the same purposes. 

Seventh, that the Gospel was preached in connection with the law, 
and churches were established and organized according to the Gospel re- 
quirements, and that the higher Priesthood, although not fully organized 
in all its parts, ministered to the Nephites as well as the lesser. 

Eighth, it appears undubitable from the two records, the Bible and the 
Book of Mormon, that the intent and true meaning of the law of Moses, of 
its sacrifices, etc., were far better understood and comprehended by the 
Nephites than by the Jews. But in this connection, it must not be forgot- 
ten, that a great many most plain and precious things as the Book of Mor- 
mon states, have been taken from the Bible, through the ignorance of un- 
inspired translators or the design and cunning of wicked men." 

The above are the opening paragraphs of chapter XIV of President 
Taylor's work. The remainder of the chapter is devoted to elaborate 
quotations from the Book of Mormon bearing out the several propositions 
in the above quotation. One admirable passage bearing upon the sub- 
ject, argumentative, too, in its nature, is not quoted by President Taylor, 
and I herewith supply it. It is from the Nephite prophet Alma's instruc- 
tion to his son Corianto: 

"And now, my son, I w^ould say somewhat unto you concerning the 
coming of Christ. Behold I say, that he cometh to declare glad tidings of 
salvation unto his people. And now my son, this was the ministry unto 
which you were called, to declare these glad tidings unto this people, to 
prepare their minds; or rather that salvation might come unto them, that 
they may prepare the minds of their children to hear the word at the time 


of his coming. * * * Behold, you marvel why these things should be 
known so long beforehand. Behold, I say unto you, Is not a soul as pre- 
cious unto God, as a soul will be at the time of his coming? Is it not as 
necessary that the plan of redemption should be made known unto this 
people, as well as unto their children? Is it not as easy at this time, for 
the Lord to send his angel to declare these glad tidings unto us, as unto 
our children; or as after the time of his coming?" (Alma ch. 39: 15-19.) 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 


(An Augumentative Discourse.) 

TEXT: "In hope of Eternal Life, which God that cannot lie, promised 
before the world began; but hath in due times manifested his word 
through preaching." (Titus i: 2, 3.) 


I. Numerous Dispensations. Peter i: 18-25. Rev 

xiii: 8, xv: 8. Job xxxviii: 

II. The Gospel Revealed to Adam. Titus i: 1, 2. Book of 

Moses (P. G. P.) ch. v: 6-8. 
Ibid, 56-59. 

III. Establishment of the Ancient Church. Book of Moses, ch. \'i: 

48-32. Gen. v: 24. Heb. 
xi: 5. Alma ch. xiii. Book 
of Moses ch. vii: 69. 

IV. The Gospel Plus the Law. Heb. ^^i: . i Cor. x: 

1-4. Heb. iii: 14-19 and 
Heb. iv: 1, 2* and Gal.iii. 

V. From Moses to John the Baptist. Dqc. and Cov., See 
VI. Of the Origin of the Gospel. i-^^i^'^ 19-29- 

1. Numerous Dispensations of the Gospel Given: That there have 
been many dispensations of the Gospel, many times that divine authority 
has been conferred upon men, is apparent fom the Scripture narratives 
of such events. And yet, strange as it may seem, in the face of such 
Scripture narratives, there are those among professing Christians who 
hold that the Gospel had no earlier origin than the time of Messiah's 
ministry in the flesh. As a matter of fact, however, the Gospel of Jesus 
Christ has existed from the very earliest ages of the world. There 

*Such is the importance of this subject— a subject which perhaps 
more than any other differentiates the view-point of Latter-Day Saints 
as to the Gospel of .Jesus Christ from that of sectarian Christendom that 
I here depart from the usual lesson formula to introduce in place of 
detached notes an unbroken presentation of the subject. This lesson may 
be regarded as a review of those that have preceded it in the present 
Year Book; also as an illustration of argumentative discourse The 
reference opposite the Analysis are those on which the argument is' based 

*This cites the close of one chapter and the opening verses of an' 
other, but it should be remembered that Paul did not divide his enistle 
into chapters and verses; and this awkard division is but one of manv 
that exist in the Scriptures. ^o-uy 


are, indeed, certain passages of Scripture which lead us to believe that 
even before the earth was made or ever man was placed upon it the 
Gospel had been formulated and was understood by the spirits which in- 
habited the kingdom of the Father; and who, in course of time, would 
be blessed with a probation on the earth — an earth-life. If this be not 
true, of what significance is the Scripture which speaks of Jesus as 
the Lamb ordained before the foundation of the world, but revealed in 

this day for the salvation of men. What of the Lamb slain from the 
foundation of the world"? * And further: '"They that dwell on the earth 
shall wonder, whose names were not written in the Book of Life from 
the foundation of the world." "Where wast thou," asked the Lord of 
Job, "when I laid the foundations of the earth? ***** when the morn- 
ing stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?" There 
is evidence in these expressions found in Scripture that before the founda- 
tions of the earth w^ere laid the sacrificje necessary to the redeption of 
men was understood, and the "Lamb" for the sacrifice was chosen, Jesus, 
the Messiah. There is evidence in these expressions from Scripture of 
the pre-existence of the spirits of men, and the names of some of them at 
least were written in the "Book of Life" from the foundation of the 
world, and it is not unlikely that the shouting of all the sons of God 
for joy, at the creation of the earth was in consequence of the prospects 
which opened before them because of the earth-life and the salvation 
that would come to them through the Gospel — even in the prospects of 
that "eternal life, w^hich God that cannot lie. promised before the world 
began." (See the text of this discourse.) 

The Gospel, then, is of great antiquity. Older than the hills, older 
than the earth; for in the heavenly kingdom was it formulated before 
the foundations of the earth were laid. 

2. The Gospel Revealed to Adam: Nor were men left in ignorance 
of the plan of their redemption until the coming of the Messiah in the 
flesh. From the first that plan was known. Our annals are imperfect 
on that head, doubtless, but enough e.xists even in the Jewish scriptures 
to indicate the existence of a knowledge of the fact of the Atonement 
and of the redemption oi man through that means. Abel, the son cf 
Adam, is the first we read of in the Jewish scriptures as offering "the 
firstlings of his flock" as a sacrifice unto God. How came he to offer 
sacrifice of the firstlings of his flock? Doubtless behind Abel's sacrifice, 
as behind similar offerings in subsequent ages, stood the fact of the 
Christ's Atonement. In it was figured forth the means of man's redemp- 
tion — through a sacrifice, and that the sacrifice of the first-born. But 
where learned Abel to offer sacHfice if not from his father, Adam? It 
is reasonably certain that Adam as well as Abel offered sacrifices, in 
like manner and for the same intent; and to Adam, though the Jewish 
scriptures are silent respecting it, God must have revealed both the ne- 
cessity of offering sacrifice and the great thing of which it was but the 
symbol. And here, to some advantage, may be quoted a passage from 


the writings of Moses, as revealed to Joseph Smith, in December, 1830. 
From what was then made known to the great Latter-Day Prophet of 
the writings of Moses, it appears that our booli of Genesis does not con- 
tain all that was revealed to Moses respecting the revelations of God to 
Adam and his children of the first generation. According to this more 
complete account of the revelation to Moses, after Adam was driven 
from Eden, God gave commandments both to him and his wife, that 
they should worship the Lord their God, and should offer the firstlings 
of their flocks for an offering unto the Lord, and Adam was obedient 
unto the commandment: 

"And after many days an angel of the Lord appeared unto Adam, 
saying: Why doest thou offer sacrifices unto the Lord? And Adam 
said unto him: I know not, save the Lord commanded me. And the 
angel spake, saying: This thing is a similitude of the sacrifice of the 
Only Begotten of the Father, which is full of grace and truth. Wliere- 
fore, thou shalt do all that thou doest in the name of the Son, and thou 
Shalt repent and call upon God in the name of the Son for evermore." 

After some time elapsed and men multiplied in the earth and wicked- 
ness increased; after Aibel, the righteous, was slain and Cain was a 
vagabond in the earth for the murder; after Lamech had also become 
a murderer and Satan had great power among the disobedient — then, it 
is written: 

"And God cursed the earth with a sore curse, and was angry with 
the wicked, with all the sons of men whom he had made; for they 
would not hearken unto his voice, nor believe on His Only Begotten Son, 
even Him whom He declared should come in the meridian of time, 
who was prepared from before the foundation of the world. And thus the 
Gospel began to be preached, from the beginning, being declared by 
holy angels sent forth from the presence of God, and by His own voice, 
and by the gift of the Holy Ghost. And thus all things were confirmed 
unto Adam, by an holy ordinance, and the Gospel preached, and a de- 
cree sent forth, that it should be in the world, until the end thereof." 
Establishment of the Ancient Church: 

As the Gospel was thus preached there were those among the chil- 
dren of Adam who obeyed it. and a record of those men was kept, and 
they constituted the ancient Churcli of God. Enoch was of the num- 
ber of righteous ones, and a preacher of righteousness. In these re- 
vealed writings of Moses he is represented in the course of his minis- 
try as referring to the manner in which the Gospel was taught to Adam: 

"And he said unto them: Because that Adam fell, we are and by his 
fall came death; and we are made partakers of misery and woe. Behold 
Satan hath come among the children of men, and tempteth them to wor- 
ship him; and men have become carnal, sensual, and devilish, and are 
shut out from the presence of God. But God hath made known unto our 
fathers that all men must repent. And He called upon our father Adam 
by His own voice saying: I am God; I made the world, and men before 
they were in the flesh. And He also said unto him: If thou wilt turn unto 
me, and hearken unto my voice, and believe, and repent of all thy trans- 
gressions, and be baptized even in water in the name of mine Only Be- 
gotten Son who is full of grace and truth which is Jesus Christ, the only 
name which shall be given under heaven, whereby salvation shall come 
unto the children of men, ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost, ask- 


ing all things iu His name and whatsoever ye shall ask, it shall be given 

Adam was obedient to the commandments of the Lord, and taught 
them to his children, any of whom believed them obeyed, and became the 
sons of God. 

Enoch, we are told, "walked with God; and he was not; for God 
took him." Paul, in speaking of him, says: "By faith Enoch was 
translated that he should not see death; and was not found, because 
God had translated him." But the writings of Moses, as revealed to 
.Joseph Simth, and from which I have been quoting, give information 
that not only was Enoch translated but the Saints inhabiting his city, 
into which he had gathered his people, and this city was called Zion; 
"And it came to pass that Zion was not, for God received it up into His 
own bosom; and from thence went forth the saying, Zion is fled." 
The Gospel Plus the Law: 

Thus the Gospel was taught to the ancients. Noah was a preacher 
of it as well as Enoch. So, too, was Melchizedek, priest of the Most 
High God, King of Salem, who met Abraham in his day and blessed 
him. Paul, the Apostle of the Gentiles, bears unniistakeable testimony 
to the fact that the Gospel was preached unto Abraham; and also that 
it was offered to Israel under Moses before "the law of carnal com- 
mandments" was given. "I would not that ye should be ignorant," 
he says, "how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed 
through the sea; and were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in 
the sea; and did all eat the same spiritual meat; and did all drink the 
same spiritual drink; for they drank of that spiritual Rock that fol- 
lowed them; and that Rock was Christ." 

Referring again to the fact of the presentation of the Gospel to 
ancient Israel, Paul says that the Gospel was preached unto ancient 
Israel, as well as unto Israel in his day; but the preaching of the Gospel 
to ancient Israel was not profitable to them, because they received it not 
in faith, and as a result displeased God by their unbelief, and the re- 
bellious perished in the wilderness. 

Paul's great controversy with the Christian Jews was in relation to 
the superiority of the Gospel to the law of Moses. Many of the Chris- 
tian Jews, while accepting Jesus of Nazareth as the promised Messiah, 
still held to the law with something like supersitious reverence, and 
could not be persuaded that the Gospel superceded the law, and was, 
in fact, a fulfillment of all its types and symbols. This controversy 
culminated in Paul's now celebrated letter to the Galatians, wherein he 

"Know ye therefore that they which are of faith, the same are the 
children of Abraham. And the Scripture, foreseeing that God would justi- 
fy the heathen through faith, preached before the gospel unto Abraham, 
saying. In thee shall all nations be blessed. * * Now to Abraham and 
his seed were the promises made. He sayeth not and to seeds, as of 
many; but as one. And to thy seed, which is Christ. And this I say, that 
the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which 


was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should 
make the promise of none effect. * * * Wherefore then serveth the 
law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come 
to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the 
hand of a mediator. * * Wherefore the law was our school-master that 
faith is come, we are no longer under a school-master. For ye are all 
the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus.' 

From Moses to John the Baptist: 

In greater clearness, however, than in these sayings of Paul gathered 
up from his writings like scattered rays of light from a prism's reflec- 
tion, the antiquity of the Gospel, as far as it concerns ancient Israel, 
is stated in a revelation of God to the Prophet Joseph Smith. And not 
only the antiquity of the Gospel, but in greater clearness also is stated 
the reasons why, after the Gospel was first preached to ancient Israel, 
the law of carnal commandments was "added" to the Gospel, or given 
in its place to act as a school-master to bring Israel unto Christ. And by 
the knowledge imparted in that revelation the time between the Mosaic 
dispensation and the coming of John the Baptist, to prepare the way for 
the coming of the Christ, is spanned by a statement so rational, that 
the truth of it canont be reasonably questioned. Speaking of the Melchi- 
zedek Priesthood and its powers in administering the ordinances of the 
Gospel, and how it came to disappear as an organization in Israel, the 
passage in question says: 

"This greater Priesthood administereth the Gospel and holdeth the 
key of the mysteries of the kingdom, even the key of the knowledge 
of God; therefore, in the ordinances thereof, the power of godliness is 
manifest; and without the ordinances thereof, and the authority of the 
Priesthood, the power of godliness is not manifest unto men in the 
flesh; for without this no man can see the face of God, even the Father, 
and live. Now this Moses plainly taught to the children of Israel in the 
wilderness, and sought diligently to sanctify his people that they might 
behold the face of God; but they hardened their hearts and could not 
endure his presence, therefore the Lord in His wrath (for His anger was 
kindled against them) sware that they should not enter into His rest 
while in the wilderness, which rest is the fullness of His glory. There- 
fore He took Moses out of their midst, and the Holy Priesthood also; and 
the lesser Priesthood continued, which Priesthood holdeth the key of 
the ministering of angels and the preparatory Gospel; whicjh Gospel is 
the Gospel of repentance and of baptism, and the remission of sins, and 
the law of carnal commandments, which the Lord in His wrath, caused 
to continue with the house of Aaron among the children of Israel until 
John, whom God raised up, being filled with the Holy Ghost from his 
mother's womb; for he was baptized while he was yet in his childhood, 
and was ordained by the angel of God at the time he was eight days 
old unto this power to overthrow the kingdom of the Jews, and to 
make straight the way of the Lord, before the face of his people, to pre- 
pare them for the coming of the Lord, in whose hand is given all power." 

As before remarked, this passage spans the interval of time between 
Moses and John the Baptist, and gives a fuller explanation than can 
be found in the writings of Paul or elsewhere, for the reason why and 
in what manner the law was added to the Gospel; and what measure 
of the Priesthood remained with Israel unto the coming of John; in what 


the mission of John consisted, and in what manner he was qualified to ful- 
fill that mission. - ^ 

6. Of Origin: It is a question that has been much discussed whether 
Christianity has been derived from the mythologies of heathen na- 
tions, or the mythologies of heathen nations — wherein they seem 
to be related to Christian Gospel ideas, — derived from a very 
early revelaion of the Gospel, say in the patriarchal age. Dr. 
John W. Draper at the conclusion of an exhaustive review of the 
conclusions of Greek and Oriental philosophies, says: "On this point 
we may therefore accept as correct the general impression entertained 
by philosophers, Greek, Alexandrian, and Roman after the Christian era, 
that, at the bottom, the Greek and Oriental philosophies were alike, 
not only as respects the questions they proposed for solution, but also 
in the decisions they arrived at. As we have said, this impression led 
to the belief that there must have been in the remote past a reVeiationf 
common to both, though subsequently obscured and vitiated by the in- 
firmities and wickedness of man." (Intellectual Development of Europe, 
p. 224.) 

Later the Dr. remarks: "Indeed, so complete is the parallel between 
the course of mental evolution in Asia and Europe, that it is difllcult 
to designate a matter of minor detail in the philosophy of the one which 
cannot be pointed out in that of the other. It was not without reason, 
therefore, that the Alexandrian philosophers, who were profoundly initi- 
ated in the detail of both systems, time to the conclusion that such 
surprising coincidences could only be accounted for upon the admission 
that there had been an ancient revelation, the vestiges of which had 
descended to their time." (Ibid, p. 237.) ) 

The author of the "Intellectual Development of Europe," however, 
does not acquiesce in this conclusion, but offers the following as an ex- 
planation: "In this, however, they judged erroneously: the true explanation 
consisting in the fact that the process of development of the intellect 
of man, and the final results to which he arrives in examining similar 
problems, are in all countries the same." (p. 237.) Which is a most 
lame and impotent conclusion, and one not borne out by the 
facts of the history of ideas. Much juster is the conclusion pre- 
sented by the late President John Taylor, who, at the end of a some what 
extended review of traditions respecting the mythologies of various 
races, wherein seemed to be reflected essential Christian facts and ideas, 
says : 

"The fact is clearly proved, instead of Christianity, deriving its ex- 
istence and acts from the ideas and practices of heathen mythologlsts, 
and from various false systems that had been introduced by apostacy, 
unrecognized pretensions and fraud, that those very systems themselves 
were obtained from the true Priesthood, and founded on its teachings 
from the earliest ages to teh advent of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ; 
that those holy principles were taught to Adam, and by him to his pos- 
terity; that Enoch, Noah, Abraham, and the various Prophets had all borne 
testimony of this grand and important event, wherein the interest and 


hippiness of the whole world was concerned, pertaining to time and to 
eternity. The Gospel is a system, great, grand and comprehensive com- 
mencing in eternity, extending through all time, and then reaching into 
Concluding Reflections: 

The view nere presented of the antiquity of the Gospel, as remarked 
in the foot note at page 100, deferentiates the viewpoint of the Latter-day 
Saints from that of sectarian Christendom, concerning the Gospel 
of Jesus Christ. It presents that Gk)spel as "The hope of eternal life, 
which God that cannot lie, promised before the world began." Jesus 
is 'the Lamb slain from before the foundation of the world." The sons of 
God shouted for joy when "the foundations of the earth were laid," in 
prospect of that eternal life promised through the Gospel of the Christ. 
It is of greater antiquity than the earth itself, then. Older than the 
hills, or the mountains, or the sea. Is it not older than the stars, since 
it comes of the love of God, also the Christ love for man; answered by the 
love of man for God, and or Christ, and or fellow man? In all worlds 
and in all world-systems does not the same Gospel prevail? Is not eternal 
law maintained by its constant and eternal vindication, what some call 
the maintenance of Justice? Does not violation of law involve intelli- 
gencies in suffering in all worlds? Everywhere, as here in this wox'ld, 
may not one suiler for another, because bound together in that myster- 
ious sympathy, which proclaims the universal kinship of inelligences, 
and emphasises the truth that no man I'ves unto himself alone? If the 
implied answer to these questions be true, will there not in some form 
be an expression of the Christ-love that will offer itself a ransome for 
others that the element of mercy may be brought into God's economy 
of things, even as it was brought into the moral economy of this our 
world by such an offering? And out of these fimdamental realities and 
universalities will there not grow up all those relations of Redeemer and 
redeemed; Teacher andth e taught; penitant and Forgiver? Will not 
God be in such worlds reconciling them to himself through the Christ 
and the Christ spirit that shall be made every where to abound? 

To all this I answer undoubtedly. And as in the last analysis of 
things there is one God-nature into whiclh Intelligencies who are sons 
of God arise, and in which they live; for there is one Justice and one 
Mercy and one Love and one Plan of Salvation which saves all worlds- 
one Gospel and that is from eternity. I say nothing of the forms through 
which that one Gospel may receive its manifestations in other worlds. 
I only know the forms through which it is expressed in this world, and 
that only because of the revelations that God has given in the various 
dispensations granted to this world, and that is enough. But I am sure 
that in the last analysis of things the essential principles of the Gospel 
that are ordained to save our world is the Gospel that will redeem all 
worlds; for the principle of our Gospel stripped of local coloring are 
in their nature permanent and universal and hence, not only of great 
antiquity, but eternal, it is the "Ever I>asting Gospel." 


The Meridian Dispensation. (Notei) 

(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 


23-36* Matt. ill. Mark 
Luke iii: 1-23. Notes 4, .5. 


I, The Ministry of the Baptist. „„^„*;/°^? li ^'^^'' fj®*^,'".- 

1. John's Special Message. 

2. The Baptism of Jesus. 

3. His Testimony of the Di^^nity of 

H. The Ministry of Jesus. Luke iv: 1-23. Mark i: 

1. The Call of the Twelve. ^Vt ■ ,00- t u • 

'* ^r • 1 I -r> , Matt. IV : 12-2o. John i: 

2. Messiah s rrecepts. 35-6I. 

3. The Manner of His Teaching. Matt. v-\di. St. John 

Note 6. 


1. Meridian Dispensation: Meaning really the middle dispensation: 
the one that comes some where near midway between the first and th.e 
last. The first opened with Adam, the last closes with the trumph of the 
Christ. It would be more agreeable to the writer to call the Dispensation 
here to be treated the "Christian Dispensation," because Christ is not only 
the central figure of it, but in it also he lives his earth career, manifests 
God in the flesh, and opens the way of the resurrection. But since it is 
imperitive that we recognize the real presence of the Christ in every 
dispensation, from the very first to the very last, it might lead to con- 
fusion to call this Meridian Dispensation the Christian Dispensation, 
and hence the less satisfactory name is usod. 

2. Treatment of the Meridian Dispensation: It is not the purpose 
of the lessons covering the period of this Meridian Dispensation to deal 
either in detail or succintly with historical events. The general scheme 
of our present year's work precludes any such attempt. Equally dis- 

* St. John's Gospel gives the most complete account of John the 
Baptists' ministry, and hence is given precedenc\e here. The same meth- 
od is followed on other topics; that is. the evangelist or authority giving 
the fullest or most important information is given precedence. 


tant is it from our purpose to attempt to treat exhaustively of Christian 
doctrine, or even the divinity of Christ. The intention of the lesson is 
merely to present sufficient historical and doctrinal matter as will hold 
the thought present to the mind that a dispensation of the Gospel was 
again given to men under the ministry of John the Baptist, the fore- 
runner of the Christ, and in the birth, life, teaching, death, and resur- 
rection of Jesus of Nazareth. The aim of the Lessons dealing with this 
dispensation is merely to treat it as one of many dispensations of the 
Gospel given to men: not to emphasize its glory, or importance, or treat 
it as a culmination of ages, or of divine purposes. For that culmination 
of ages and purposes — "the Dispensation of the Fullness of Times," which 
will witness gathered together, "in one all things in Christ, both which 
are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in Him;" the age in whicih 
the Christ shall be entirely triumphant is an age and dispensation future 
from the Meridian Dispensation, as we shall fully see before this division 
of our work closes . Here it is thought necessary only to guard the 
student against disappointment by cautioning him not to expect too much. 

3. Literature of the Meridian Dispensation: "The history of the 
Meridian Dispensation divides itself into two chief parts: (1) The Revela- 
tion of the Gospel by Jesus Christ, including the accomplishment of his 
work of redemption; and (2) the Propagation of the Gospel, and full 
establishment of the Christian Church, after his ascension. The former 
history is written in the "Gospels," of the "Four Evangelists," the respec- 
tive openings of which furnish us with four different, but almost equally 
important, starting-points for all that follows. St. Matthew, who writes 
with the most constant reference to the fulfillment of prophecy, begins by 
showing that Jesus Christ was, by his reputed father Joseph, the son of 
David, and the son of Abraham; the predicted king of the royal line of 
Judah; the promised seed, in whom all kindreds of the earth were to 
be blessed; the gi-eat ob.iect of Covenants made by God wih Abraham 
and with David. St. Mark, commencing at once with the public proclama- 
tion of Christ, dates "the beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ the 
Son of God" from the ministry of John the Baptist as his forerunner. 
St. Luke places in the forefront of his narrative its practical purpose, for 
the instruction of a convert to Christianity, and begins "to write in order" 
from the birth of John the Baptist, and of Christ himself. St. John, hav- 
ing his mind imbued with the mysteries revealed to the "disciples whom 
Jesus loved," goes back to a "beginning" antecedent to all time, and dis- 
plays the eternal and divine glory of that "Life and Light," which were 
manifested by Christ when he appeared on earth. 

And what is true of the beginning of the Gospel history applies to 
each step of its subsequent development. Critics may speculate on some 
common remoter source of the narratives of the four evangelists, till 
they learn to abandon the unprofitable search; harmonists may pursue 
their useful labors so far as to be in danger of confounding the separate 
characters, the four documents, in the artificial compound of their own 
making; but the student who rightly appreciates the purpose of God's 
providence, in entrusting the record to four writers instead of one, will 
trace the distinct spirit of each as really his own, and will find the truest 
harmonv in the concordant spiritual impression they produce, under the 
guidance of the inspiration of the Holy Ghost." (Dr. Smith's New Testa- 
ment History, p. 178.) 

The Literature of the second part of the Meridian Dispensation, viz. 


"The Propagation of the Gospel" is fovmd in the Acts of the Apostles, 
and the Epistles and treatis that make up the balance of the New Testa- 
ment. History says: 

"St. Luke's "Second Treatise" or Discourse, (The Acts) addressed to 
Theophilus, bears a title apt to mislead the reader; a title certainly not giv- 
en it by its author. It contains no full account of the "Acts of the Apos- 
tles." Most of them are never mentioned even by name, after the list given 
in the first chapter; and the history of St. Paul is not brought down to his 
death. Its true subject is the fulfillment of the promise of the Father 
by the descent of the Holy Spirit, and the results of that outpouring, 
in the diffusion of the Gospel among Jews and Gentiles. It deals only 
with the beginning of this great theme; and, having shown us the full 
establishment of Christ's Church, first in the Holy Land, then in those 
Eastern and Grecian provinces of the Roman empire which the Jews 
were wont to regard as representing the whole Gentile world, and finally 
at Rome; it leaves all the future progress of the Gospel to be recorded 
by the Church itself. 

"And the point where the sacred history thus breaks off is marked 
by a most striking change in the character of the records. There is a 
great gulf between the last verses of the 'Acts' and the last allusions 
in the Epistles of St. Paul, and the earliest authentic chapters of what 
is called 'Ecclesiastical History.' The chasm is only bridged over by 
traditions of uncertain value, in which even the martyrdom of St. Peter 
and St. Paul is disfigured by childish legends, and worldly principles 
are already seen at work in the kingdom of Christ." (Ibid, p. 378.) 

It will greatly aid in understanding the doctrinal development of this 
dispensation if it is remembered that the Gospels of the New Testament 
were not written first, nor even the Acts of the Apostles; that most 
likely some of the epistles of Paul form the older written documents of 
the Meridian Dispensation (for the probable order in which these epistles 
were written see Seventy's Year Book, No. I. note, pp. 88-9); and, that 
while the Apostle of the Gentiles had the personal, verbal narratives of 
some of the Apostles who were companions of the Master to aid him 
in forming his conceptions of the Life and Mission of Christ, he had no 
such written treasury as we now have in the four-fold story of the Evan- 

The literature of the Meridian Dispensation on the Western 
hemisphere is found in the Book of Mormon. Prophetically (and it should 
be remembered that prophecy is but reversed history) in the record on the 
small plates of Nephi (the first 157 pages of the book), as also in the 
abridged records of Mormon, more especially the Book of Alma (12, 13 
and 42nd chapters) ; and Historically in III Nephi, which has not in ap- 
propriably been called "The Fifth Gospel," and "The American Gospel" 
(See Lecture on the subject, "Defense of the Faith and the Saints" pp. 
371-399), because it details the ministry of the Christ in the western hem- 
isphere, and adds largely to views of the world-mission of the Christ, 
the Christ. 

4. The Spirit of the Age at the Opening of the Meridian Dispensation: 
The Editor of Dr. Jortin's "Remarks on Ecclesiastical History," in a foot 
note, commenting on the remark of his author to the effect that it had 
often beer, observed that Christianity made its appearance in the most 


proper time, and under a favorable concurrence of circumstances, says: 
"With respect to the fitness of the time at which Christianity made its 
appearance, the civilization, which everywhere accompanied the pro- 
gress of Roman conquest, was favorable to the extension of a religion 
which the arms of the Caesars had now achieved. The tendency of the 
Pagan superstitions to degrade the human mind, and the demoralizing 
effects of the prevailing Epicurism, — against which the severities of the 
Stoics and refinements of the Platonists exercised, if any, the most trif- 
ling influence, — had yet contributed to arouse all taut the most abandoned 
to the necessity of a reformation, and thus to prepare the way for the 
reception of the doctrines of the Gospel, at a period when the union of 
so many nations under one power would facilitate their propagation. It 
has been said, indeed, that the gradual development of the powers of 
the human understanding resulted, as it were, spontaneously in the 
Christian system; but the time, however, fitted for the reception of the 
Gospel, was altogether inadequate to its production. Not only was Chris- 
tianity before the age in which it appeared, but it has remained in ad- 
vance of the highest moral perfection to which the mind of man has yet 
attained, or, without its aid, is capable of attaining. (.Jortin on Eccles- 
iastical History, p. 1). 

5. The Greatness of John the Baptist's Mission: "Among those 
that are born of women, there hath not arisen a greater prophet than 
John the Baptist: nevertheless, he that is least in the kingdom of heav- 
en is greater than he." 

How is it that John was considered one of the greatest Prophets ? His 
miracles could not have constituted his greatness. 

Firstly. He was intrusted with a divine mission of preparing the 
way before the face of the Lord. Whoever had such a trust committed 
to him before or since? No man. 

Secondly. He was intrusted with the important mission, and it 
was required at his hands to baptize the Son of Man. Whoever had 
the honor of doing that? Whoever had so great a privilege and glory? 
Whoever led the Son of God into the Water of baptism, and had the 
privilege of beholding the Holy Ghost descend in the form of a dove, 
or rather the sign of a dove, in witness of that administration? The 
sign of the dove was instituted before the creation of the world, a 
witness for the Holy Ghost, and the Devil cannot come in the sign of 
a dove. The Holy Ghost is a personage, and is in the form of a per- 
sonage. It does not confine itself to the form of a dove, but in sign 
of a dove. The Holy Ghost cannot be transformed into a dove; but the 
sign of a dove was given to John to signify the truth of the deed, as 
the dove is an emblem or token of truth and innocence. 

Thirdly. John, at that time, was the only legal administrator in 
the affairs' of the kingdom there was then on earth and holding the 
keys of power. The Jews had only to obey his instructions or he damned, 
by their own law; and Christ himself fulfilled all righteousness in be- 
coming obedient to the law which he had given to Moses on the mount, 
and thereby magnified it and made it honorable, instead of destroying 
it The son of Zachariah wrested the keys, the Mngdom, the power, 
the glory from the Jews, by the holy anointing and degree of heaven; 
and these three reasons constitute him the greatest Prophet born of a 

Second question: How was the least in the kingdom of heaven great- 
er than he? ,., , , c ^ i • ,, 

In reply, I asked — Whom did Jesus have reference to as bemg the 
least "^ Jesus was looked upon as having the least claim in all God's 
kingdom and was least entitled to their credulity as a Prophet, as thought 
kingdom' and was least entitled to their credulity as a Prophet ,as though 


he had said — "He that is considered the least among you is greater than 
John— that is, myself." (Mill. Star, Vol. XX, pp. 455-6.) 

6. The Manner of Christ's Teaching: "Next to what our Saviour 
taught may be considered the manner of his teaching; whicn was ex- 
tremely peculiar, yet, I think, precisely adapted to the iieculiarity of his 
character and situation. His lessons did not consist of disquisitions; 
of any thing like moral essays, or like sermons, or like set treatises up- 
on the several points which he mentioned. When he delivered a precept, 
it was seldom that he added any proof or argument; still more seldom, 
that he accompanied it witli, what all precepts require, limitations and 
distinctions. His instructions were conceived in short, emphatic, sen- 
tentious rules, in occasional reflections, or in round maxims. I do not 
think that this was a natural, or would have been a proper method foi 
a philosopher or a moralist; or that it is a method which can be su' - 
cessfully imitated by us. But I contend that it was suitable to the 
character which Christ assumed, and to the situation in which, as a 
teachei-, he was placed. He produced himself as a mes.:ienger from God. 
He put the truth of what he taught upon authority. In che choice, 
therefore of his mode of teaching, the purpose by him to be consulted 
was impression; because conviction, which forms the principal end of 
our discourses, was to arise in the minds of his followers from a differ- 
ent source, from their respect to his person and authority. Now, for 
the purpose of impression singly and exclusively. (I repeat again that 
we are not here to consider the convincing of the understanding), I 
know nothing which would have so great force as strong ponderous 
maxims, frequently urged, and frequently brought back to the thoughts 
of the hearers. I know nothing that could in this view be said better, 
than 'Do unto others as ye would that others should do unto you.' The 
first and great commandment is. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God; and 
the second is like unto it. Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. It 
must also be remembered, that our Lord's ministry, upon the supposition 
either of one year or three, compared with his work, was of short dura- 
tion; that, within this time, he had many places to visit, various audi- 
ence's to address: that his person Avas generally besieged by crowds of 
followers; that he was, sometimes, driven away from the place where 
he was teaching by persecution, and at other times, thought fit to with- 
draw himself from the commotions of the populace. Under these cir- 
cumstances, nothing appears to have been so practicable, or likely to be 
so efficacious, as leaving, wherever he came, concise lessons of duty. 
These circumstances at least show the necessity he was under of com- 
prising what he delivered within a samll compass. In particular, his 
sermon upon the mount ought always to be considered with a view to 
these observations. The question is not, whether a fuller, a more accur- 
ate more systematic, or a more argumentative, discourse upon morals 
might not have been pronounced; but whether more could have been 
said in the same room, better adapted to the exigencies of the hearers, 
or better calculated for the purpose of impression. Seen in this light, 
it has always appeared to me to admirable. Dr. Lardner thought that 
this discourse was made up of what Christ had said at different times, 
and on different occasions, several of which occasions are noticed in 
Saint Luke's narrative. I can perceive no reason for this opinion I 
believe that our Lord delivered this discourse at one time and place, 
in the manner related by Saint Matthew, and that he repeated the same 
rules and maxims at different times, as opportunity or occasion suggest- 
ed that they were often in his mouth, and were repeated to different 
audiences, and in various conversations. . , ,. ^. ^ , 

auaienc« ' ^^^^^^^ ^^ tl^is mode of moral instruction, which proceeds 
not by the proof but upon authority, not by disquisition, but by precept, 


that the rules will be conceived in absolute terms, leaving the applica- 
tion, and the distinctions that attend it to the reason of the hearer. It 
is likewise to be expected that they will be delivered in terms by so 
much the more forcible and energetic, as they have to encounter natural 
or general propensities. It is farther also to be remarked, that many 
of those strong instances, which appear in our Lord's sermon, such as, 
'If any men will smite thee on the right cheek, turn to him the other 
also:' 'If any man will sue thee at law, and take away thy coat, let 
him have thy cloak also:' 'Whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, 
go with him twain; though they appear in the form of specific precepts, 
are intended as descriptive of disposition and character. A specific 
compliance wtih the precepts would be of little value, but the disposition 
which they inculcate is of the highest. He who should content himself 
with waiting for the occasion, and with literally observing the rule 
when the occasion offered, would do nothing or worse than nothing; but 
he who considers the character and disposition which is hereby incul- 
cated, and places that disposition before him as the model to which he 
should bring his own, takes, perhaps, the best possible method of improv- 
ing the benevolence, and of calming and rectifying the vices of his tem- 

"If it be said that this disposition is unattainable, I answer, so is 
all perfection; ought therefore a moralist to recommend imperfections? 
One excellency; ought therefore a moralist to recommend imperfections? 
never mistaken, or never so mistaken as to do harm. I could feign a 
hundred cases in which the literal application of the rule, 'of doing to 
others as we would that others should do unto us,' might mislead us; 
but I never yet met with the man who was actually misled by it. Not 
withstanding that our Lord bade his followers not to resist evil, and 'to 
forgive the enemy who should trespass against them, not till seven times, 
but till seventy times seven,' the Christian world has hitherto suffered 
little by too much placability or forbearance. I would repeat cmce more, 
what has already been twice remarked, that these rules were designed 
to regulate personal conduct from personal motives, and for this pur- 
pose alone. 

"I think that these observations will assist us greatly in placing our 
Saviour's conduct, as a moral teacher, in a proper point of view; es- 
pecially when it is considered, that to deliver moral disquisitions was 
no part of his design, — to teach morality at all was only a subordinate 
part of it; his great business being to supply, what was much more want- 
ing than lessons of morality, stronger moral sanctions, and clearer as- 
surances of a future judgment." (Paley's View of the Evidences of 
Chrsitianity, pp. 151, 2, 3.) 

For further reflections upon the excellence of the manner of the 
Messiah's teaching, and especially for the consideration of added strength 
and beauties to the principles of the Sermon on the Mount, in the Book of 
Mormon, see Lecture on the Fifth Gospel (III Nephi) Defense of the Faith 
and the Saints, pp. 383-389. 



(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 


(A Discourse*) 


1. Suggestions to the Teacher: Ttiis subject could to advantage be 
divided and assigned to two or even tiaree speakers. Say I, Ttie Political 
state of the World: II, The Political Status of the Jews at Messiah's 
Birth: III, The Religious state of heathen nations and of the Jews at 
Messiah's Birth. Members should be urged to give something of com- 
pleteness to their treatis upon these and all subjects assigned to them 
as lectures, or discourses. 

2. Suggestions to the Speaker: On the Importance of a PUin: 
On the subject of constructing a plan for a discourse, Mr. Pittinger who 
was quoted so frequently in our first Seventy's Year Book, says: 

"No part of a speaker's work is more important than that of con- 
structing a good plan. If this is not well done the fullest success is 
impossible. In speech all thoughts are expressed by the slow process of 
successive words. If these are badly chosen and so arranged as to carry 
forward the current of thought in the wrong direction, almost endless 
hindrance and distraction may follow. And as these words, in extempore 
speech, are given forth on the spur of the moment, it becomes necessary 
to make such an arrangement that the proper idea to be dissolved into 
words shall always be presented to the mind at the proper time. In 
some cases this disposition of parts is very easy. A course indicated 
by the very nature of the subject will sometimes spring into view and 
relieve us of all further embarrassment. ***** But more frequently 
this portion of the speaker's task will both require and repay severe 
thought. ("Extempore Speech," p. 166.) 

Do not forget our old formula in the matter of plans — an Introduc- 
tion, a Discussion, a Conclusion. 

Of the Different Kinds of Plans: Our author, speaking of those 
plan he considers of prcatical importance, says: 

(a). The first of these may be called the narrative method. It is 
most frequently used when the recital of some history forms the principal 
part of the discourse. Certain leading events, either grouped together ac- 

*This is a subject usually treated at great length in nearly all Ec- 
clesiastical Histories; so that information is abundant. See "Moshiem, 
Ecclesiastical Institutes"; also the same author's "History of Chris- 
ity in the First Three Centuries;" Schaff's 'History of the Apostolic 
Church"; Neander's "History of the Christian Religion" Vol. I; Milman 
"History of Christianity"; Vol. 1; Edersheisn's "'Life and Times of the 
Messiah"; Vol. I, Introduction and Book I, Dr. Smith's "New Testament 
History," Book I, especially Appendix to Book I. Robert's "Outlines of 
Ecclesiastical History," Sec. II and notes. 


cording to their nature or following the order of time, furnish the primary 
divisions. This kind of a discourse follows the same laws, in the arrange- 
ment of the different parts, as histories, I'omances, and narrative poems. 
The order of time is the most obvious method of constructing it, but this 
order should not be adhered to when the story can be better and more 
dramatically told by varying from it. Both introduction and conclusion 
should be very carefully selected — the former to arouse attention and di- 
rect it in the right course; the latter to leave the strongest impression 
and the one most in harmony with the object of the speaker. 

(b). The second method is the textual, and is especially though not 
exclusively adapted to sermons. In it a verse from the Bible, a motto, 
a sentence used by an opponent, or some definite form of very signifi- 
cant words, affords a basis for each part of the discourse. The order 
of the discourse may, however, be different from that of the words in 
the text, any change being allowable which secures more of the ad- 
vantages of the narrative or logical methods. When the text is itself 
well known, a plan based upon it has an obvious advantage in assisting 
the memory both of speaker and hearer, by suggesting each part of the 
discourse at the proper time. When any lecture or oration has a formal 
motto which sums up and fairly expresses the subject discussed, the 
textual plan will be as well adapted to it as to a sermon. 

(c). The logical or mathematical method is the third and probably 
the most symmertical form the plan may assume. A topic is taken, and 
after the introduction, which may be the mere statement of the sub- 
ject, or of the relations of the speaker or of the audience to it, that sub- 
ject is unfolded with all the precision of a proposition in geometry. Each 
thought is preliminary to that which follows, and the whole ends in the 
demonstration of some great truth and the deduction of its legitimate 
corollaries. This method is the best possible in those cases adapted to 
it — particularly those in which some obstruse subject is to be unfolded 
and proved. 

(d). The last method we will describe proceeds by divisions and 
subdivisions. It is the military method, for in it the discourse is organi- 
zed like an army, into corps, brigades, and regiments; or it is like a tree, 
which divides into two or three principal branches, and these again sub- 
divide until the finest twigs are reached. All the detached items that 
have been selected are brought into related groups each governed by 
a central thought, and these again are held in strict subordination to the 
supreme idea. A subject will many times arrange itself almost spontan- 
eously into several different parts, which thus form the proper divisions, 
and these again may be easily analyzed into their proper subdivisions. 
Even when this is not the case, we will see, as we examine the jottings 
we have made while gathering our materials, that a few of the ideas 
stand out in special prominence, and with a little close study of relations 
and affinities all the others may be made to group themselves around 
these. The individual ideas we put down on the first study of the sub- 
ject usuailv form the subdivisions, and some generalization of them. 
It is not" well to make the branches of a subject too num- 
erous or they will introduce confusion and fail to be remembered. From 
two to four divisions with two or three subdivisions under each, are in 
a majority of cases better than a large number. The tendency to multi- 
ply them to a great extent, and then to name them in the moment of de- 
livery, in their order of firstly, t^econdly, etc., is in a great measure 
responsible for the popular estimate of the dryness of sennons, where 
this kind of plan prevails more than anywhere else." (Extempore Speech, 
pp. 167-9.) 

(e). Of the several kinds of discoiirses lif^re alluded to no better 


examples may be formed of the historical discourse than that of the 
Christian martyr Stephen, Acts, vii; of the logical or argumentative dis- 
course Peter's Discourse on the Day of Pentacost. The nearest approach 
to the Discourses based upon a text in the New Testament is Paul's 
speech in Mars Hill, at Athens, Acts xvii: 22-31. 

Clearness in Speeches: This subject has been referred to in Lesson 
VI, XIII, XVI, and what is there said should here be reviewed not only 
by those assigned especially to this lesson, but by the whole class. One 
of the chief faults opposed to clearness is ambiguity. This is defined as 
follows: "The term 'ambiguity' comes from the Latin ambiguos, which 
means "wavering" or "uncertain," and an ambiguous sentence is one con- 
taining a word, a phrase, or a clause, capable of two or more inter- 
pretations." (Composition and Rhetoric, Herrick and Damon, p. 302.) 
As example of ambiguity the authority just quoted gives the follow- 

Example: 1. We hold a grand raffle Friday for the benefit of Wil- 
liam Miller who lost his foot for a fine clock last week. 

Corrected. We hold a grand raffle Friday for a fine clock, for the 
benefit of William Miller who lost his foot last week. 

Example: 2. Then he came into the room talking about the rela- 
tions between Smith and Johnson, and he said that if he didn't stop 
that sort of thing vei-y soon, he was sure to get into trouble. 

Corrected: Then he came into the room talking about the relations 
between Smith and Johnson, and said that if the former didn't stop ir- 
ritating Smith very soon, he was sure to get into trouble. 

Example: 3. I only thought that he wouldn't go unless I bought him 
off, not that he wouldn't go at all. 

Corrected: I thought only that he wouldn't go unless I bought him 
off, not that he wouldn't go at all. 

Example: 4. The banker, though he trusted the teller, as is apt to 
be the case with men of his sort, yet felt that the loss occurred at his 

Corrected: Though the banker, as is apt to be the case with men 
of his sort, trusted the teller, yet he felt that the loss had occurred at 
the latter's desk. 

Commenting on the above our author says: "The first sentence 
seems to say that Miller gave his foot in exchange for a fine clock. Sen- 
tence two leaves in doubt whether the one who is to get into trouble is 
the speaker. Smith, or Johnson. In three, "I only" might be taken to 
mean "I alone." In four, it is uncertain whether such men as the bank- 
er commonly trust all tellers, or whether this teller is the sort of man 
whom most people trust." 

It will be observed that the ambiguity of the above sentences are 
chiefly the result of a bad arrangement of words or clauses rather than 
the wrong use of words. The effort of the speaker, therefore, should be 
to make such an arrangement of words and clauses in his sentences as 
to clearly express his meaning. 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



Isiah vii: 14 in con. with 

I. The Divinity of Jesus Established: Matt, i: 23; isaiah ix: o. 

Doc. and Gov., Sec. 93: 1- 

1. Called God in the Scriptures. is. Heb. i: 8. 

St. John v: 19 and x: 33- 

2. Jesus declares Himself to be God — 38. Matt, xxv: 63, 44; 

the Son of God. and Matt, xxviii: 18, 19. 

Note 1. 

3. Jesus Christ to be worship, hence Heb. i:5, 6;Phii. ii:9, lo. 

ri^j ^ St. John i: 1-4, 14; Col. 

i: 12-17; Rev. xiv; 7. Matt. 

4. Jesus Christ the Creator, hence God. ™";..^^' ^% ^J^^' "• 5' 

' Heb. lu: 3. II Cor. iv: 4. 

5. Jesus Christ equal with God, the 4. Coi. i. 5, 19, also ii: 9. 

-p, ,, , ?( 1 On all sub-di visions ot 

leather,— hence God. th^ subject see "Mormon 

Doctrine of the Diety," pp. 
187-194, and the notes in 
this lesson. 

1. Relationship of Jesus to God, the Father: It is to be observed 
in passing that Jesus himself came with no abstract definition of God 
Nowhere in his teachings can you find any argument about the existence 
of God. That he takes for granted; assumes as true; and from that 
basis proceeds as a teacher of men. Nay more; he claims God as his 
Father. It is not necessary to quote texts in proof of this statement; 
the New Testament is replete with declarations of that character. What 
may be of more importance for us at the present moment is to call 
attention to the fact that God himself also acknowledged the relationship 
which Jesus claimed. Most emphatically did he do so on the memor- 
able occasion of the baptism of Jesus in the river Jordan. You remember 
how the scriptures, acording to Matthew, tell us that as Jesus came up 
out of the water from his baptism, the heavens were opened, and the 
Spirit of God descended like a dove upon him; and at the same moment, 
out of the stillness came the voice of God, saying, "This is my beloved 
Son, in whom I am well pleased." On another occasion the Father ac- 
knowledges the relationship — at the transfiguration of Jesus in the 
mount, in the presence of three of his apostles, Peter and James and 
John, and the angels Moses and Elias. The company was overshadowed 
by a glorious light, and the voice of God was heard to say of Jesus, "This 


is my beloved Son; hear him." Of this the apostles in subsequent years 
testified, and we have on record their testimony. So that the existence 
of God the Father, and the relationship of Jesus to him, is most clearly 
show in these scriptures." (Mormon Doctrine of Deity, p. 12, 13.) 

2. Jesus Declared to be God: "But Jesus himself claimed to be 
the Son of God and in this connection there is clearly claimed for him 
divinity, that is to say, Godship. Let me read to you a direct passage 
upon that subject; it is to be found in the gospel according to St. John, 
and reads as follows : 

In the begininng was the Word, and the Word was with God, and 
the Word was God. ***** And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt 
among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only Begotten 
of the Father) full of grace and truth. 

The identity between Jesus of Nazareth — "the Word made flesh" — 
and the "Word" that was "with God from the beginning," and that "was 
God," is so clear that it cannot possibly be doubted. So the Son is God, 
as well as the Father. (Ibid, pp. 13, 14.) 

3. The Godhead — Composed of Three Distinct Persons: "These 
three, the Father, Son, and the Holy Ghost, it is true, are spoken of in 
the most definite manner as being God, but the distinction of one from 
the other is also clearly marked in the scriptures, or illustration take 
the circumstances connected with the baptism of Jesus. There we may 
see the three distinct personalities most clearly. The Son coming up 
out of the water from his baptism ; the heavens opening and the Holy 
Spirit descending upon him; while out of heaven the voice of God 
is heard saying "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." 
Here three Gods are distinctly apparent. Tbey pre seen to be distinct 
from e^ch other. They appear- simultaneously, not as one, but as three, 
each one being a different thing, so that however completely they may 
be one in spirit, in purpose, in will they are clearly distinct as persons — 
as individuals. In several instances in the scriptures these three person- 
ages are accorded eaual dignity in the Godhead. .\n example is found 
in the commission which Jesus gave, to his disciples after his resurrec- 
tion, when he sent them out into the world to preach the Gospel to all 
nations. He stood in the presence of the eleven, and said: 

All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Go ye. there- 
fore and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 

Each of the three is here eiven equal dignity in the Godhead. 

Again in the apostolic benediction: 

May the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, the love of God, and the 
communion of the Holy Ghost be with you all. ***** These thx-ee 
personages 'then are of equal dignity in the Godhead, according to the 
teachings of the New Testament, and each is equally divine — equally 
God. Hence .Jesus is God equally with God the Father, and with the 
Holy Ghost." (Ibid, pp. 15-fi, 7.) 

4. What Think Ye of Christ? "Said Jesus to the Pharasees. What 
think ye of Christ? whose son is he? They say unto him. The son of 
David. He saith unto them. How then doth David in spirit call Him 
Lord, saying: The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on My right hand, 
till I make Thine enemies Thy footstool. If David then call him [that 
is, the Christ] Lord, how is He his son. And no man was able to answer 
bim a word." 


It seems to me that we have right here, what we might regard as the 
beginning of the proclamation of the divinity of the Lord Jesus Christ. 
And here let me say, in passing, that the world is waking up to some- 
thing of a comprehension of the necessity for affirming the divinity of the 
Lord Jesus Christ. I have here a note in manuscript, that I will read to 
you, a declaration from one of the first scientists of our age, a Christian 
man who stands well advanced on the far-flung line of modern Christian 
thought. Having called attention the humanity of Jesus Christ, to His 
unity with the human race, and emphasizing the fact that He is human, 
one of our race, after setting forth that doctrine, this learned man says: 

"The conception of Godhead formed by some devout philosophers 
and mystics has quite rightly been so immeasurably vast, though still 
assuredly utterly inadequate and necessarily beneath reality, that the 
notion of a God revealed in human form — born, suffering, tormented, 
killed — has been utterly incredible. 'A crucified prophet; yes; but a cru- 
cified God! I shudder at the blasphemy,' is a known quotation which I 
cannot now verify; yet that apparent blasphemy is the soul of Chris- 
tianity. It calls upon us to recognize and worship a crucified, an ex- 
ecuted, God. * * * The world is full of men: "V^liat the world wants 
is a God. Behold the God! The divinity of Jesus is the truth which now 
requires to be re-perceived to be illumined afresh by new knowledge, to 
be cleansed and revivified by the wholesome flood of scepticism which 
has poured over it; it can be freed now from all trace of groveling super- 
stition, and can be recognized freely and enthusiastically; the divinity of 
Jesus, and of all noble and saintly souls, in so far as they too have been 
inflamed by a spark of Deity — in so far as they too can be recognized as 
manifestations of the Divine." (Sir Oliver Lodge in Hibbert Journal for 
April, 1906, Art. "Christianity and Science.") 

I say the world is waking up to the consciousness of their need of 
having in concrete form a conception of God that appeals to the under- 
standing of men, and that is to be found in the revelations of God. Paul 
was right when he said 

"And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God 
was manifest ["manifested" is the marginal reading] in the flesh, justi- 
fied in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the gentiles, believed on 
in the world, received up into glory." 

This in plain allusion to the Christ, of course. 

5. God Revealed in the Person of Jesus Christ: "This completes 
the survey I intended to make of this field. [Reference is made to a re- 
view of prevailing ideas about God in the world at the advent of .Tesus.] 
Nowhere have we found a knowledge of the true and living God. No- 
where a teacher who comes with definite knowledge of this subject of 
all subjects; — a subject so closely related to eternal life, that to know 
God is said in the scriptures to be life eternal; and of course, the cor- 
life. We can form no other conclusion from the survey we have taken of 
the world's ideas respecting the existence and nature of God, than that 
forced upon us — the world stood in sore need of a revelation of God. He 
whom the Egyptians and Indians sought for in their Pantheism, must be 
made known. God, whom Confucius would have men respect, but keep 
at a distance, must draw near. The "Alfader" of the Goths, undefined, 
incomprehensible to them, must be brought out of the northern darkness 
into glorious light. The God-idea that prevailed among the Greek phil- 
osophers must be brought from the mists of their idle speculations and 
made to stand before the world. He whom the Jews were seeking to 


deny and forsake must be revealed again to the children of men. And 
lo! when the vail falls from the revelation that God gives of himself— 
what form is that which steps forth from the background of the world's 
ignorance and mystery? A Man, as God lives! Jesus of Nazareth — the 
great Peasant Teacher of Judea. He is God revealed henceforth to the 
world. They who thought God impersonal, without form must know him 
henceforth as a person in the form of man. They who have held him 
to be without quality, must henceforth know him as possessed of the 
qualities of Jesus of Nazareth. They who have regarded him as infinite- 
ly terrible, must henceforth know him also as infinitely gentle. Those 
who would hold him at a distance, will now permit him to draw near. 
This is the world's mystery revealed. This is God manifested in the flesh. 
This is the Son of God, who comes to reveal the Father, for he is the 
express image and likeness of that Father's person, and the reflection of 
that Father's mind. Henceforth when men shall say. Show us the Father, 
he shall point to himself as the complete revelation of the Father, and 
say, "He that hath seen me, hath seen the Father also." Henceforth, 
when men shall dispute about the "being" and "nature" of God, it shall 
be a perfect answer to uphold Jesus Christ as the complete, perfect reve- 
lation and manifestation of God, and through all the ages it shall be so; 
there shall be no excuse for men saying they know not God, for all may 
know him, from the least to the greatest, so tangible, so real a revela- 
tion has God given of himself in the person and character of Jesus Christ. 
He lived his life on earth — a life of sorrow and of gentleness, it's path- 
way strewn with actions fraught with mercy, kindness, and love. A man 
he was, approved of God among men, by miracles, and wonders and signs 
which God did by him. Being delivered by the determinate counsel and 
foreknowledge of God, men took and by wicked hands crucified and slew 
him, but God raised him up, having loosed the pains of death, because 
it was not possible that he should be holden of it; and exalted him on 
high at the right hand of God, whence he shall come to judge the quick 
and the dead." (Monnon Doctrine of Diety; pp. 185-6.) 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. Ordinances: , Heb. yi: Ij-,; Acts ii: 37- 

, T-. i- 38. Acts viii: 4-20. Note 

1. Baptism. 1 and 2. 

^ ^ „ .. Matt, xxviii: 19. Mark 

2. Confirmation. ^^. jg. John iii: 3-5. 

Heb. vi: 2; II Cor. iii: 6 of. 

Acts xix: 6; II Tim. i: 6; 

Acts viii: 15-20. Notes 3, 

Q Eucharist* Matt, xxvi: 26-28. Mark 

6. JJiUCnanSt. ^^. 22.34. Luke xxii: 19, 

20. John xiii. I Cor. xi. 
23-25. Note 5, 6. 


1. The Baptism of John and Christian Baptism: "The relation of 
the baptism of John to the Christian baptism gave rise to a sharp contro- 
versy in the sixteenth century. Zwingle and Calvin were in favor of the 
essential equality of the two; while Luther, Melanchthon, and the Cath- 
olic church (Concil. Trent. Sess. vii), maintained the contrary. The 
only difference Calvin allowed was, that John baptized in the name of the 
future Messiah, while the apostles baptized in that of the Messiah'already 
come. But this difference could be of little moment; the less so, since 
a step towards the manifestation of the Messiah was already made in 
the appearance of John himself (comp. John i. 31). On the other hand, 
Calvin considers the most important point of equality between the two 
to exist in the fact, that both include repentance and pardon of sin in 
the name of Christ." (Kitto's Clclopaedia of Biblical Literature, p. 283.) 
Kitto's whole article may be studied with profit. 

The fact is that there was no difference between the baptism ad- 
ministered by John and Christian baptism, except, as allowed by Calvin, 
according to the above; one baptized in the name of a future Messiah, 
and the other in the name of one already come. But general baptism was 

* Euchrist. The Lord's Supper, a solemn rite commemorating the 
dying of Christ for the salvation of men; the holy sacrament; the com- 
munion of the body and blood of Christ. (Funk & Wagnall Diet.) 

fOn all the above subdivisions the Bible Dictionaries, Kitto's Bibli- 
cal Literature,Smith's New Testament History, etc., can be consulted to 
advantage, though it should always be remembered that the utterances 
of these autohrities are to be carefully weighed. 


for the same purpose in all dispensations — it was Christian baptism — 
i. e. baptism for the remission of sins — baptism to which the atonement 
of the Christ gave efficacy whether administered in view of his antici- 
pated coming or in realization of the fact of his having come and com- 
pleted his work of atonement. 

Baptism of the Disciples of Jesus: 'Whether our Lord ever bap- 
tized has been doubted. -'The only passage which may distinctly bear 
on the question is John iv. 1, 2, where it is said "that Jesus made and 
baptized more disciples than John, though Jesus himself baptized not, 
but his disciples." We necessarily infer from it, that, as soon as our 
Lord began his ministry, and gathered to Him a company of disciples, 
He, like John the Baptist, admitted into that company by the administra- 
tion of baptism. Normally, however, to say the least of it, the adminis- 
tration of baptism was by the hands of his disciples. Some suppose that 
the first-called disciples had all received baptism at the hands of John 
the Baptist, as must have pretty certainly been the case with Andrew 
(see John i. 35, 40) ; and that they were not again baptized with water 
after they joined the company of Christ. Others believe that Christ him- 
self baptized some few of his earlier disciples, who were afterwards au- 
thorized to baptize the rest. But in any case the words above cited seem 
to show that the making of disciples and the baptizing of them v\^ent to- 
gether; and that baptism was, even during our Lord's earthly ministry the 
formal mode of accepting his service and becoming attached to his com- 
pany." (Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 235.) 

3. Confirmation: "The Laying on of Hands" was considered in the 
ancient church as the 'Supplement of Baptism." 1. Imposition of hands 
is a natural form by which benediction has been expressed in all ages 
and among all people. It is the act of one superior either by age or 
spiritual position towards an inferior, and by its very form it appears to 
bestow some gift, or to manifest a desire that some gift is symbolically 
bestowed, as when guiltiness was thus transferred by the high-priest to 
the scape-goat from the congregation (Lev. xvi. 21) ; but, in general, the 
gift is of something good which God is supposed to bestow by the chan- 
nel of the laying on of hands. Thus, in the Old Testament, Jacob accom- 
panies his blessing to Ephraim and Manasseh with imposition of hands 
(Gen. xlviii. 14); Joshua is ordained in the room of Moses by imposition 
of hands ,Num. xxvii. 18; Deut. xxxiv. 9); cures seem to have been 
wrought by the prophets by imposition of hands (2 K. v. ii): and the 
high priest, in giving his solemn benediction, stretched out his hands 
over the people (Lev. ix. 22). The same form was used by our Lord in 
blessing and occasionally in healing, and it was plainly regarded by the 
Jews as customary or befitting (Matt. xix. 13; Mark viii. 23, x. IG). One 
of the promises at the end of St. Mark's Gospel to Christ's followers is 
that they should cure the sick by laying on of hands (Mark xvi. 18); and 
accordingly we find that Saul received his sight (Acts ix. 17) and Pub- 
lius's father was healed of his fever (Acts xxviii. 6) by imposition of 
hands. In the Acts of the Apostles the nature of the gift or blessing be- 
stowed by Apostolic imposition of hands is made cleai-er. It is called the 
gift of the Holy Ghost (viii. 17, xix. 6) * * * By the time that the 
Epistle to the Hebrew was written we find that there existed a practice 
and doctrine of imposition of hands, which is pronounced by the writer 
of the Epistle to be one of the first principles and fundamentals of Chris- 
tianity, which he enumerates in the following order: (1) The doctrine of 
Repentance; (2) of Faith; C^) of Baptism; (4) of Laying on of Hands; 
(5) of the Resurrection; (t]) of Eternal Judgment (Heb. vi. 1, 2). Laying 
on of Hands in this passage can mean only one of three things — Ordina- 


tion, Absolution, or that which we have already seen in the Acts to have 
been practiced by the Apostles, imposition of hands for the gift of the 
Holy Ghost on the baptized. The meaning of Ordination is excluded by 
the context. We have no proof of the existence of the habitual practice 
of Absolution at this period nor of its being accompanied by the laying 
on of hands. Everything points to that laying on of hands which, as we 
have seen, immediately succeeded baptism in the Apostolic age, and con- 
tinued to do so in the ages immediately succeeding the Apostles. * * * 
The Fathers, says Hooker, "everywhere impute unto it that gift or grace 
of the Holy Ghost, not which maketh us first Christian men, but, when 
we are made such, assisteth us in all virtue, armeth us against temptation 
and sin. * * * The Fathers therefore, being thus persuaded, held con- 
firmation as an ordinance Apostolic, always profitable in God's Church, 
although not always accompanied with equal largeness of those external 
effects which gave it countenance at the first." (Smith's Dictionary of 
the Bible, Vol. I, p. 242-244.) 

4, The Time of Confirmation: "Originally Imposition of Hands fol- 
lowed immediately upon Baptism, so closely as to appear as part of the 
baptismal ceremony or a supplement to it. This is clearly stated by Ter- 
tullian (De Bapt. vii, viii), Cyril (Catech. Myst. iii. I), the author of the 
Apostolic Constitutions (vii. 43), and all early Christian writers." (Smith's 
Bible Dictionary, pp. 242, 3, 4.) 

5. Eucharist: Paul's account of the establishment of this Christian 
institution is perhaps the earliest written and the most complete: "For 
I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, that the 
Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread; and 
when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, take, eat: this is my 
body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. After the 
same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, this cup 
is the new testament in my blood; this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in 
remembrance of me. For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this 
cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till he come." 

Comment on the Above: From Paul's description of the or- 
dinance, it is clear that the broken bread was an emblem of Messiah's 
broken body; the wine an emblem of his blood, shed for sinful man; and 
his disciples were to eat the one and drink the other in remembrance of 
him until he should return; and by this ceremony show forth the Lord's 
death. It was designed as a memorial of Messiah's great Atonement for 
mankind, a token and witness unto the Father that the Son was always 
remembered. It was to be a sign that those partaking of it were willing 
to take upon them the name of Christ, to always remember him, and 
keep his commandments. In consideration of these things being observed, 
the saints were always to have the Spirit of the Lord to be with them. In 
this spirit and without great ceremony the sacrament was administered for 
some time in the early Christian church. 

7. Prayer of Consecration Given to the Nephites: "The manner of 
the Elders and Priests administering the flesh and blood of Christ unto 
the church. And they administered it according to the commandments of 
Christ; wherefore we know the manner to be true; and the Elder or Priest 
did minister it. And they did kneel down with the church, and pray to 
the Father in the name of Christ saying, 'Oh God, the Eternal Father, 
we ask thee in the name of thy Son Jesus Christ, to bless and sanctify 
this bread to the souls of all those who partake of it, that they may eat 
in remembrance of the body of thy Son, and witness unto thee, O God, 


the Eternal Father, that they are willing to take upon them the name of 
thy Son, and always remember him, and keep his commandments which 
he hath given them, that he may always have his Spirit to be with them. 
Amen." (Moroni iv. 3.) 

"The manner of administering the wine. Behold, they took the cup, 
and said, O God, the Eternal Father, we ask thee, in the name of thy Son 
Jesus Christ to bless and sanctify this wine to the souls of all those who 
drink of it, that they may do it in remembrance of the blood of thy Son. 
which was shed for them, that they may witness unto thee, O God, the 
Eternal Father, that they do always remember him, that they may have 
his Spirit to be with them. Amen." (Moroni v. 12.) 

Comment: Of the above prayer I may say what Arch Deacon Paley 
has so well said of the Lord's Prayer: "For a succession of solemn 
thoughts, for fixing the attention upon a few great points, for suitable- 
ness, * * * for sufficiency, for conciseness without obscurity, for the 
weight and real importance of its petitions" — this prayer so far as I am 
aware is without an equal excepting, perhaps, the Lord's prayer." 

8. Eucharist in the Second Century. "When the Christians cele- 
brated the Lord's supper, which they were accustomed to do chiefly on 
Sundays, they consecrated a part of the bread and wine of the oblations, 
by certain prayers pronounced by the president, the bishop of the con- 
gregation. The wine was mixed with water, and the bread was divided 
into small pieces. Portions of the consecrated bread and wine were com- 
monly sent to the absent and the sick, in testimony of fraternal affection 
towards them. There is much evidence that this most holy rite was re- 
garded as very necessary to the attainment of salvation. (Mosheim's Ec- 
clesiastical History, p. 137.) 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



II. Organizations: ^att. iv: 12-25. Matt. 

1 rru nu V. v-vii, and note 1 

1. ineUnurcn. _ Matt. Iv: 17-25. Marki: 

(a) Preliminary Steps, Gathering 14.22. Luke v: 13-I6. 
and instructing Disciples. Luke x: 1-11, 17-20. cf. 

(b) Call of the Twelve. ^^'J^'^^'l^Cor ^3di'-^27 30 

(c) Appointment of the Seventy. levtnty's Year Book, No: 

(d) The Completed Organization, i^ pp. 2, 3. Notes 2, 3. 

I Cor. xiii: 27-30. Eph. 
iv: 1-6., and note. 

2. The Mission of the Church. ,^ 'prittn^'orJ tt^'H. 

See also note 4 Lesson xxiv 
2. The Church: In order to propagate the gospel, and teach, en- 
courage, Instruct, preserve, and finally perfect those who accepted it, 
Messiah organized his Church. He bestowed upon its members certain 
great and precious spiritual gifts and graces, such as the power to speak 
in new tongues and interpret them; to receive revelation, to prophesy, to 
see visions, receive thr- visitation of angels, to possess the gift of wis- 
dom, knowledge, faith, aiscernment of spirits, and healing the sick. The 
description of the Church organization in the New Testament is ex- 
tremely imperfect, owing, no doubt, to the fragmentary character of the 
Christian annals. "While the distinctions between the respective offices 
in the Priesthood, and the definition of the duties of each officer are even 
less satisfactory; still there is enough written to enable us to get an 
outline of the wonderful organization. Messiah, during his personal min- 
istry, organized a quorum of Twelve Apostles, to whom he gave very 
great powers and authority, even to be witnesses of him among the 
people, to build up his Church by the proclamation of the gospel, to heal 
the sick, open the eyes of the blind, raise the dead, and cast out devils. 
He likewise organized quorums of seventies, unto whom he gave similar 
powers to those bestowed upon the aspostles (c. f. Matt, x, with Luke x). 
After his resurrection, Messiah was with his apostles and disciples forty 
days, during which time he was teaching them all things concerning the 
kingdom of God. Hence we have these men after his ascension organ- 
izing branches of the church wherever they found people who received 
their testimony. In some instances they ordained elders to preside over 


these branches; and in other instances bishops wr appointed. Paul, In 
giving a description of the organization of the church, says: "And God 
hath set some In the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly 
teachers; after that miracles, then gifts of healing, helps, governments, 
diversities of tongues." Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all 
teachers? Are all workers of miracles? Have all the gifts of healing? 
Do all speak with tongues? Do all interpret? The implied answer is 
that all are not apostles, nor prophets, nor teachers, etc.. in the church 
of Christ, but that the whole body is fitly joined together and compacted 
by that which every joint supplieth. Undoubtedly the whole organiza- 
tion grew out of the instruction Jesus imparted to the Apostles, but it 
required time for its foil development. 

The Church as Described in the New Testament: "The derivation 
of the word 'church' is uncertain. * * * The word occurs twice, each 
time in St. Matthew (Matt. xvi. IS, "On thi'; rock will T build my 
Church;" xviii. 17, "Tell it unto the Church.") In every other case it 
is spoken of as the kingdom of heaven by St. Matthew, and as the king- 
dom of God by St. Mark and St. Luke. St. Mark, St. Luke, and St. 
.Tohn never use the expression kingdom of heaven. St. John once uses 
the phrase kingdom of God (iii. 3). St. Matthew occasionally speaks of 
the kingdom of God (vi. 33. xxi. 31", 43), and sometimes simply of the 
kingdom (iv. 23, xiii. 19. xxiv. 14). In xiii. 41 and xvi. 28, it is the Son 
of Man's kingdom. In xx 21, thy kingdom, i. e., Christ's. In the one 
Gospel of St. Matthew the Church is spoken of no less than thirty-six 
times as the Kingdom. Other descriptions or titles are hardly found In 
the 'Evangelists. It is Christ's household (Matt. x. 25). the salt and 
light of the world (v. 13, 15), Christ's fock (Matt. xxvl. 31; John x. 1), 
its members are the branches growing on Christ the Vine (.John xv) ; 
but the general description of it, not metaphorically, but directly, is 
that it is a kingdom. * * * The means of entrance into it is Baptism 
(Matt, xxviii. 19). The conditions of belonging to it are faith (Mark 
xvi. 16) and obedience (Matt, xxviii. 20). Participation in the Holy 
Supper is its perpetual token of membership, and the means of support- 
ing the life of its members (Matt. xxvi. 26; John vi. 51; Cor. xi. 26). 
Its members are given to Christ by the Father out of the world, and 
sent by Christ into the world; they are sanctified by the truth (John 
xvii. 19) ; and they are to live in love and unity, cognizable by the eter- 
nal world (John xiii. 34. xvii. 23)." Smith Dictionarv of the Bible, Vol. 
I., p. 453. 

4. Definitions of the Churcii: The Greek Church gives the follow- 
ing: "The Church is a divinely instituted community of men, united by 
the orthodox faith, the law of God, the hierarchy, and the Sacraments" 
(Full Catechism of the Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church, Moscow, 
1839). The Latin Church defines it as, "The company of Christians knit 
together by the profession of the same faith and the communion of the 
same sacraments, under the government of lawful pastors, and espe- 
cially of the Roman bishop as the only Vicar of Christ upon earth." 
(Bellarm. De Eccl. Mil. ill. 2; see also Devoti Inst. Canon. 1, iv. Romae, 


1818.) The Church of England, "A congregation of faithful men in 
which the pure word of God is preached, and the Sacraments be duly 
ministered according to Christ's ordinance in all those things that of 
necessity are requisite of the same." (Art. xix.) The Lutheran 
Church: "A congregation of saints in which the Gospel is rightly 
taught and the sacraments rightly administered." (Confessio Augus- 
tina, 1631, Art. vii.) The Confessio Helvetica: a congregation of faith- 
ful men called, or collected out of the world, the communion .of all 
saints." (Art. xvii.) The Confessio Saxonica: "A congregation of men 
embracing the Gospel of Christ, and rightly using the Sacraments." 
Art. xii.) The Confessio Belgica: "A true congregation, or assembly of 
all faithful Christians who look for the whole of their salvation from 
Jesus Christ alone, as being washed by his blood, and sanctiled and 
sealed by his Spirit." (Art. xvii.) (Smith's Dictionary of the Bible Art 
Church.) (For our defintion of "The Church," see Seventy's Year Book, 
No. 1, p. 13.) 

4. Inadequacy of Foregoing Definitions: "These definitions show 
the difficulty in which the different sections of the divided Church find 
themselves in framing a definition which will at once accord with the 
statements of Holy Scripture, and be applicable to the present state of 
the Christian world. We have seen that according to the Scriptural 
view the Church is a holy kingdom, established by God on earth, of 
which Christ is the invisible King; it is a divinely organized body, the 
members of which are knit together- amongst themselves, and joined to 
Christ, their Head, by the Holy Spirit, who dwells in and animates it; 
it is a spiritual but visible society of men united by constant succession 
to those who were personally united to the Apostles, holding the same 
faith that the Apostles held, administering the same sacraments, and, 
like them, forming separate, but only locally separate, assemblies, for 
the public worship of God. This is the Church according to the Divine 
intention. But as God permits men to mar the perfection of his design 
in their behalf, and as men have both corrupted the doctrines and 
broken the unity of the Church, we must not expect to see the Church 
of Holy Scripture actually existing in its perfection on earth. It is not 
to be found, thus perfect, either in the collected fragments of Christen- 
dom, or still less in any one of these fragments more than another may 
approach the Scriptural and Apostolic ideal which existed only until 
sin, heresy, and schism had time sufficiently to develop themselves to 
do their work." (Smith's Bible Dictionary, p. 458.) 



(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. Conspiracy Against the Christ. Matt, xxyi; xx^-ii: 1-25. 

^ ■' ° Mark xiv; and xv: 1-15. bt. 

John xxii and xxiii: 1-27. 
St. John x^^ii. 

II. Death and Resurrection of the Christ. St. John xix and xx: i-is 

Notes 2, 5. Luke xxiii and 
xxiv. Mark xv and xvi: 1- 
8. Matt. xx\-ii and xx\nii. 
Matt, xx^^ii: 11-20. 
Mark x^■i; St. John xx: 19- 
31. Luke xxiv: 13-53. 

Acts i: 1-14. 

III. Post-Resurrection Ministry of Messiah. iii ^""p^' chapters xi to 

^ -r T 1 XXX inclusive, cf. John x- 

1. in Juciea. ^5^ ig „.pj^g Pif^^^ qos. 

2. On the Western Hemisphere. pei/' Defense of the Faith 

3. Among the "Lost Tribes." and the Saints, pp. 373-399. 

Ill Nephi, chs. xv-x\-i- 
1. The Agony in Gethsemane: "(Matt, xxvi; vers. 36-46, parallel 
passages: Mark 14: 32-42; Luke 22: 39-46.) This conflict presents our 
Lord in the reality of His manhood, in weakness and humiliation, but it 
is impossible to account for it unless we admit His Divine nature. Had 
he been a mere man, His knowledge of the sufferings before Him could 
not have been sufficient to cause such sorrow. The human fear of death 
will not explain it. As a real man. He was capable of such a conflict. 
But it took place after the serenity of the Last Supper and sacerdotal 
prayer, and before the sublime submission in the palace and judgment 
hall. The conflict, therefore, was a specific agony of itself. He felt the 
whole burden and mystery of the world's sin, and encountered the 
fiercest assault^ of Satan Otherwise, in this hour this Person, so 
powerful, so holy, seems to fall below the heroism of martyrs in His 
own cause. His sorrow did not spring from His own life. His memory 
or His fears, but from the vicarious nature of the conflict. The agony 
was a bearing of the weight and sorrow of our sins, in loneliness, in 
anguish of soul threatening to crush His body, yet borne triumphantly, 
because in submission to His Father's will. Three times our Lord ap- 
peals to that will, as purposing His anguish; that purpose of God In 
regard to the loveliest, best of men, can be reconciled with justice and 


goodness In God in but one way; that it was necessary for our redemp- 
tion. Mercy forced its way through justice to the sinner. Our Lord 
suffered anguish of soul for sin, that it might never rest on us. To 
deny this is in effect not only to charge our Lord with undue weakness, 
but to charge God with needless cruelty. 'Surely He hath borne our 
griefs, and carried our sorrows. ... He was wounded for our trans- 
gressions, He was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement of our 
peace was upon Him; and with His stripes we are healed.' Isa. 53: 4,5. 
(International Commentary, Matthew, p. 359.) 

2. The Cruelty of Crucifixion: "Crucifixion was a most disgrace- 
ful and cruel punishment introduced into Judaea by the Romans and 
inflicted only on slaves and the worst of criminals. Constantine the 
Great abolished it. The Jews often hanged those who had been stoned 
to death, but the corpse must be buried the same day, so as not to pol- 
lute the land (Deut. 21: 22, 23). The Romans permitted the crucified to 
die slowly; and the sufferings sometimes continued for three days. 
Their flesh was given to the birds or other wild animals. As, according 
to JeAvish custom, the bodies must at once be taken down and buried, 
death was hastened by the crucifragium, the breaking of the legs, to 
which was sometimes added a mercy-stroke, that is, the piercing of the 
body. If they were already dead, the latter alone was given, to make 
the matter sure. The physical sufferings of the victims were fearfully 
great Dr. Richter, a physician, thus describes them: I. On account 
of the unnatural and immovable position of the body and the violent 
extension of the arms, the least motion produced the most painful sen- 
sation all over the body, but especially on the lacerated back and the 
pierced members. 2. The nails caused constantly* increasing pain on 
the most sensitive parts of the hands and feet. 3. Inflammation set in 
at the pierced members and wherever the circulation of the blood was 
obstructed by the violent tension of the body, and increased the agony 
and an intolerable thirst. 4. The blood rushed to the head and produced 
the most violent headache. 5. The blood in the lungs accumulated, 
pressing the heart, swelling all the veins, and caused nameless anguish. 
Loss of blood through the open wounds would have shortened the pain, 
but the blood clotted and ceased flowing. Death generally set in slowly, 
the muscles, veins, and nerves gradually growing stiff, and the vital 
powers sinking from exhaustion. (From Lange on Matt. pp. 522 sq.) 
By the crucifixion of our Lord the cross of the bitterest sufferings and 
cruel death has been changed into a tree of life, that bears the richest 
fruits of penitence and gratitude. From the moment He was lifted on 
the cross He began to draw all men unto Him (Comp. John 12: 32)." 
(Commentary, Matthew, pp. 389-90). 

3. Death of the Christ Voluntary: Unbelievers delight to represent 
God, the great Law Giver, as unspeakably cruel in demanding such an 
atonement as Christ made for the salvation of the children of men. But 
let it be born in mind that he who made the atonement did so volun- 
tarily. Testifying to his disciples respecting the matter, he says: 
"Therefore dolh my Father love me, because I lay down my life that I 
may take it up again. No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of 
myself. I have the power to lay it down, and I have power to take it 
again. This commandment have I received of my Father." When his 
enemies gathered about him, — a former friend betraying him with a 
kiss, — and Peter prepared to defend him with the sword, he chided him 


for his rashness, commanding him to put up his sword, and added: 
"Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall pres- 
ently give me more than twelve legions of angels? But how then shall 
the scriptures be fulfilled, that thus it must be?" Thus down to the very 
last moment, it appears that Jesus could have been delivered from the 
sacrifice had he so willed it. But the principle which was the guiding 
star of his life — "Father, not my will, but thy will be done" — influenced 
him in this instance, and he drank of the cup given him of his Father, 
and wrung out the dregs in agony; but he did it voluntarily, and that, 
too, out of his great love for mankind. (Outlines, Eccl. Hist. Roberts, pp. 

"It is manifest, from the history of the death of Christ, that he 
spake most truly when he said. No man taketh my life from me, but I 
lay it down of myself. John x, 18. For how easy would it have been 
for him, even without a miracle, to have avoided falling into the hands 
of his enemies? The insidious designs of the Jewish pontiff and chief 
priests were well known to him; and it is plain that he was no stranger 
to the treacherous intentions of his peifidious disciple Judas, since he 
expressly alludes to them on more than one occasion. On the other 
hand, it appears that he had several great and powerful friends, on 
whom he could have depended for support. Would he but have quitted 
Jerusalem, and returned into Galilee, every scheme that had been formed 
against him must have fallen to the ground. Indeed, even this was not 
requisite: for his safety would have been completely secured had he 
merely changed the place of his nightly resort, and, lest Judas should 
have discovered it, dismissed that wicked and deceitful man from his 
society. Besides these obvious means, there were others to which he 
might have had recourse, and which would have proved equally elficient 
in defeating and bringing to naught the evil councils and designs of the 
Jewish priests and elders. But it should seem that he disdained, or at 
least voluntarily neglected to avail himself of any of those precautions, 
which a very moderate share of human prudence would have suggested 
to any man under similar circumstances. He remained in Jerusalem; 
he permitted Judas to continue about his person, in the character of an 
Intimate friend; he continued to pass his nights in the usual and accus- 
tomed place. All these circumstances being considered, who is there 
but must readily perceive that Christ voluntarily subjected himself to 
the punishment of death, and offered up his life to God as a sacrifice for 
the sins of mankind?" (History of Christianity, Mosheim. p. 98.) 

4. The Vicarious Work of the Christ: "Therefore, I command you 
to repent — repent, lest I smite you by the rod of my mouth, and by my 
wrath, and by my anger, and your sufferings be sore — how sore you 
know not! How exquisite you know not! Yes, how hard to bear you 
know not! For behold, I, God, have suffered these things for all, that 
they might not suffer if they would repent. But if they would not repent, 
they must suffer even as I, which suffering caused myself, even God, the 
greatest of all, to tremble because of pain, and to bleed at every pore, 
and to suffer both body and spirit; and would that I might not drink 
the bitter cup and shrink. Nevertheless, glory be to the Father, I 
partook and finished my preparations unto the children of men; where- 
fore, I command you again to repent, lest I humble you with my al- 
mighty power, and that you confess your sins, lest you suffer these pun- 
ishments of which I have spoken, of which in the smallest, yea, even in 
the least degree you have tasted at the time I withdrew my spirit." 
(Doc. & Gov. Sec. xix: 15-20.) 


5. The Appearance of Jesus After His Resurrection: There are 
some slight discrepancies in the writings of Matthew, Marlv, Luke and 
John in respect to the order of the appearance of Messiah after his 
resurrection, as indeed there is in respect to the order of the events 
connected with his trial, condemnation and death; but the following, 
because of the fragmentary character of the four gospels, may be re- 
garded as being as nearly correct as may be ascertained. First, to Mary 
Magdalene, in the garden where the tomb in which he was laid was 
located; second, to the women returning from the sepulchre on their 
way to deliver the angel's message to the disciples; third, to two dis- 
ciples going to Emmaus; fourth, to Peter; fifth, to ten apostles in an 
upper room; sixth, to the eleven apostles, also in the upper room; sev- 
enth, to seven apostles at the sea of Tiberias; eighth, to eleven apostles 
in a mountain in Galilee; ninth; to above five hundred brethren at 
once; tenth, to James; and finally to Paul while on his way to Damas- 
cus." (Outlines of Ecclesiastical History, p. G5.) 

5. The Christ's Post-Resurrection IVlinistry in Judea: "In all Jesus 
was with his disciples on the eastern hemisphere for forty days after 
his resurrection, during which time he taught them all things pertaining 
to the kingdom of heaven, and authorized them to go into all the world 
and preach the gospel to every creature, baptizing them in the name of 
the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, teaching them to 
observe all things whatsoever he had commanded them; and promised 
that he would be with them even unto Lhe end of the world. * * * 
Having thus taught the gospel to the people of the eastern hemisphere, 
organized his church and commissioned his apostles to teach the gospel 
to all nations, he prepared to depart from them. It was most probably 
at Bethany that this solemn parting occurred. His forerunner, John the 
Baptist, had promised that he who should come after him, Jesus Christ, 
would baptize them with the Holy Ghost, and just previous to Messiah 
leaving the apostles he told them that the promise was about to be fulfill- 
ed. He therefore commanded them to tarry in Jerusalem until they were 
endowed with that power from on high. Then he lifted up his hands and 
blessed them, after which he was parted from them, and a cloud re- 
ceived him out of their sight. As they were still looking steadfastly 
toward heaven, two men- — angels — in white apparel, stood by them, and 
declared that this same Jesus whom they had seen go into heaven, 
should come in like manner, that is, in the clouds of heaven, and in 
great glory." (Outlines of History, Roberts, pp. 66, 67.) 

7. Advent of Messiah on Western Hemisphere: I now turn to a 
passage I shall read to you from ITI Nephi, describing the appearance of 
Jesus on this land (America.) After fearful cataclysms had taken place, a 
company of men, women and children in the land Bountiful, numbering 
some 2,500 souls, were assembled together near a temple that had escaped 
destruction, and they were speaking of the great events of the recent past 
and the change that was apparent in the whole face of the land. As they 
were speaking of these signs that had been given of Messiah's birth and 
death, and conversing concerning Messiah himself, they heard a voice. 
What was said they could not at first determine, and whence the voice 
came they could not tell. It grew, however, more and still more dis- 
tinct, until at last they heard the voice say: 

131 • 

"Behold my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased, in whom I 
have glorified my name; hear ye him." 

And it came to pass as they understood, they cast their eyes up 
again towards heaven and behold, they saw a man descending out of 
heaven: and he was clothed in a white robe, and he came down and 
stood in the midst of them, and the eyes of the whole multitude were 
turned upon him, and they durst not open their mouths, even one to 
another, and wist not what it meant, for they thought it was an angel 
that had appeared unto them. 

And it came to pass that he stretched forth his hand and spake unto 
them people, saying: 

Behold, I am Jesus, whom the prophets testified shall come into the 

And behold, I am the light and the life of the world; I have drunk 
out of that bitter cup which the Father hath given me, and have glori- 
fied the Father in taking upon me the sins of the world, in which I have 
suffered the will of the Father in all things from the beginning. 

And it came to pass that when Jesus had spoken these words, the 
whole multitude fell to the earth, for they remembered that it had been 
prophesied among them that Christ should show himself unto them 
after his ascension into heaven." (Defense of the Faith and the Saints, 
pp. 3S2-3.) 

8. Subject of Messiah Teaching in the Western Hemisphere: "Com- 
plaint is made that in his ministry among the Nephites Messiah 
merely repeated the ideas, and for that matter the words of his sermon 
on the mount: so wanting in originality, claim those who object to the 
Book of Mormon, were the authors of the book that they could not trust 
themselves to give Jesus the opportunity of preaching an original dis- 
course to the inhabitants of this western part of the world. I ask these 
Christian objectors to consider this: Suppose the Book of Mor- 
mon were not in existence at all; suppose that we begin to reflect on the 
empires and nations which beyond all question did occupy this land of 
America in ancient times, and were civilized, intelligent people — God's 
children; suppose that it began to occur to some of our Christian frienis 
that it would have been a grand idea if the Son of God had come and 
made proclamation of the Gospel to a people who were destined to be 
for so many centuries separated from the eastern hemisphe:e, where 
the gospel had been planted. Now, then, suppose these conditions, and 
suppose further that Jesus came here, what would be the nature of his 
mission? What should he first do? What truth do these Christian 
critics hold to be the most important truth to mankind? Would it not 
be the fact that Jesus is the Christ, the Redeemer of the world, the one 
who is to bring life and immortality to light through the Gospel? Would 
not that be the most important thing to have declared? I believe all 
Christians must necessarily say yes. Well, that is just what happened. 
The voice of God broke the stillness of this western world, and said to a 
company of people, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; 
hear ye him." Then Jesus stands forth and declares himself and his 
mission, the most important truth that the Christian mind, at least, 
can conceive. The Fifth Gospel starts with that sublime, important 
truth. Then alter that, what would be the next most important thing? 
Would it not be to leach man his moral duty? His relationship to God 
and to the Savior having been fixed by the first revelation, what next? 
Why, the ethics of ihe gospel of Christ, the moral law, which is to take 
the place of the old Mosaic law — confessedly inferior to the Gospel Jaw, 
being but the "schc. Imaster" to bring Israel to the Christ. Christian 
principles, then, for light living was what Messiah imparted to the 


Nephites after his relationship to them was settled. And so Messiah 
starts out with the same doctrine that he taught upon the mount 
There are not wanting respectable Christian authorities for the assertion, 
that that discourse called the sermon on the mount was not a single 
discourse, but that into it was crowded from the recollection of the 
apostles all the great ethical truths that Jesus had taught from time to 
time, and that here they are grouped together and appear as one dis- 
course. Moreover, the Savior declared to the Nephites while he was yet 
with them that these truths which he had been teaching them were the 
same that he had taught in Judea. "Behold," said he, in the course of 
his explanations, "ye have heard the things which I have taught before 
I ascended unto my Father." (Defense of the Faith and the Saints, pp. 

* To the Teacher: It is suggested that you make the appointment at 
this lesson for Lesson XXX — a discourse on "The Greatness and Influ- 
ence of the Meridian Dispensation." One or more speakers may be 
appointed, and an effort should be made to give the subject a masterly 
treatment. It could also be made the occasion of a review of the eight 
lessons devoted to the theme, which may be conducted by questions 
after the speakers have concluded. 

On such occasions as these a very fitting thing to do would be to 
invite brethren of other quorums, Elders and High Priests, as also the 
local authorities of the Ward or Stake to witness such exercises. Make 
it a special occasion and put those who are to treat the theme on their 
mettle aud get the best out of them that it is possible for them to give. 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. Among the Jews^ — ^ Pentecost — the Matt, xxviii: 16-20; Marie 

Church at Jerusalem. ^^'i; I6: Acts i: 1-9. Acts 

1. Among the Gentiles: " aSsTxI.^'noL 3 4 

(a) Opening the Door of the Gospel and 5. Also New Testa- 
te the Gentiles by Peter. ment History, (Smith) pp. 

(b) Paul's Labors among the Gen- 426-29, 633-643. 

,M Acts xxii-xxviii. Note 

IL The Apostolic Age. Note 7 and 8; also 

Smith's New Testament 
History and Dictionarise 
heretofore quoted. 


The Acts of the Apostles: The student should regard the whole 
book, "Acts of the Apostles," as the book of first importance in the his- 
tory of the propagation of the Gospel in the Meridian Dispensation. It 
gives an account of the conflicts and conquests of the Gospel from the 
ascension of Messiah to the imprisonment of Paul in the city of Rome 
(33-63 A. D.), a period of sixty years. "It is the earliest manual of 
Church History, and the only one treating of the age of the apostles 
which has come down to us from the first century." (See note Sev- 
enty's Year Book, No. I, p. 85, notes 6, 7.) "True," as remarked by Dr. 
William Smith, "New Testament History," "the Book of Acts contains 
no full account of the acts of the apostles;" for "most of them are 
never mentioned even by name after the list given in the first chapter;" 
and the history of Paul which fills so large a space in the book is not 
brought down to his death." Still, it is the most important book of the 
Apostolic age treating of the Christian origins. 

2. Characteristics of the Acts: "The Acts makes prominent the 
agency of the Holy Spirit. He is referred to by name fifty times, or 
more frequently than in all the four Gospels together. The promise of 
the Spirit was emphasized by Christ just before his ascension. (1: 5, 8.) 
He descended in tongues of fire on the day of Pentecost (2: 1-13). Early 
believers (4: 31) and preachers, like Stephen (6: 5) and Barnabas, were 
'filled with the Holy Spirit,' and the Apostles were sent forth to their 
work (13: 4), or the elders appointed by Him (20: 28). It is a book of 
beginnings. The Holy Spirit begins his new and promised activity; the 
Apostles inaugurate their labors; churches are founded in many cities. 
******* rpj^g ^j,^g .g eminently a hopeful book. It is the book of 


Joshua among the books of the New Testament, fresh as with the life of 
Spring. Old terms acquire a new significance, like 'believer,' 'brother' 
(9: 17), 'the Way' (19: 9), etc. There is no cant. Christianity goes forth 
conquering and to conquer, and the world is the heritage of Christ. It 
dwells much upon the resurrection, and looks forward with expectancy to 
the Second Coming. It is animate with the spirit of joy. In this respect, 
the Acts is set in the same major key as the Gospel of Luke. Confident 
of the presence of the Master and conscious of the power of salvation, 
rhe Apostles even rejoice that they were counted worthy to suffer for 
him (5: 41). The tidings which they preach, like those the angels 
brought, are 'good tidings' (13: 32). Paul and Silas sang in prison (16: 
25), and the acceptance of the Gospel is everywhere attended with great 
joy'(8: 39; 13: 52; 15: 3; 16: 34, etc.). It is a book of missionary activity. 
Intensity of purpose and effort pulsates through it. It has no morbid 
tone. Much stress is laid upon the eflRcacy of Christ's death, but only 
the deaths of Stephen and James are mentioned, and the deaths of 
Paul and Peter are entirely passed over. This silence * * * * indicates 
that it matters everything how a Christian lives; little how he dies. 
Christianity advances with a steady and rapid progress from Jerusalem 
to Antioch, Antioch to Corinth, and Corinth to Rome. There are refer- 
ences to the numbers of the believers (2: 40; 4: 4), and constant state- 
ments that they were increasing rapidly (2: 47; 5: 14; G: 7; 12: 24; 16: 
5). Besides the more formal notices, there are incidental allusions to 
the churches in Samaria and Phoenicia (15: 3), Syria and Cilicia (15: 23), 
Troas (20: 6, 7), Tyre and Ptolemais (21: 1-7), and other cities. The 
book is the missionary's best companion on the frontier and in foreign 
lands. The Acts is animated with the universal aims of the Gospel. It 
has a Gentile ring. Palestine was only the birthplace of Christianity, 
not its exhaustive theatre. Peter catches this tone in his speech on 
the day of Pentecost (2: 39), whose various tongues were themselves a 
type, and witnesses a figurative representation of it in the vision on 
the housetop of Joppa. Stephen's eye takes in this larger horizon, and 
Paul, who uttered the significant words in Antioch of Pisidia, 'Lo, we 
turn' to the Gentiles' (13: 46), looks out to Rome itself when he insists, 
'I must also see Rome' (19: 31; 20: 22). The motto of the Acts is the 
command of the ascending Savious, 'to the uttermost part of the earth' 
(1: 8), and continues to be the motto of the Church. The Acts of the 
Apostles is not yet a closed book." (The Acts of the Apostles, by J. S. 
Howson and H. D. M. Spence, p. xix and xx. International Commentary. 

3. The Gospel Taken to the Gentiles: The Apostles, being Jews 
themselves, appear to have shared the common prejudices of their race 
against the Gentiles; and treated them for a time as if they had no lot 
nor part in the gospel of Christ. It was not the design of the Lord, how- 
ever, to thus restrict the application of the gospel. Jesus, himself, while 
he had said that he was "sent but to the lost sheep of the house of 
Israel," had also said: "And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw 
all men unto me;" and the commission of the risen Christ to the Apostlfes 
sent them to "all nations." (Matt, xxviii: 19; Acts i: 8.) Hence, when 
Cornelius of Caesarea, a devout man, one that feared God, though a 
Gentile, sought the Lord by prayer and good works, he found him; for 
an angel was sent to Cornelius, who told him his prayers and alms were 
accepted of God, and that he had come to direct him to send men to 
Joppa for Simon Peter, who would be able to tell him what he ought to 


do. The devout Gentile immediately started the messengers to find 
the Apostle. Meantime Peter himself was prepared by a vision to go 
with the gospel unto one whom both he and all his race regarded as 
unclean. In vision he thought he beheld a great net let down from 
heaven, filled with all manner of four-footed beasts, fowls of the air, and 
creeping things. And a voice said to him, "Rise, Peter, kill and eat." 
"Not so. Lord," was his reply, "for I have never eaten anything that was 
common or unclean." "What God hath cleansed," said the voice, 
"that call not thou common or unclean." This was done 
thrice, and as he was yet pondering what the vision could mean, the mes- 
sengers of Cornelius were at the gate enquiring for him; and he was 
commanded by the Spirit to go with them, doubting nothing, for God had 
sent them. Peter was obedient to the inspired commandment, and went 
to the house of Cornelius, where he found many of the devout Gentile's 
friends and kinsmen gathered together in anticipation of his coming. 
Cornelius having informed the apostle how he came to send for him, 
Peter exclaimed: "Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of per- 
sons; but in every nation he that feareth him and worketh righteous- 
ness is accepted with him." He then proceeded to preach the gospel to 
Cornelius and all present. As he did so the Holy Ghost fell upon them, 
to the astonishment of all the Jews who had accompanied Peter; for 
they heard them speak in new tongues and magnify God. Cornelius and 
his friends were baptized and thus the door of the gospel was opened 
to the Gentiles. (Outlines Ecclesiastical History, pp. 81, 2.) 

4. Peter's Mission to the Gentiles: "This event was the crown and 
consummation of Peter's ministry. He, who had first preached the 
resurrection to the Jews, baptized the first converts, and confirmed the 
Samaritans, now, without the advice or co-operation of any of his col- 
leogues, under direct communication from heaven, first threw down the 
barrier which separated proselytes of the gate from Israelites; first es- 
tablished principles which issued in the complete fusion of the Hebrew 
and Gentile elements in the Church. The narrative of this event, which 
stands alone in minute circumstantiality of incidents and accumulation of 
supernatural agency, is twice recorded by St. Luke. The chief points 
to be recorded are, first, the peculiar fitness of Cornelius, both as a 
representative of Roman force and nationality, and a devout and liberal 
worshiper, to be a recipient of such privileges; and, secondly, the state 
of the apostle's own mind. "Whatever may have been his hopes or fears 
touching the heathen, the idea had certainly not yet crossed him that 
they could be come Christians without first becoming Jews. As a loyal 
and believing Hebi-ew, he could not contemplate the removal of Gentile 
disqualifications without a distinct assurance that those enactments of 
the Law which concerned them were abrogated by a divine legislator. 
The vision could not, therefore, have been the product of a subjective 
impression; it was strictly objective, presented to his mind by an ex- 
ternal influence. Yet the will of the Apostle was not controlled; it was 
simply enlightened. The intimation in the state of trance did not at 
once overcome his reluctance. It was not until his consciousness was 
fully restored and he had well considered the meaning of the vision, that 
he learned that the distinction of cleanness and uncleanness in outward 
things belonged to a temporary dispensation. It was no mere acquies 


cence in a positive command, but the development of a spirit full of 
generous impulses, which found utterance in the words spoken by Peter 
on that occasion, both in presence of Cornelius and afterward at Jerusa- 
lem." (Dr. Smith's New Testament History, pp. 428-9.) 

5. Rapid Growth of the Work: The knowledge once established in 
the minds of the Apostles that God granted to the Gentiles repentance 
unto life, seemed to unshackle those who were to preach the gospel, and 
gave a broader meaning in their minds to their commission to "Go unto 
all the world and preach the gospel unto every creature." Evidently be- 
fore this they did not comprehend it in its fullest sense. The Apostles 
appear to have remained in Jerusalem a number of years — twelve years, 
tradition says — presiding over the Church and directing the labors of 
those preaching the gospel. Churches, or, more correctly speaking, 
branches of the Church were built up in Antioch, Damascus and other 
cities of Syria. The work also spread into Asia Minor, Greece and Rome; 
and everywhere great success attended the preaching of the elders, until 
the gospel was firmly established in various parts of the Gentile world. 
So extensive was the preaching of the ambassadors of Christ in those 
early days of the Church that we have Paul saying (about thirty years 
after the ascension of Messiah) that it had been "preached to every 
creature under heaven." (Outlines Ecclesiastical History, p. 83.) 

6. Personal Appearance and Character of Paul: "We have no very 
trustworthy source of information as to the personal appearance of St. 
Paul. Those which we have are referred to and quoted in Conybeare and 
Howson. (Vol. i, ch. vii. end.) They are the early pictures and mosaics 
described by Mrs. Jameson, and passages from Malalas, Nicephorus, and 
the apocryphal Acta Pauli et Theclae. They all agree in ascribing to the 
Apostle a short stature, a long face with high forehead, an aquiline nose, 
close and prominent eyebrows. Other characteristics mentioned are bald- 
ness, grey eyes, a clear complexion, and a winning expression. Of his 
temperament and character, St. Paul is himself the best painter. His 
speeches and letters convey to us, as we read them, the truest impres- 
sions of those qualities which helped to make him The Great Apostle. 
We perceive the warmth and ardor of his nature, his deeply affectionate 
disposition, the tenderness of his sense of honor, the courtesy and per- 
sonal dignity of his bearing, his perfect fearlessness, his heroic endur- 
ance; we perceive the rare combination of subtlety, tenacity and versa- 
titlity in his intellect; we perceive also a practical wisdom which we 
should have associated with a cooler temperament, and a tolerance 
which is seldom united with such impetuous convictions. And the prin- 
ciple which harmonized all these endowments and directed them to a 
practical end was, beyond dispute, a knowledge of Jesus Christ in the 
Divine Spirit. Personal allegiance to Christ as to a living Master, with 
a growing insight into the relation of Christ to each man and to the 
world, carried the Apostle forward on a straight course through every 
vicissitude of personal fortunes and amid the various habits of thought 


which he had to encounter. The conviction that he had been entrusted 
with a Gospel concerning a Lord and Deliverer of men was what sus- 
tained him and purified his love for his own people, while it created in 
him such a love for mankind that he only knew himself as a servant of 
others for Christ's sake." (Dr. Smith's New Testament History, p. 633.) 

7. The Apostolic Age: The Apostolic Age naturally falls into three 
periods: (1) The time when the labors of the Apostles were confined 
to Jerusalem; (2) the time during which their ministrations were per- 
formed in all of Palestine, and (3) the time when they "went into all the 
world" (the Roman Empire) in obedience to the Saviour's behest (Matt, 
xxviii: 16-20; Mark 16: 15). ****** * There is scarcely a movement, 
religious or otherwise, in the history of the world which can be com- 
pared, in quickness of development, with the first thirty years of the 
spread of Christianity. Up to the year 33 A. D. the name of Christ had 
scarcely been heard outside of a region no greater than one of the larger 
counties of Utah; over all the civilized world beside, paganism and 
Judaism held undisputed sway. Yet, by the year 63 A. D., through the 
octive zeal of our Lord's followers, His name and the doctrines He came 
to establish had spread over Syria, Asia Minor, Arabia, Greece, Italy, and, 
we doubt not, some regions farther west. The Christians, as the followers 
of Jesus were called in derision first in Antioch (Acts 11: 26), were 
everywhere known, and everywhere spoken evil against. Opposed by 
the combined forces of the two widely accepted religions above men- 
tioned, the Gospel of Christ had spread "to the ends of the eorth," and 
had been accepted by Jews and pagans everywhere." (Y. M. M. I. Manual, 

8. State of the Church at Close of Apostolic Age: "At the close of 
the first century, the Church was in a sadly demoralized condition. Ac- 
cording to our best authorities, all the Apostles but John were dead, no 
attempt (for any great length of time, apaprently) having been made to 
maintain the quorum. If so important a body was allowed to become 
extinct, there is no reasonable doubt that other quorums fell into decay 
and that the Church organization lost its original identity. With the 
disorganization of the quorums of Priesthood there was an opportunity for 
the predicted rise of false teachers, under whom occurred changes in the 
ordinances of the Gospel. These changes afterward increased materially, 
until, in connection with the loss of true and the usurpation of false 
authority, they produced a complete change both in the organization and 
the ordinances of the Church. Persecution and internal corruption and 
dissension had also done their work, until at the close of the century, 
when John wrote his Epistles and the Revelation, but few of the branches 
of the Church retained enough of their identity and faithfulness to be 
recognized by him. The deplorable condition of the Church can well 
be gathered from the warnings and threats given to the saints at 
Ephesus in the second chapter of Revelation. A full discussion of this 
subject will be found in Roberts' New Witnesses for God, chapters 2-7. 
From the evidences there presented, it cannot be doubted that at the close 
of the first century the high authority of the Church had fallen into decay, 
and the Apostolic Age was at an end." 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. Questions Respecting the Meridian The Authorities quote.i 

Dispensation and the Dispensation in tiie notes are all the Rcf- 

of the Fullness of Times Considered, erences the Editor and 

1. The Largeness and Glory of the Compiler has to offer in 

11 T • T -TV i- I--- this Lesson. 

Meridian Dispensation, k^'^ 

2. Identity of the Meridian Dispensa- 
tion and the Dispensation of the Full- 
ness of Times Considered. '* 

(a) Joel's Prophecy of the Dispensa- 
tion of the Last Days Considered. 
1. The Greatness of the Dispensation of the Meridian of Time: With 
the period between Moses and John the Baptist spanned, we come to the 
Dispensation of the Meridian of Time. This dispensation begins with the 
preaching of John the Baptist in the wilderness. It was made glorious 
by the personal ministry of Jesus of Nazareth, the Son of God; by His 
suffering and death, for the redemption of mankind; by His glorious 
resurrection from the dead; by His subsequent ministry among His fol- 
lowers, and His final ascension into heaven to the throne of His Father; 
by the faithful ministry of His Apostles, by whom the good tidings of 
man's salvation were published to the world; by the establishment of the 
Church as an agency through which the Gospel was to be more widely 
proclaimed, and those who accepted the Gospel more thoroughly in- 
structed in its doctrines, guarded from error, and finally perfected in the 
Christian life. An inspired volume of Scripture, the New Testament, was 
also brought into existence, from the teachings of the inspired Apostles, 
in which the great fundamental truths of the Gospel were embodied and 
cast in a form that would be enduring, and to which men could appeal 
through all the ages to come, as an authoritative statement, not only of 
what Jesus said and what He did, but also a statement of what doctrines 
are to be believed; what precepts to be practiced; what ordinances to 
be observed. By thus embodying the chief doctrines of Christ in a 
volume of Scripture that should live forever, and be published in all 
the languages of the world, provision was made for such a dissemination 
of the knowledge of God, that the world would never again be wholly 
without that knowledge; and though the Church might become cor- 


rupted, as it afterwards did; though men ambitious of distinction and 
power might usurp authority and establish churches in which they 
taught for doctrines the commandments of men, as they certainly did; 
still in this volume of Scripture men henceforth would have at hand a 
standard of truth by which to test the utterances of would-be teachers, 
while at the same time it would keep above the horizon of a world's 
knowledge the great truths of the Gospel — the existence and character 
of God; the manifestation of Him through the person and character of 
Jesus of Nazareth; the relationship existing between God and man; 
the fall of man, and the redemption provided for him in the atonement 
of Jesus Christ. All this was achieved in the Dispensation of the 
Meridian of Time; a mighty work accomplished by the Son of God and 
His associates; a work sealed not only by the blood of Jesus Christ, but 
by the blood also of many faithful witnesses, which shall make their 
testimony of force in the world. 

2. The identity of the Dispensation of the IVIeridian of Time and the 
Dispensation of the Fullness of Times Considered: Owing to the phrase- 
ology of certain passages of Scriptui'e, making reference to the coming 
of Messiah in the flesh, and to the work of God in those days, the Dis- 
pensation of the Meridian of Time is mistaken for the Dispensation of 
the Fullness of Times. In Mark's Gospel, for instance, John the Baptist 
is represented as saying, "The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of 
God is at hand: repent ye, and believe the Gospel."* The words in 
black type are usually understood to make reference to the Dispensation 
of the Fullness of Times. Again it is written: "But when the fullness 
of the time was come, Gk)d sent forth His Son, made of a woman, made 
under the law, to redeem them that were under the law."j The words, 
"when the fullness of the time was come," are supposed to refer to the 
Dispensation of the Fullness of Times. Other passages of Scripture 
referring to the days of Messiah's personal ministry among men in the 
flesh, speak of them as the "last days." Paul, in the opening sentence 
of his letter to the Hebrews, does this: "God, who at sundry times and in 
divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, hath 
in these last days spoken unto us by His Son, whom He hath appointed 
heir of all things." j; So St. John, in addressing the Saints in his day: 
"Little children, it is the lost time: and as ye have heard that anti- 
Christ shall come, even now are there many anti-Christs; whereby we 
know that it is the last time."§ These, with two other special pas-\ 
sages of Scripture, to be separately considered, constitute the authority 
upon which the Meridian Dispensation is confounded with the Dispenr 
sation of the Fullness of Times. And yet all these passages are sus- 
ceptible of quite a different and more natural rendering. Without con- 
troversy it will be conceded that the Lord had an appointed time for 

*Mark i: 15. 
fGal. iv: 4, 
tHeb. i: 1, 2. 
§John U: 18. 


His Son Jesus to come to earth in the flesh and perform the mission 
that had been assigned Him; to suffer; to die; to arise again from the 
dead. And when the fullness of this time was come, God indeed sent 
forth His Son into the world. As for those inspired writers who speak 
of the "last days," and the "last times" — they speak relatively; that 
is. with reference to former days and times; and, of course, the days 
and times in which they lived to them were the last days, and the last 
times; but they were not the last days of the earth's temporal existence; 
they were not the last days in any general sense at all, as there have 
been now some two thousand years of days since then. They were not 
the "last days" that are understood as immediately preceding the glorious 
coming of the Son of God. 

3. Joel's Great Prophecy of the Dispensation of the Last Days: Of 
the special passages before referred to, and which I said would receive 
separate consideration, the first is Peter's quotation from the Prophet 
Joel, concerning the outpouring of the Spirit of God upon "all flesh in the 
last days." This quotation from Joel is regarded as identifying the 
days in which the Apostle was speaking, as "the last days;" and the 
dispensation in which he was living as the Dispensation of the Last 
Days and of the Fullness of Times. The conditions existing when Peter 
was speaking, and the prophecy of Joel, however, admit of no such 
interpretation. The circumstances were as follows: The Holy Ghost 
in an extraordinary manner rested upon the Apostles and gave them the 
power of speaking in other languages than those they had learned. Some 
in the listening multitude attributed this singular manifestation to drunk- 
enness, whereupon the Apostle Peter arose and refuted the slander, say- 
ing: "These are not drunken, as ye suppose, seeing it is but the third 
hour of the day. But this is that which was spoken by the Prophet Joel; 
and it shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out of 
my Spirit upon all flesh: and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, 
and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream 
dreams: and on my servants and on my handmaidens I will pour out in 
those days of my Spirit; and they shall prophesy; and I will show won- 
ders in heaven above, and signs in the earth beneath; blood, and fire, and 
vapor of smoke: the sun shall be turned into darkness and the moon into 
blood, before that great and notable day of the Lord come: and it shall 
come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be 
saved."* "For," to finish the passage as it stands in Joel, but which is 
not in Peter's quotation, "for in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem shall be 
deliverance, as the Lord hath said, and in the remnant whom the Lord 
shall call."f 

Because Peter, referring to the Spirit that was then resting upon the 
Twelve Apostles, said, "this is that which was spoken by the Prophet 
Joel," etc., the verj^ general opinion prevails that Joel's prophecy was 

•Acts ii: 15, 21. 
f Joel it: 28-32. 


then fulfilled; and hence the last days were come. This is an entire mis- 
apprehension of the purpose o*' Peter in making the quotation; as also 
of the quoted passage itself. Beyond all controversy, Peter meant only: 
This Spirit which you now see resting upon these Apostles of Jesus of 
Nazareth is that same Spirit which your Prophet Joel says will, in the 
last days, be poured out upon all flesh. Obviously he did not mean 
that this occasion of the Apostles receiving the Holy Ghost was a com- 
plete fulfillment of Joel's prediction. To insist upon such an exegesis 
would be to charge the chief of the Apostles with palpable ignorance 
of the meaning of Joel's prophecy. On the occasion in question the 
Holy Ghost was poured out upon the Twelve Apostles, who were given 
the power to speak in various tongues; Joel's prophecy for its complete 
fulfillment requires that the Spirit of the Lord, the Holy Ghost, shall 
be poured out upon all flesh; and undoubtedly refers to that time which 
shall come in the blessed millenium, when the enmity shall not only 
cease between man and man, but even between the beasts of the forests 
and of the fields; and between man and beast, as described by Isaiah in 
the following language: 

"The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie 
down with the kid; and the calf, and the young lion, and the fatling 
together; and a little child shall lead them. And the cow and the bear 
shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together; and the lion shall 
eat straw like the ox. And the suckling child shall play on the hole of 
the asp; and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrices' den. 
They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain: for the earth 
shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea."* 
Compare these conditions so vividly described with what Joel himself 
says of the period when the Spirit of the Lord shall be poured out upon 
all flesh, and it will at once be clear that the two Prophets are dealing 
with the same period, and not only dealing with the same period, but 
that the period itself is certainly far beyond in time the days of Peter; 
in fact, is still in the future; for the sum has not yet been turned into 
blackness; nor the moon into blood; nor have the stars withdrawn their 
shining. It is obvious that the events upon the day of Pentecost did not 
fulfill the terms of this prophecy, except in those particulars already 
pointed out. The mention in this prophecy, however, of those special 
signs which Jesus refers to as immediately preceding His own second 
and glorious coming, clearly demonstrates that Joel was speaking of the 
last days indeed, and not of a circumstance that occurred in connection 
with a period more properly designated as the Dispensation of the Me- 
ridian of Time. Immediately following his prediction of the outpouring 
of God's Spirit upon all flesh, Joel represents the Lord as saying: "And 
I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood, and fire, and 
pillars of smoke. The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon 
into blood, before the great and the terrible day of the Lord come." And 
later: "The sun and the moon shall be darkened, and the stars shall with- 

*Isaiah xi: 6-9. 


draw their shining. The Lx)rd also shall roar out of Zion, and utter His 
voice from Jerusalem; and the heavens and the earth shall shake: but 
the Lord will be the hope of His people, and the strength of the children 
of Israel." 

Compare this with the Saviour's description of conditions in the earth 
that will precede His own second coming: 

"Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be 
darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall 
fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken: and 
then shall appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven: and then shall 
all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of Man 
coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And He 
shall send His angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall 
gather together His elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven 
to the other."* z 

The same wonders in heaven and earth; the same changes in sun, 
and moon, and stars; the same promises of the gathering of God's people 
as are found in the prophecy of Joel. There can be no question, then, 
but that the prophecy of Joel refers to the same "last days" that Jesus 
here alludes to — the days of the coming of the Son of Man — and not to 
the days of Peter and the other Apostles in the meridian of time. 

The sum of the matter then is, that Peter was not living in the "last 
days;" that the prophecy of Joel was not in its entirety fulfilled in the 
outpouring of God's Spirit upon the Apostles on the day of Pentecost; 
that at no time subsequent to the days of the Apostles has there existed 
such conditions in the earth as amount to a complete fulfillment of Joel's 
prophecy; therefore in some time future from the days of the Apostles 
we may look forward to a universal outpouring of God's Holy Spirit 
upon all flesh, resulting in a universal peace and wide-spread knowledge 
of God, brought about, unquestionably, by a subsequent dispensation 
from that in which Peter wrought — the Dispensation of the Fullness of 
Times, in which God promises to "gather together in one all things in 
Christ, both which are in heaven and which are on earth; even in Him."* 

*Matt. xxiv: 29-31. 
fEph. i: 10. 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I, Questions Respecting the Meridian Dis- „, ... 

pensation and the Dispensation of i.lL'ottr'a'n rS 

the Fullness of Times Considered. erences the Editor and 

II. Daniel's Prophecy of the Rise of the Compiler has to offer in 

Kingdom of God in the Last Days. ^^'^ i^«^«^°"- 


1. Daniel's Prophecy of tlie Rise of the Kingdom of God in the Last 
Days: The second special Scripture to which I have promised a separate 
consideration is the prophecy of Daniel relative to the succession of the 
great earth empires; and the final establishment of the Kingdom of 
God, which in "the last days" shall fill the whole earth and remain for- 
ever. By an error on the part of Christian writers, Daniel's prophecy 
concerning the Kingdom of God to be set up in "the last days" is sup- 
posed to have been fulfilled by the founding of "The spiritual kingdom 
of Christ" in the days of Messiah's earthly ministry; and therefore the 
conclusion is drawn that those days were "the last days," and the dispen- 
sation then ushered in, the final dispensation of the Gospel. It is my 
purpose here to refute that error. 

The prophecy in question is familiar, and comes from Daniel's inter- 
pretation of the king of Babylon's dream of the great image, whose 
"brightness was excellent, whose form' was terrible." The head of the 
image was of gold; his breast and arms were of silver; the body and 
thighs of brass; the legs of iron; and the feet and the toes part of iron 
and part of clay. The king in his dream also saw a little stone cut out of 
the mountain without hands, that smote the image upon the feet of mixed 
clay and iron, and broke it to pieces — until it became like the chaff of the 
summer thrashing floor, and the wind of heaven carried it away, that no 
place was found for it; but the little stone cut from the mountain with- 
out hands, which smote the image on the feet and ground it to dust, 
became a great mountain and filled the whole earth. This is the dream; 
and this the prophet's interpretation, addressed to the king of Babylon: 

"Thou, O king, art a king of kings: for the God of heaven hath 
given thee a kingdom, power, and strength, and glory. And whereso- 
ever the children of men dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls of 
the heaven, hath he given into thine hand, and hath made thee ruler 
over them all. Thou art this head of gold. And after thee shall rise 


another kingdom inferior to thee, and another third kingdom of brass, 
which shall bear rule over all the earth. And the fourth kingdom shall 
be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all 
things: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and 
bruise. And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters' clay, 
and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be in it 
of the strength of iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with 
miry clay. And as the toes of the feet were part of iron, and part of clay, 
so the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken. And whereas 
thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with 
the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron 
is not mixed with clay. And in the days of these kings shall the God of 
heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the king- 
dom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and con- 
sume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand forever. Forasmuch as thou 
sawest that the stone was cut out of the mountain without hands,, and that 
it brake in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold, 
the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass 
hereafter: and the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure."* 

As understood by the learned, Daniel's interpretation stands thus: 

"(1) The Golden Head — The Assyrio-Babylonish monarchy (the 6th 
and 5th century B. C); 

"(2) The Silver Breast and Arms — The Medo-Persian empire (from 
538 B. C. to about 330 B. C.) ; 

"(3) The Brazen Belly and Thighs — The Greco-Macedonian kingdom, 
especially after Alexander, those of Egypt and Syria (from about 330 
B. C. to 160 B. C); 

"(4) The Legs of Iron, the power of Rome, bestriding the east and 
west, but broken into a number of states, the ten toes, which retained 
some of its warlike strength (the iron), mingled with elements of weak- 
ness (the soft potters' clay), which rendered the whole imperial structure 

"(5) The Stone cut without hands out of the Living Rock, dashing 
down the image, becoming a great mountain, and filling all the earth — 
The Spiritual Kingdom of Christ." 

The last phrase — "The Spiritual Kingdom of Christ" — meaning, of 
course, the "Christian churches" which have existed from the time of 
Christ, and thai now exist, and which, taken together, form Christ's 
spiritual kingdom. 

On the foregoing exegesis, which is the one commonly accepted by 
orthodox Christians, I make the following several observations: 

First: The phrase with reference to the little Stone, "cut out of the 
Living Rock," is one introduced by Dr. Smith, from whose "Old Testa- 
ment History"! the above analysis of Daniel's interpretation is taken. 
The language of the Bible is, "cut out of the mountain without hands." 
Why it is changed by the Doctor one may not conjecture, unless it is 
to lay the foundation of an argument not warranted by the text of Daniel's 
Interpretation. It is enough here to note that the change in phraseology 
Is wholly gratuitous and unwarranted. 

*Dan. ii: 37-45. 

f Edition of 1878, page 622. 


Second:. The claim that the "little Stone cut from the mountain 
without hands," is the "Spiritual Kingdom of Clirist" — if bj^ that "spiritual 
kingdom" is meant not a real kingdom, actually existing, visible and 
tangible — is an assumption of the Dostor's. It is not the language of the 
Bible, nor is there any evidence in Scripture for believing that "the king- 
dom," represented by "the stone cut out of the mountain without hands," 
is any less a material kingdom than those which preceded it. The dif- 
ferences between this kingdom of God and the other kingdoms of the 
vision are not in the kingdom being "spiritual," but in these: (1) That 
the kingdom which God shall set up will never be destroyed; (2) never 
left to another people; (3) will break in pieces and consume all other 
kingdoms; (4) it shall fill the whole earth; (5) and stand forever. We 
are warranted in the belief, however, that it will be a tangible, bona fide 
government of God on earth, consisting of a king; subordinate officers: 
laws; subjects; and the whole earth for its territory — for its dominion. 
The coming forth of such a government, the founding of such a kingdom, 
is in harmony with all the hopes of all the saints, and the predictions of 
all the prophets who have touched upon the subject. It is the actual 
reign of Christ on earth with His Saints, in fulfillment of the hopes held 
out to them in every dispensation of the Gospel. It is to be the burden 
of the song of the redeemed out of every kindred, and tongue, and 
people, and nation, that Christ has made them unto their God kings and 
priests — "and we shall reign on the earth."* It is to be the chorus in 
heaven — the kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our 
Lord, and of His Christ; and He shall reign for ever and ever."t And 
the elders in heaven shall say: 

"We give Thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast, 
and art to come; because thou hast taken to Thee Thy great power, and 
hast reigned. And the nations were angry, and Thy wrath is come, and 
the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that Thou shouldst 
give reward unto Thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them 
that fear Thy name, small and great; and shouldst destroy them which 
destroy the earth."j; 

And still again: 

"Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection: on 
such the second death hath no power, but they shall be priests of God 
and of Christ, and shall reign with Him a thousand years." § 

It should be observed respecting the last passage and the one preced- 
ing it, that "the reign on earth" of the kingdom of God is connected with 
the resurrection of the righteous saints; so that it will be in the "last 
days" indeed — not in the days of the Roman empire. And this reign of 
the saints on earth, this kingdom of God which they shall constitute, 
shall be a reign of righteousness, but a veritable kingdom nevertheless. 

Third:. The orthodox exegesis under consideration omits one import- 

*Rev. v: 10. 
fRev. xi: 15. 
Jlbid. xl: 17, 18. 
|lbid. xx: 6. 


ant matter of fact, viz., that instead of four great dominant political 
powers symbolized in the image which Nebuchadnezzar saw, and which 
Daniel interpreted, there are five, viz.: (1) The Head of Gold— Baby- 
lonish kingdom; (2) the Chest and Arms of Silver — the Medo-Persian 
monarchy; (3) the Brazen Belly and Thighs — the Greco-Macedonian em- 
pire; (4) the Legs of Iron — Rome; (5) the Feet and Toes mixed of iron 
and clay — the modern kingdoms and states of the world. 

This failure to recognize the fifth political power represented by the 
feet and toes of Daniel's image leads to serious errors with respect to 
this prophecy. It has led the theologians to assign the setting up of 
God's kingdom spoken of In the prophecy to the wrong period of the 
world's history. They say the kingdom represented by the stone cut 
from the mountain without hands is "the spiritual kingdom of Christ;" 
and that the said kingdom was set up in the days of Messiah's earthly 
ministry in the m.eridian of time. This, however, cannot be correct; for 
the Church which Jesus established by His personal ministry and which, 
it is granted, is sometimes spoken of as the Kingdom of God, was founded 
In the days of the Roman empire, the fourth world power of Daniel's 
prophecy; and at a time, too, when imperial Rome was at the very zenith 
of her glory and power. Whereas the terms of Daniel's prophecy require 
that the kingdom which God shall establish, and which was represented 
by the stone cut from th emountain without hands, shall be set up in the 
days of the fifth political world power — in the days of the kingdoms repre- 
sented by the pieces of iron and clay in the feet and toes of the image. 
The language of the prophecy on this point is: "And whereas thou sawest 
the feet and toes, part of potters' clay, and part of iron, the kingdom (i. e., 
the political power so represented, and that succeeds the fourth power or 
Roman empire) shall be divided; but there shall be in it the strength of 
the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay. And 
as the toes of the feet were part of iron, and part of clay, * * * * they 
(i. e., the kingdoms represented by the pieces of iron and clay) shall 
mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to 
another, even as iron is not mixed with clay. And in the days of 
these kings (not in the days of the Roman empire) — in the days of these 
kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be 

Fourth: One of the peculiarities of the kingdom of God of Daniel's 
prophecy is, that when it is established among men it will not only 
never be destroyed, but "the kingdom shall not be left to other people." 
By which saying we can only conclude that when the kingdom of God 
shall be set up by the Lord in the last days, it will not be taken from 
the people to whom it shall come, and be given to, or left, to anothei- 
people. But how stands it with the institution which arose from the 
preaching of the Gospel in the days of Messiah's earthly ministry, the 
church, sometimes called the kingdom of God, and the kingdom of 
heaven? Was it not "left to other people?" Messiah Himself said of 


the Jews, "Therefore say I unto you. the kingdom of God shall be taken 
from you and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof." This 
passage comes, too, as a conclusion to the parable of the householder 
who let both his house and his vineyard to unworthy husbandmen, who 
successively beat, stoned, and slew the servants, and even the son and 
heir whom the master sent to collect his portion of the fruit of the 
vineyard. "When the Lord of the vineyard cometh, what will he do 
unto those husbandmen?" asked Jesus of His hearers. "He will mis- 
erably destroy these wicked men," they replied, "and will let out his 
vineyard to other husbandmen, which shall render him the fruits in 
their season." They had pronounced judgment upon themselves. The 
parable presented the case of the Jews to whom Jesus was speaking, 
exactly, and Jesus quickly made the application of the judgment — 
"Therefore say I unto you, The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, 
and given unto a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof." There can be 
no mistaking the meaning of the parable or its application; and some 
years later we have Paul saying to the contradicting and blaspheming 
Jews of Aatioch in Pisidia: "It was necessary that the word of God 
should first have been spoken to you; but seeing ye put it from you, and 
judge yourself unworthy of everlasting life, lo, we turn to the Gentiles. 
For so hath the Lord commanded us."* And so it came to pass that as 
Israel in those days rejected the Gospel of the kingdom which was first 
offered to them, so God also rejected them; and they have stood rejected 
to this day; smitten and trodden under foot of the Gentile races, a scoff, 
a hiss, and a byword in every land that they have inhabited; while the 
kingdom of God first offered to them was left to other people, to the Gen- 
tiles, who, for a season, brought forth the fruits thereof. But the fact 
that the kingdom then preached to the Jews was taken from them and 
given to another people, is proof positive that it was not the kingdom 
which was to fulfill the terms of Daniel's great prophecy. 

Fifth: Another characteristic of the kingdom of God of Daniel's 
prophecy is, that it will never be destroyed, but will break in pieces and 
consume all other kingdoms, and stand for ever. This is not true of that 
institution brought into existence by the preaching of Messiah and the 
Apostles, sometimes called the kingdom of God, but more properly the 
Church of Christ. Saddening as the thought may seem, the Church 
founded by the labors of Jesus and His Apostles was destroyed from the 
earth; the Gospel was perverted; its ordinances were changed; its laws 
were transgressed; its covenant was, on the part of man, broken; and 
the world was left to flounder in the darkness of a long period of apos- 
tasy from God. For the reason, then, that the institution founded by the 
preaching of the Apostles was destroyed in the earth, as well as for the 
other reasons considered, the conclusion is forced upon the mind that the 
Church founded by Jesus and the Apostles was not the fulfillment of 

iMatt. xxi: 43. 
2Acts xiii: 46, 47. 


Daniel's great prophecy respecting the kingdom which God promised to 
set up in the last days: and hence we may look for another dispensation 
beyond the times of the Apostles, which will culminate in subduing the 
kingdoms of this world and making them the kingdoms of our God and 
His Christ, followed by that reign of righteousness and peace of which all 
the prophets have spoken. 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



(A Discourse.) 


1. Suggestion to the Teacher: See foot note in Lesson XXH, Note 1. 

2. Suggestion to the Speal<ers: Here is a great theme, and one little 
dwelt upon in the Church, because the ministry and members have been 
absorbed in the later dispensation with which they are immediately con- 
nected. It affords excellent opportunity for truth-grouping, and infinite 
variety in treatment. (See notes in Lesson XVI and XXII). Many fea- 
tures of this great dispensation are untouched by the foregoing lessons, 
because of an enforced brevity necessary from our plan of treatment. 
The "peaker, as far as possible, should develop these omitted features, 
that more knowledge may be imparted to the classes than that given in 
the lessons. No speaker should be content merely to repeat the subject 
matter of the lessons when there is so much left untouched outside of 
them. The lesson affords a scope for large and deep thinking; for wide 
research and masterful expression. Do your very best upon the subject; 
it will be worthy of all the effort you bring to bear upon it. 

3. Of Completing a Plan for a Discourse: The student should review 
what is said on the importance of a plan for a discourse in Lesson XXII. 
On the work of finishing a plan, Mr. Pittinger remarks: "When we have 
accumulated our materials, stricken out all that is unfitted or super- 
fluous, and determined the general character of our discourse, the re- 
mainder of the work of finishing the plan must be left to individual taste 
and judgment. No rules can be given that will meet every case. We 
might direct to put first those statements or arguments which are most 
easily comprehended, and those which are necessary for understanding 
other portions of the discourse, and also whatever is least likely to be 
disputed. Something strong and itnpressive should be held well in re- 
serve. It will not be according to the principles of that highest art which 
is the best mirror of nature if we exhaust interest in the opening and 
then close tamely. Beyond these obvious considerations little help can be 
given to the speaker in this part of his work. He must form his own 
ideal and then work up to it. We do not advise any one to borrow other 
men's outlines for the purpose of filling them up and then speaking from 
them as if the work was original. [That would be excrable!] This is a 
most profitless kind of plagiarism. Such sketches may be useful to the 
very young speaker, merely as indications of the kind of excellence in 


plans or sketches at which he should aim. And when he hears good dis- 
courses he may look beneath the burning words and criticise the merits 
of the framework upon which they rest. This may render him less satis- 
fied with his own plans, but such dissatisfaction ever affords the best 
hope for future success. The true mode of improving your plans is to 
bestow a great deal of time and thought upon them, and to make no dis- 
position of any part for which you cannot give a satisfactory reason. This 
direction relates only to the beginner. In time the formation of plans 
will become so natural that any variation from the most effective arrange- 
ment will be felt as keenly as a discord in music is felt by a master in 
that art. From such carefully constructed plans, firm, coherent, and logi- 
cal discourses will result." (Extempore Speech, Pittinger, pp. 170. 171.) 

Essential Elements of a Plan: "There are certain general character- 
istics that each plan should possess. It must fully indicate the nature of 
the proposed discourse and mark out each of its successive steps with 
accuracy. Any want of definiteness in the outline is a fatal defect. You 
must feel that you can rely absolutely on it for guidance to the end of 
your discourse, or be always in danger of embrassment and confusion. 
Each caluse should express a distinct idea, and but one. This should be 
repeated in no other part of the discourse; otherwise we fall into weari- 
some repetitions, the great vice, as it is often claimed, of extempore 
speakers. A brief plan is better, other things being equal, than a long 
one. Often a single word will recall an idea as perfectly as many sen- 
tences, and it will burden the memory less. We do not expect the draft 
of a house to equal the house in size, but only to preserve a proportionate 
relation to it throughout. The plan cannot supply the thought, but, indi- 
cating what is in the mind, it shows how to bring it forth in regular suc- 
cession. It is a pathway leading to a definite end, and, like all pathways, 
its crowning merits are directness and smoothness. Without these 
qualities it will perplex and hinder rather than aid. Each word in the 
plan should suggest an idea, and be so firmly bound to that idea that the 
two cannot become separated in any exigency of speech. You will find 
it sorely perplexing if, in the heat of discourse, some important note 
should lose the thought for which it previously stood and become an 
empty word. But with clear conceptions condensed into fitting words, 
this cannot easily happen. A familiar idea can be expressed very briefly, 
while a strange or new conception may require more expansion. But all 
thoughts adva'nced by the speaker ought to be familiar to himself as the 
result of long meditation and thorough mastery, no matter how strange 
or startling they are to his hearers. Most skeletons may be brought 
within the compass of a hundred words, and every part be clearly indi- 
cated to the mind that conceived it, though perhaps not to any other." 
(Extempore Speech, Pittinger, pp. 171-2-3.) 


Clearness in Speech: We turn again to the consideration of the 
quality of clearness in speech. In Lesson XXII the fault of ambiguity 
was dealt with to some extent, and here consideration of the same fault 
is renewed. 

"Ambiguity from the Use of Too Many Pronouns: Ambiguity may be 
produced by a too free use of pronouns. A student who wishes to tell 
how Dr. Livesey, of Treasure Island fame, threatened the pirate, Billy 
Bones, writes: 

"The Doctor told him he was a dirty old scamp, and that he was a 
doctor and a magistrate, so that if he ever caught him doing anything 
like that again, he would run him out of the district." 


It lakes time to discover to which man the various pronouns refer. To 
remove the obscurity we shall have to make part of the passage a direct 

Dr. Livesey told Bones that he was a dirty scamp, and warned him 
if he did anything like that again, he would be run out of the district. 
"For," said the Doctor, "I am not only a physician, but a magistrate, too." 

Often when the report of a speech in the third person is ambiguous, 
we must resort to this device of direct quotation. Usually, however, the 
question is merely one of finding nouns to take the place of pronouns. 
By decreasing the number of pronouns, the confused sentence, "Walters 
and Foster didn't agree with them, but thought as we did, and so they 
were forced to give up their intention," becomes the clear one, "Walters 
and Foster didn't agree with their old-time adversaries, but agreed with us, 
and so the latter were forced to give up their intention." In getting rid of 
ambiguous pronouns it may be necessary to repeat a word. When clear- 
ness demands it, the best writers are never afraid to use a word twice. 
The repetition may, by serving as a sort of echo of the previous thought, 
even increase the coherence. So Mr. Bryce writes: 

"Yet, after all, it (the influence of the Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives) is power, power which in the hands of a capable and am- 
bitious man becomes so far-reaching that it is no exaggeration to call 
him the second, if not the first political figure in the United States." — 
(Bryce: American Commonwealth.) 

This device of repetition is used in transforming the incoherent sen- 
tence below into a coherent one. 

Incoherent: This policy is not the best one; it is false, and we know 
it, and shun it accordingly, even if it is not to our interest. 

Coherent: This policy is not the best policy; it is false, we know it 
to be false, and though shunning it is not to our interest, shun it we do. 
(Composition and Rhetoric for Schools, Herrick and Damon, p, 304-5.) 


The Apostatic* Period. 

(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



_ _, PIT-,/-,,.. ^"^ Student will find a 

I. Characters of the Early Christians. Treatise upon the subject 
II. Controversy and dissentions among t^^l^V^I:^ 

the Apostles and Elders. History" as also in his 

III. Schisms-Defections-and Church wide 'yTi.T::^ t i^thl 
Demoralization among the Saints. notes that foUow. 


The Subject Preposed: It now becomes my melancholy task to trace 
through the early Christian centuries the decline of the Christian religion. 
By this phrase I mean that a really unchristian religion was gradually 
substituted for the beautiful religion of Jesus Christ; that a universal 
apostasy from the Christian doctrine and the Christian Church took place. 
So tracing the decline of Christianity, I shall establish the truth of the 
first great message with which the modern prophet, Joseph Smith, came 
to the world; and shall also prove the fact that a necessity existed for 
the establishment of such a work as he claims, under God, to have 
founded, and which will bring us to the culmination of the ages — to the 
completion of all the dispensations of the gospel in the Dispensation of 
the Fullness of Times, in which will be "gathered together in one all 
things in Christ, both which are in heaven and earth, even in him." (Eph. 
i: 10.) 

Character of the Early Christians: First of all, it should be remarked 
that the early Christians were not so far removed from the possession of 
the common weaknesses of humanity as to preclude the possibility of 
apostatizing from the Christian religion. Owing to our being so far re- 
moved from them in time, by which many of their defects are obscured, 
and the exaggerated celebration of their virtues, extravagant ideas of the 
sanctity of their lives and the holiness of their natures has very generally 
obtained; whereas a little inquiry into the character of the early saints 

♦"Apostalc: Pertaining to an apostate or apostasy." — Dictionary. 


will prove that they were very human, and men of like passions with our- 

Ambitious Controversies of the Apostles: The mother of Zebedee's 
children exhibited a rather ambitious spirit, and the two brethren them- 
selves gave much offense to their fellow apostles by aspiring to sit the one 
on the right hand of Jesus and the other on His left when He should come 
into His Kingdom. i Even Peter, the chief Apostle, exhibited his full share 
of human weakness when he thrice denied his Lord in the presence of his 
enemies, through fear, and even confirmed that denial by cursing and 
swearnig.2 It was rather a heated controversy, too, that arose in the 
early Christian Church as to whether those who accepted the Christian 
faith were still bound to the observances of the law of Moses, and more 
especially to the rite of circumcision. Although there seems to have been 
an amicable and authoritative settlement of that question by the decision 
of what some learned writers have called the first general council of the 
Church, held by the Apostles and Elders at Jerusalem, 3 yet the old diffi- 
culty broke out again and again, not only between the Jewish saints 
and the Gentile converts, but even among the Apostles thmeselves, lead- 
ing to serious accusations one against another, the straining of friendship 
between fellow-workmen in the ministry, through criminations and re- 

After the settlement of this very question of circumcision by the 
council at Jerusalem, Peter went down to Antioch and at first mingled 
unreservedly with both Jew and Gentile converts without distinction, 
accepting both Jew and Gentile in perfect fellowship, departing entirely 
from the restraints placed on a Jew by the law of Moses, which rendered 
it unlawful for one who was a Jew to have such unrestricted fellowship 
with the Gentiles. But when certain ones came down from James, who 
resided in Jerusalem, then Peter, fearful of offending "them which were 
of the circumcision," suddenly withdrew his social fellowship from the 
Gentile converts. Other Jewish brethren did the same; Barnabas, the 
friend of Paul, being among the number. Whereupon Paul, as he him- 
self testified, withstood Peter to the face, directly charging him before all 
the brethren with dissimulation, saying: "If thou being a Jew livest after 
the manner of Gentiles and not as do the Jews, why compellest thou the 
Gentiles to live as do the Jews?"4 Yet this same Paul, notwithstanding 
his loyalty to the Gentile converts on that occasion, his zeal for the de- 
cision which had been rendered by the council of the Church at Jerusa- 
lem, and notwithstanding his usually strong moral courage, subsequently 
showed by his conduct that he, too, was not beyond the weakness of "be- 
coming all things to all men;" for a short time after the incident with 

IMatt. XX : 20-24. 
2Matt. xxvi: 69-75. 
3Acts XV. 
4Galatians ii. 


Perer at Antioch, when in the province of Galatia. and he desired Timothy 
to be his companion in the ministry, Paul took him and circumcised him, 
because it was well known that while his mother was a Jewess, his father 
was a Greek, and all this for fear of the Jews. 4 

This question continued to be a cause of contention even after this 
sharp disputation at Antioch; for though the decision of the council at 
Jerusalem was against the contention of the Judaizing party, yet they 
continued to agitate the question whenever opportunity presented itself, 
and seemed especially to follow close upon the footsteps of Paul in his 
missionary journeys; and in Galatia, at least, succeeded in turning the 
eaints of that province from the grace of Chi-ist unto another gospel, per- 
verting the Gospel of Christ.i This question continued to agitate the 
Church throughout the Apostolic Age, and was finally settled through 
overwhelming numbers of Gentiles being converted, and taking possession 
of the Church, rather than through any profound respect for the decision 
of the council at Jerusalem. 

The withdrawal of John Mark from the ministry while accompanying 
Paul and Barnabas on their first mission in Asia Minor, and which with- 
drawal grew out of a faltering of his zeal or a misunderstanding with 
his companions, will be readily called to mind.2 Subsequently, when 
Paul proposed to Barnabas that they go again and visit the brethren in 
every city where they had preached while on their first mission, a sharp 
contention arose between them about this same John Mark. Barnabas 
desired vo take him again into the ministry, but Paul seriously objected; 
and so pronounced was the quarrel between them that these two friends 
and fellow yokemen in the ministry parted company, no more to be 
united. It is just possible, also, that in addition to this misunderstanding 
about John Mark, the severe reproof which Paul administered to Barna- 
bas in the affair of dissimulation at Antioch had somewhat strained their 

Schisms Among the Eearly Christians: Turning from these misunder- 
standings and criminations among the leading officers oi the Church, let 
us inquire how it stood with the members. The Epistle of Paul to the 
church at Corinth discloses the fact that there were serious schisms 
among them; some boasting that they were of Paul, others that they were 
of Apollos, others of Cephas, and still others of Christ; which led Paul to 
ask sharply, "Is Christ divided? Was Paul crucified for you?"3 There 
were endless strifes as well as divisions among them, which caused Paul 
to denounce them as carnally minded.4 Among them also was such for- 
nication as was not named among the Gentiles, "that one should have 
his father's wife!" And this shameful sin had not humbled the church at 

4 Acts xvi: 1-4. 
iGal. i: 6, 7. 
2Acts xiii: 13. 
31 Cor. i: 12, 13. 
41 Cor. ill: 3, 4. 


Corinth, for Paul denounced them for being puffed up in the presence of 
such a crime, rather than having mourned over it.5 They were in the 
habit of going to law one with another, and that before the world, in vio- 
lation of the teachings of Jesus Christ. l They desecrated the ordinances 
of the Lord's Supper by their drunkenness, for which they were sharply 
reproved by the Apostle. 2 They ate and drank unworthily, "not discern- 
ing the Lord's body; for which cause many were sickly among them, and 
many slept" (that is, died). There were heresies also among them, 3 
some denying the resurrection of the dead, while others possessed not 
the knowledge of God, which the Apostle declared was their shame. 4 
It is true, this sharp letter of reproof made the Corinthian saints sorry, 
and sorry, too, after a godly fashion, in that it brought them to a partial 
repentance; but even in the second epistle, from which we learn of their 
partial repentance, the Apostle could still charge that there were many 
in the Church who had not repented of the uncleanness and fornication 
and lasciviousness which they had committed.5 From this second 
letter, also, we learn that there were many in the church at large who 
corrupted the word of God; 6 that there were those, even in the ministry, 
who were "false prophets, deceitful workers, transforming themselves 
into the apostles of Christ."7 

Of the churches throughout the province of Galatia it is scarcely 
necessary to say more than we have already said concerning the invasion 
of that province by Judaizing Christian ministers, who were turning away 
the saints from the grace of Christ back to the beggarly elements of the 
law of carnal commandments; a circumstance which led Paul to exclaim: 
"I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that had called you unto 
the grace of Christ, unto another gospel; which is not another; but there 
be some that trouble you, and would pervert the Gospel of Christ."8 

That there were two distinct parties in the Church at this time, be- 
tween whom bitter contentions arose, is further evidenced by the letter . 
of Paul to the Philippians. Some preached Christ even of envy and 
strife, and some of good will. "The one preach Christ of contention, 
not sincerely," says Paul, "supposing to add affliction to my bonds; but 
the other of love, knowing that I am set for the defense of the Gospel."9 
"Beware of dogs," said he again to the same people; "beware of evil 
workers; beware of the concision."iO "Brethren, be followers of me," 
he admonishes them, "and mark them which walk so as ye have us for 

51 Cor. v: 1-3. 

II Cor. vi: 1-20; and Matt, xviii: 16, 17. 

21 Cor. xi: 2-22 and 29, 30. 

31 Cor. xi: 19. 

41 Cor. XV : 12-34. 

511 Cor. xi. 21. 

611 Cor. ii: 17. 

ni Cor. xi: 12-14. 

8Cal. i: 6, 7. 

sPhil. i: 15, 16. 


an example, for many walk of whom I have told you often, and now tell 
you even weeping, that they are the enemies of the cross of Christ: 
whose end is destruction, v/hose God is their belly, and whose glory is 
their shame, who mind earthly things."i To the Colossians, Paul found it 
necessary to say: "Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy 
and vain deceit, after the traditions of men, after the rudiments of the 
world, and not after Christ. * * * * Let no man beguile you of your 
reward in a voluntary humility and worshiping of angels, intruding into 
those things which he hath not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly 

Defections Among Paul's Converts: But it is in Paul's pastoral let- 
ters that we get a deeper insight into corruptions threatening the early 
church, and even beginning to lay the foundation for that subsequent 
apostasy which overwhelmed it. The Apostle sent Timothy to the saints 
at Ephesus to represent him, that he might charge some to teach no other 
doctrines than those which he had delivered to them: "Neither give heed 
to fables and endless genealogies, which minister questions rather than 
godly edifying which is in faith," for some had turned aside from the 
commandment of charity, out of a pure heart, and a good conscience, and 
faith unfeigned, unto "vile jangling, desiring to be teachers of the law, 
understanding neither what they say nor whereof they affirm."^ Others 
concerning faith had made shipwreck, of whom were Hymenaeus and 
Alexander, whom Paul had delivered unto Satan that they might learn not 
to blaspheme. 4 Others had "erred concerning the faith" and had "given 
heed to vain babblings, and opposition of science falsely so called."5 
In his second letter to Timtohy, Paul informs him that all the saints in 
Asia had turned away from him, of whom were Phygellus and Hermo- 
genes."6 He admonishes Timothy again to shun "profane and vain bab- 
blings," "for," said he, "they will increase unto more ungodliness, and 
their Avord will eat as doth a canker; of whom is Hj^menaeus and Philelus, 
"who, concerning the truth, have erred, saying that the resurrection is 
passed already, and overthrown the faith of some."i Demos, once a 
fellow-laborer with Paul, had forsaken him, "having loved this present 
world; "8 and at Paul's first answer, that is, when arraigned before the 
court at Rome, no man stood with him, but all men forsook him; he prays 
that God will not lay this to their charge.] 

Paul admonished Titus to hold fast to the faith, for there were many 
unruly and vain talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circum- 

lOPhil. iii: 2. 
iPhil. iii: 17, 19. 
2Col. ii: 8, 18. 
31 Tim. i: 3-7. 
41 Tim. i: 19, 20. 
51 Tim. vi: 20, 21. 
611 Tim. i: 15. 
711 Tim. ii: 16, 18. 
811 Tim. iv: 10. 
UI Tim. iv: 16. 


cision; who subverted whole houses, teaching things which they ought 
not, for filthy lucre's salte; and were giving heed to Jewish fables and 
commandments of men and turning from the truth. 2 

The Demoralization of Christians Widespread: Peter also had some- 
thing to say with reference to the danger of heresies and false teachers 
which menaced the Church. He declared that there would be false 
teachers among the saints, "who privily would bring in damnable heresies, 
even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift 
destruction." "And many," said he. " shall follow their pernicious ways; 
by reason of whom the truth shall be evil spoken of. And through cov- 
etousness shall they with feigned words make merchandise of you; whose 
judgment now for a long time lingereth not, and their damnation plumber- 
eth not.- For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down 
to hell and delivered them unto chains of darkness to be reserved imto 
judgment" — he argued that the Lord would not spare these corrupters 
of the Gospel of Christ, who, like the dog, had turned again to his own 
vomit, and the sow who was washed to her wallowing in the mire.3 He 
charged also that some were wresting the epistles of Paul, as they were 
some of the "other scriptures," unto their own destruction. 4 

John, the disciple whom Jesus loved, also bears testimony to the 
existence of anti-Christs. false prophets, and the depravity of many in 
the early Church. "It is the last time," said he, "and as ye have heard 
that anti-Christ shall come, even now there are many anti-Christs. where- 
by we know that it is the last time;" ****** "They went out from 
us ***** * that they might be manifest that they were not all of us."5 
"Try the spiiits." said he, in the same epistle, "whether they are of God; 
because many false prophets are gone out into the world. "6 Again: 
"Many deceivers are entered into the world, who confess not that Jesus 
Christ is come in the fiesh. This is a deceiver, an anti-Christ. "7 

Jude also is a witness against this class of deceivers. He admonished 
the saints to "contend earnestly for the faith which was once delivered 
unto the saints;" "for," said he, "there are certain men crept in unawares, 
* * * * ungoldly men, turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness 
and denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ. "S The rest 
of the epistle he devotes to a description of their wickedness, comparing it 
with the conduct of Satan, and the vileness of the inhabitants of Sodom 
and Gomorrha. 

Object of the Review: I have not given this review of the condition 
of the Church of Christ in the Apostolic Age with the view of establishing 
the idea that the Church at that time was in a complete state of apostasy; 

2Titus i: 9-14. 
311 Peter ii. 
4Ibid. iii: 16. 
r.I John ii: 18, 19. 
61 John iv: 1. 
711 John vii: .'. 
SJnde 3, 4. 


nor have I dwelt upon the weaknesses and sins of the early saints for 
the purpose of holding them up for contempt. My only purpose has been 
to dispel, first of all, the extravagant ideas that obtain in many minds 
concerning the absolute sanctity of the early Christians; and secondly, 
and mainly, to show that there were elements and tendencies existing in 
the early Church, even in the days of the Apostles, that would, when 
unrestrained by Apostolic authority and power, lead to its entire over- 

We have no good reason to believe that there occurred any change 
for the better in the affairs of the Church after the demise of the Apos- 
tles; no reason to believe that there were fewer heresies or fewer false 
teachers, or false prophets to lead away the people with their vain philos- 
ophies, their foolish babblings, and opposition of science falsely so called 
On the contrary, one is forced to believe the prediction of Paul, viz., that 
evil men and seducers would wax worse and worse, deceiving and being 
deceived;! for who, after the Apostles were fallen asleep, would stand 
up and correct the heresies that were brought into the Church, rebuke the 
schismatics, the false teachers and false prophets that arose to draw 
away disciples after them? If false teachers insinuated themselves into 
the Church, brought in damnable heresies by reason of which the way of 
truth was evil spoken of, and the pure religion of .lesus Christ corrupted 
■even while inspired Apostles were still in the Church, it is not unreason- 
able to conclude that all these evils would increase and revel unchecked 
after the death of the Apostles. 

lIITim. iii, 13. 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. The Existence of False Teachers in the ^ The Works cited in the 

p, , Last Lesson and the au- 

Lynurcn. thonties cited in the notes. 

II. Promulgation of False Doctrines. 


The Rise of False Teachers: I cannot, of course, here enter into even 
a brief history of false teachers in the early Christian centuries. That of 
Itself would be matter for a volume. I shall therefore content myself with 
making quotations from reliable authorities that will directly establish 
the fact of the rapid increase in the number of false teachers, and the 
pernicious effect of their doctrines upon the Christian religion. 

Position of the Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches, Respective- 
ly, on the Question of Early Christian Apostasy: It should be said before 
making these quotations, however, that Protestant writers are interested 
in maintaining that the Christian religion was perpetuated, even through 
the ages of apostasy, and given back to mankind by the agency of the 
so-called "Reformation" of the' sixteenth century. Hence in their writings, 
when stating the corruptions of the early Church, they are especially 
guarded lest too strong a statement would lead to the belief that the 
Christian religion had been utterly subverted. Indeed, it is well known 
that Milner wrote his Church History — which should be regarded not so 
much as the history of the Church as the history of piety — to counteract 
the influence of Mosheim's "Institutes of Ecclesiastical History," which 
work Milner considered too frank in its statements of perversions and 
abuses of religion. The Protestant writers must need set forth the theory 
that the Christian religion survived all the abuses and corruptions of it 
through ages of apostasy, else they would have no logical ground for the 
sixteenth century "Reformation" to stand upon. They seem not oblivious 
to the fact, though never mentioning it, that if the Christian religion was 
displaced by a paganized religion — a false religion — as is fully predicted, 
as we shall see later, in the New Testament prophecies, and of which the 
works of Protestant writers go far toward proving — then the only possible 
way in which the true Christian religion and the Church of Christ could be 
restored would be by a reopening of the heavens and the giving forth of a 
new dispensation of the Gospel, together with a renewal of divine author- 


ity to preach it, and administer Its ordinances of salvation. Catholics 
hold that there has been no great apostasy in the Church. Their theory 
is that there has been a constant, unbroken perpetuation of the Christian 
Church from the days of the Messiah and His Apostles until now; and 
that the Roman Catholic Church is that very Church so perpetuated 
through the ages. Catholic writers admit that there have been very 
corrupt periods in the Church, and many wicked prelates, and some vile 
popes; yet they hold that the Church has persisted, that the Christian 
religion has been preserved in the earth. 

Declension of Excellence in Early Christian Writers: With these 
remarks on the position of the Protestant and Catholic churches respect- 
ing their attitude on the subject of the perpetuation of the Christian re- 
ligion, I proceed with the quotations promised; and, first, a passage from 
Neander's History of the Christian Religion and Church, on the very great 
difference between the writings of the Apostles and the writings of the 
so-called Apostolic Fathers; and the suddenness of that transition, to the 
disparagement of the productions of the Fathers: 

"A phenomenon, singular in its kind, is the striking difference be- 
tween the writings of the Apostles and the writings of the Apostolic 
Fathers, who were so nearly their contemporaries. In other cases, transi- 
tions are wont to be gradual; but in this instance we observe a sudden 
change. There are here no gentle gradations, but all at once an abrupt 
transition from one style of language to another; a phenomenon which 
should lead us to acknowledge the fact of a special agency of the Divine 
Spirit in the souls of the Apostles. After the time of the first extraordi- 
nary operations of the Holy Ghost followed the period of the free develop- 
ment of human nature in Christianity; and here, as in all other cases, the 
beginning must be small and feeble before the effects of Christianity 
could penetrate more widely, and bring fully under their influence the 
great powers of the human mind. It was to be shown, first, what the 
divine power could effect by the foolishness of preaching. The writings 
of the so-called Apostolic Fathers have imhappily, for the most part, 
come down to us in a condition very little worthy of confidence, partly be- 
cause under the name of these men, so highly venerated in the Church, 
writings were early forged for the purpose of giving authority to par- 
ticular opinions or principles; and partly because their own writings 
which were extant became interpolated in subservience to a .Tewish 
hierarchical interest which aimed to crush the free spirit of the Gospel. i 

There is no authority of Scripture for the supposition made here by 
Dr. Neander that the extraordinary operations of the Holy Ghost were 
to be confined to the Apostles; the whole tenor of Scripture authority 
is to the contrary. It is the theory of the Gospel itself that all who re- 
ceive it, and particularly its ministers, shall have the divine Spirit as a 

IVol. i, pp. 656, 657. 


special agency working in their souls, through all time, and there is no 
warrant for the belief that its operations were to be confined to those who 
first received it and became its first ministers. Therefore, this sudden 
ti-ansition in the matter of excellence and truthworthiness between the 
writings of the Apostles and the writings of the Apostolic Fathers indi- 
cates not only a deteriotation in the character of the teachers in the 
Church and what is taught, but more specially indicates the progress of 
the "mystery of iniquity" Vv^hich was at work subverting the Christian re- 
ligion and destroying the Church of Christ. 

On the question of forged books and writings mentioned in the pas- 
sage from Neander, Dr. Nathaniel Lardner refers to a dissertation written 
by Dr. Mosheim, which shows the reasons and causes for the many 
forged writings produced in the first and second centuries, and then adds: 
"All own that Christians of all sorts were guilty of this fraud. Indeed, 
we may say it was one great fault of the times; for truth needs no such 
defenses, and would blush at the sight of them."* 

Eusebius, quoting Hegesippus on the subject of false teachers and 
referring to the condition of the Church about the close of the first cen- 
tui-y, says: 

"The Church continued until then (close of the first century) as a 
pure and uncorrupted virgin, whilst if there were any at all at that 
attempted to pervert the sound doctrine of the saving Gospel, they were 
yet skulking in dai-k retreats; but when the sacred choir ol; Apostles 
became extinct, and the generation of those who had been privileged to 
hear their inspired wisdom had passed away, then also the combinations 
of impious errors arose by the fraud and delusions of false teachers. 
These also, as there were none of the Apostles left, henceforth attempted 
without shame to preach their false doctrine against the Gospel oi 
truth. "y 

Dr. Mosheim has the following on the same subject: 
"Not long after the Savior's ascension, various histories of His life 
and doctrines, full of impositions and fables, were composed by persons of 
no bad intentions, perhaps, but who were superstitious, simple and piously 
fraudulent; and afterwards various other spurious writings were palmed 
upon the world, falsely inscribed with the names of the holy Apostles. "j 
This condition of things with reference to the writers in the centuries 
under consideration, naturally leads one to the reflection that if there 
was so much of fraud, and so many forged writings, what must have been 
the state of the Church at this time with reference to oral teaching? "We 
are justified in believing, I think, that bad as was the state of things with 
reference to the writings of these early teachers of the Church, the 
discourses of such as preached may be depended upon as being much 
worse. In this view of the case, one can readily understand that the 
"authority of antiquity" so generally urged as a reason for accepting 
the testimonies of the Fathers, that "handmaid to Scripture," as "an- 
tiquitj'" is sometimes called, the whole body of it, written and oral, may 

*Lardner's Works, vol. viii. p. 330. 
fEus. Ec. Hist.,, bk. iii. ch. 32. 
tinstitutes, bk. i, cent. 1, part ii, ch. ii. 


indeed "be regarded," as Dr. Jortin remarks, "as Briarean, for she has 
a hundred hands, and these hands often clash and beat one another."i 

Moreover, it often happens that those who are condemned by some of 
these Fathers as heretics were not only censured for their heresies, but 
sometimes for the truths which they held. For example: Papias, a Bishop 
and Christian Father in the second century, is condemned by Eusebius 
for saying that he received from Apostolic men — meaning thereby men 
who were associated with the Apostles — the fact that there would be a 
corporeal reign of Christ on earth with the saints, after the resurrection, 
which would continue through a thousand years. 2 

Prodicus is censured by Clement of Alexandria for holding that men 
are of nature the children of Diety.3 

Controversy Over Baptism for the Dead: Marcion, besides being 
condemned for his many errors, is also censured by Irenaeus tor be- 
lievirg in salvation for the dead, corcerning which-, it must be acknowl- 
edged, Marcion did hold peculiar views; but that is no reason why the 
general principle should be condemned. 4 He taught that Jesus Christ 
went to Hades and preached there, and brought hence all that believed 
on him. "The ancients." continues Irenaeus, as quoted by Lardaer, 
"being of opinion that eternal life is not to be obtained but through faith 
in Jesus Christ, and that '^od is too merciful to let men perish lor not 
hearing the Gospel, supposed that the Lord preached also to the dead, 
that they might have th-? same advantage with the living." He further 
adds, "In the laLgrage pf ]\ arcicn and the fathers, hell does not neces- 
sarily mean the plac^ of the damned; in that place is Tartarus, the 
place of torment, and Paradise, or the bosom of Abraham, a place of 
rest and refreshment. In that part of Hades, Jesus found the just men 
of the Old Testament. They were not miserable, but were in a place 
of comfort and pleasure." "For Christ," he continues, "promiseth the 
Jews after this life, rest in Hades, even in the bosom of Abraham " This 
far the doctrine of Marcion is in strict agreement with the New Tes- 
tament, though denounced as blasphemy by his opponent. The unfor- 
tunate part of Marcion's doctiine on this head is that he t-.nig;n that 
Cain and the wicked of Sodom and the Egyptians, and in fact all the 
nations in general, though they had lived in all manner of wickedness, 
were saved by the Lord; but that Abel, Enoch, Noah, and the patriarchs 
and prophets and other righteous men who walked with God and pleased 
Him in their earth-life, did not obtain salvation, because they suspected 
that in the preaching of Christ in the spirit world there was some 
scheme of deception to lead them away from their present qualified 

iJortin's Remarks on Ecclesiastical History, vol. i. p. 248. 
2Eusebius, bk. iii, ch. 39. 
SLardner Works, vol. viii, p. 418. 

4Lardner Works, vol. viii, 449; also I Peter iii: 18-21; Ibid, iv: 
6; I Cor. xv: 29. 


believe in Him, for which reason, as he says,"their souls remained in Hell. i 
Marcion is also condemned for believing in the eternity of matter. 2 
So, too, Hermogenes is censured by Tertullian for the same cause, and 
for arguing that God made the world out of matter and could not have 
made it out of nothing.3 

And so throughout there is censure and counter censure between 
the orthodox and the heretics, and it is difficult at times to determine 
which are the orthodox and which the heretics, so frequently do they 
change places. Nor was there any improvement in the ages that suc- 
ceeded these that have been briefly considered. The editor of Dr. Jor- 
tin's learned work on Ecclesiastical History, William Trollope, on a 
passage of Jortin's on the early fathers, says of the fathers of the fourth 
century : 

"After the council of Nice, 4 a class of writers sprung up, greatly in- 
ferior to their predecessors, in whatever light their pretensions are 
viewed. Sadly deficient in learning, prejudiced in opinion, and inele- 
gant in style, they cannot be admitted for a moment into competition 
with those who were contemporary with the Apostles and their immedi- 
ate successors."5 

The whole tenor of his remarks is to the effect that while the 
fathers of the second and third centuries are not to be relied upon in 
their interpretations of Scripture, were frequently deceived in opinions, 
and not always to be depended upon in matters of tradition, yet they 
were greatly to be preferred in all respects to the fathers of succeeding 

II. The Development of False Doctrines After the Death of the 
Apostles: Here, too, I shall rely very largely upon the conclusions of 
the learned Dr. Lardner, referring to the development of the heresies, 
the seeds of which were sown in the days of the Apostles, says: 

"Eusebius relates that Ignatius, on his way from Antioch to Rome, 
exhorted the churches to beware of heresies which were then springing 
up, and which would increase; and that he afterwards wrote his epistles 
in order to guard them against these corruptions, and to confirm them 
in the faith. This opinion that the seeds of these heresies were sown 
in the time of the Apostles, and sprang up immediately after is an opin- 
ion probably in itself, and is embraced by several learned moderns, 
particualrly by Vitringa, and by the late Rev. Mr. Brekel of Liverpool.6 

Conditions of the Church in the First Three Centuries:' A certain 
Mr. Deacon attempted to refute the Mr. Brekel referred to by Dr. Lard- 
ner, and to maintain the purity of the Church of the first three cen- 
turies. On this Mr. Brekel observed that "If this point were thoroughly 
examined, it would appear that the Christian Church preserved her vir- 
gin purity no longer than the Apostolic age, at least if we may give 

llbid, p. 460. 
2Ibid. p. 581-2. 
3Lardner, vol. viii, p. 345. 
4Held in 325 A. D. 
5Jortin, vol. i, p. 166, note. 
fiLardner, vol. viii, p. 344. 


credit to Hegeeippus." Relying upon the support of the ecclesiastical 
history of Socrates, a writer of the first half of the fifth century, Mr. 
Brekel also says: "To mention the corruptions and innovations in re- 
ligion of the four first centuries, is wholly superfluous; when it is so 
very notorious that, even before the reign of Constantine, there sprang 
up a kind of heathenish Christianity which mingled itself with the trae 
Christian religion."! 

Of the impending departure from the Christian religion immediately 
succeeding the days of the Apostles. Dr. Neander says: 

"Already, in the latter part of the age of St. Paul, we shall see many 
things different from what they had been originally; and so it cannot 
appear strange if other changes came to be introduced into the consti- 
tution of the (Christian) communities, by the altered circumstances of 
the times immediately succeeding those of St. Paul or St. John. Then 
ensued those strongly marked oppositions and schisms, those dangers 
with which the corruptions engendered by manifold foreign elements 
threatened primitive Christianity." 2 

Dr. Phillip Smith, the author of the "Students' Ecclesiastical His- 
tory," in speaking of the early corruptions of the Christian religion, 

"The sad truth is that as soon as Christianity was generally diffused, 
it began to absorb corruptions from all the lands in which it was planted, 
and to reflect the complexion of all their systems of religion and phi- 
losophy ."3 

Dean Milman, in his preface to his annotated edition of Edward Gib- 
bon's great work, "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," and 
commenting upon that great author's attitude respecting the Christian 
religion, says: 

"If, after all, the view of the early progress of Christianity be mel- 
ancholy and humiliating, we must beware lest we charge the whole of 
this on the infidelity of the historian. It is idle, it is disingenuous, to 
deny or dissemble the early depravations of Christianity, its gradual 
but rapid departure from its primitive simplicity and purity, still more 
from its spirit of universal love. It may be no unsalutary lesson to the 
Christian world, that this silent, this unavoidable perhaps, yet faltaf 
change, shall have been drawn by an impartial, or even an hostile 
hand. 4 

Dr. Mosheim, in his "Institutes," deals at length with the abuses 
which arose in the Church in the second and third centuries, which I 
abridge to the following, and first as to the second century: Many rites 
were added without necessity to both public and private religious wor- 
ship, to the great offense of good men; and principally because of the 
perversity of mankind, who are more delighted with the pomp and 
splendor of external forms and pageantry than with the true devotion 
of the heart. There is good reason to believe that the Christian bishops 
purposely multiplied sacred rites for the sake of rendering the Jews 

iLardner, vol. viii, p. 345. 

-'Neander's History of the Christian Religion and Church vol i 
p. 191. ' ■ ' 

3Eccles. Hist., vol. i, p. 49. 
4Gibbon's Roman Empire, Preface by Dean Milman, p. 15. 


and pagans more friendly to them. For both these classes had always 
been accustomed to numerous and splendid ceremonies, and believed 
them an essential part of religion. In pursuance of this policy, and to 
silence the calumnies of the pagans and the Jews against them — to the 
effect that the Christians were pronounced atheists, because destitute 
of temples, altars, victims, priests, and all that pomp in which the vulgar 
suppose the essence of religion to consist — the Christian leaders intro- 
duced many rites, that they might be able to maintain that they really 
had those things which the pagans had, only they subsisted under dif- 
ferent forms. Some of these rites — justified, as was supposed, by a 
comparison of the Christian oblations with Jewish victims and sacri- 
fices — in time corrupted essentially the doctrine of the Lord's supper, 
and converted it into a sacrifice. To add further to the dignity of the 
Christian religion, the churches of the east feigned mysteries similar 
to those of the pagan religions; and, as with the pagans, the holy rites 
of the mysteries were concealed from the vulgar: — "And they not only 
applied the terms used in the pagan mysteries to the Christian institu- 
tions, particularly baptism and the Lord's Supper, but they gradually in- 
troduced also the rites which were designed by those tei-ms." This 
practice originated in the eastern provinces of the empire, and thence, 
after the times of Adrian (who first introduced the Grecian mysteries 
among the Latins), it spread among the Christians of the west. "A 
large part therefore, of Christian observances and institutions, even in 
this century, had the aspect of the pagan mysteries." In like manner 
many ceremonies and customs of the Egyptians were adopted. i 

Speaking of the third century, the Doctor says that all the monj- 
ments of this century show that there was a great increase of ceremonies 
in the Church, owing to the prevailing passion for the Platonic philoso- 
phy. Hence arose the public exorcisms, the multiplication of fasts, the 
aversion to matrimony, and the painful austerities and penances which 
were enjoined upon offenders. 2 

llnstitutes, vol. i, cent, ii, part ii, ch. iv. 
2Ibid. cen. iii, part ii, ch. iv. 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. The Revolution of the Fourth Century. , ^f .*^^ References to 
II. Conversion and Character of the First tT^''"" ^"'" '° *^' 
Christian Emperor. 


The Revolution of the Fourth Century: Constantine: It will be 
observed that I have so far confined my quotations concerning the cor- 
ruptions which arose in the Church to the first three centuries of the 
Christian era. I have done so purposely; and chiefly that I might show 
by such quotations that the forces which were to bring about the Je- 
struction of the Christian Church were active during those ages; and 
also because an event took place in the first part of the fourth century 
that culminated in the triumph of those forces. This event was the 
establishment of Christianity as the state religion of Rome. 

Parentage and Station of Constantine: Constantine the Great was 
the emperor under whose reign this unlocked for revolution took place. 
He was the son of Constantine Chlorus, emperor of the West in the 
preceding reign; whieh reign he had shared with Galerius Maximianus, 
who ruled the East. Constantine was an "emperor bom of an emperor, 
the pious son of a most pious and virtuous father," is the flattering an- 
nouncement of his parentage on the paternal side, by his contemporary, 
Eusebius, the church historian; though he neglects to mention the ob- 
scure origin and humble vocation (that of inn keeper) of Constantino's 
mother, Helena, whom her husband repudiated when raised to the dignity 
of "Caesar" in the reign of Diocletian. 

Constantine was proclaimed emperor by the army in Britain on the 
death of his father at York, 306 A. D.; but civil strife raged through the 
empire for eighteen years, occasioned by the contending aspirants for 
the imperial dignity. The future patron of Christianity, however, over- 
came all his rivals and reigned sole monarch of Rome from 323 A. D. to 
the time of his death, fourteen years later. 

The policy of Constantine's father towards the Christians in his di- 
vision of the empire (the West) had been one not only of toleration, but 
also of friendship; and this policy the son followed from the commence- 
ment of his career as emperor. The fact of both his own and his 


father's friendliness toward the Church on the one hand, and the hos- 
tility of his rivals against the Church on the other, brought to him the- 
united support of the Christians throughout the empire; and though 
they were not so numerous as they are frequently repi-esented to be, yet 
it cannot be denied that the Christians were important factors in deter- 
mining the course of events in the empire at this time; and truly they 
were faithful allies to Constantine, and he, on his part, neglected not 
to meet their anticipations of reward. 

A careful study of his life and character will force the conviction 
upon the mind that Constantine was a most suitable head for the revo- 
lution which ended by establishing a pseudo-Christianity as the state 
religion of the decaying empire. A professed Christian for many years, 
if we may believe Lactantius and Eusebius, he postponed his baptism, 
after the fashion of his times, until the very last year of his life, in order 
that, purified at once from all the stains of sin by means of it, he might 
be sure of entering into bliss. Such the explanation of those who would 
defend this delay of the emperor's; but one cannot fail to remember 
that it was quite customary at this time among many professing the 
Christian religion to put off baptism as long as they dared that they 
might enjoy a life of sin, and then through the means of baptism, just 
before death, as by magic, obtain forgiveness. i On the motives that 
prompted Constantine's acceptance of Christianity, our historians are 
not agreed. According to Eusebius, his conversion was brought about 
through seeing in the heavens a luminous cross at midday, and above 
it the inscription: "By this Conquer." This miraculous sign was sup- 
plemented on the night following by the appearance of Jesus Christ to 
the emperor in a dream, with the same symbol, the cross, and directed 
Constantine to make it the ensign of his banners and his protection against 
the power of the enemy. 2 According to Theodoret, the emporer was con- 
verted through the arguments of his Christian mother.3 According to 
Zosimus, it was through the arguments of an Egyptian Christian bishop 
— supposed to be Hosius, Bishop of Corduba — who promised him abso- 
lution for his crimes, which included a number of murders, if he would 
but accept Christianity.4 

The Conversion of Constantine: It is as difficult to settle upon the 
time of Constantine's conversion as it is the means and nature of it. 
Neander inclines to the opinion that he was early influenced in favor of 
Christianity through the example if not the teachings of his parents, 
who, if not fully converted to the Christian faith, were at least tolerant 
of it; and may be reasonably counted among the number who at least 
admitted Christ to the pantheon of the gods. By an act of his in 308 A. 
D., after the death of his father, and he himself had been proclaimed em- 

iNeander Ch. Hist., vol. i, p. 252. Decline and Fall., vol. ii, chap. xx. 

2Eusebius' Life of Constantine, bk. i, 27. 

3Hist. Eccles., vol. i, bk. i, ch. 17. 

4Zosimus, bk. ii, p. 104. _. 


peror of the West, shows that he was at that time still respected the 
pagan forms of worship; for hearing that the Franks, who had been in- 
clined to rebel against his government, had, on his preparations to make 
war upon them, laid down their arms, he offered public thanks in a cele- 
brated temple of Apollo, and gave a magnificent offering to the god.l 

The story of Constantine's conversion, as related by Eusebius, would 
fix that event in the year 312 A. D.; and surely if the open vision of the 
luminous cross and the subsequent appearing of Christ in his dream were 
realities, Constantine had sufficient grounds for a prompt and unequivocal 
conversion to the Christian faith. But after that, if we consider the con- 
duct of the emperor, we shall find him, however astonishing it may 
seem, still attached to pagan ceremonies of worship. As late as 321 A. 
D., nine years after the visitation of Chi-ist to him, we find him accused 
of artfully balancing the hopes and fears of both his pagan and Christian 
subjects by publishing in the same year two edicts; the first of which 
enjoined the solemn observance of Sunday; and the second directed 
the consultation of the Haruspices^ — the soothsayers of the old pagan 
leligion. Of this circumstance, Neander, who is disposed to palliate 
the conduct of Conustantine as far as possible, after Intimating that 
this lapse might be accounted for on the grounds of state policy, says: 
"Yet the other hypothesis, viz., that Constantine had actually fallen back 
into heathen superstitions, may indeed be regarded as the more nat- 
ural. "a five years after his supposed miraculous conversion "we find 
marks of the pagan state religion upon the imperial coins.4 "A medal 
was struck," says Dr. John W. Draper, doubtless referring to the same 
thing, "on which was impressed his (Constantine's) title of 'God,' to- 
gether with the monogram of Christ." "Another," he continues, "rep- 
resented him as raised by a hand from the sky while seated in the 
chariot of the Sun. But more particularly the great porphyry pillar, a 
column one hundred and twenty feet in height, exhibited the true re- 
ligious condition of the founder of Constantinople. The statue on its 
summit mingled together the Sun, the Savior, and the Emperor. Its 
body was a colossal image of Apollo, whose features were replaced by 
those of Constantine, and around the head, like rays, were fixed the 
nails of the cross of Christ, recently discovered in Jerusalem. "5 Whilei 
on the day Constantinople was formally made the capital of the empire, 
he honored the statue of Fortune with gifts. In view of all these 
acts, ranging as they do oyer the greater part of the first Christian em- 
peror's life, and through many years after his supposed conversion, I 
think Gibbon is justified in his remarks upon this part of Constantine's 

iNeander's Ch. Hist., vol. ii, p. 8. 
2Gibbon, Decline and Fall, vol. iii, ch. xx. 
SNeander Ch. Hist., vol. ii, p. 21. 
4Neander Ch. Hist., vol. ii, p. 21. 
5lntellectua^Development of Europe, vol. i, p. 280. 


conduct: "It was an arduous task to eradicate the habits and preju- 
dices of his education, to acknowledge the divine power of Christ, and 
to understand that the truth of his revelation was incompatible with 
the worship of the gods."i 

The Character of Constantine. Turing from the consideration of the 
equivocal conduct of the emperor to his character, we have a subject 
about which there is less disagreement among authorities; for even 
Christian apologists are compelled to admit the wickedness of this first 
Christian emperor. "Relying with presumptuous confidence." says Nean- 
der. "on the great things which God had done, through him. for the 
advancement of the Christian Church, he found it easy to excuse or 
extenuate to his conscience, many a wrong deed, into which he had suf- 
fered himself to be betrayed by ambition, the love of rule, the arbitrary 
exercise of power, or the jealousy of despotism. "2 

"It is indeed true that Constantine's life was not such as the precepts 
of Christianity required." Dr. Mosheim remarks, but softens the state- 
ment against the emperor by saying that "it is but too notorious that 
many persons who look upon the Christian religion as indutiably true, 
and of divine origin, yet do not conform their lives to all its holy pre- 
cepts. "3 

Dr. Lardner, after drawing a most favorable outline of Constantine's 
person and character, and citing the flattery of contemporary' panegyr- 
ists as a description of the man, says: "Having observed these virtues 
of Constantine, and other things, which are to his advantage: a just 
respect to truth obligeth us to take notice of some other things, which 
seem to cast a reflection upon him. "4 And then in the most naive 
manner he adds: "Among these, one of the chief is putting to death 
so many of his relatives!" He enumerates the victims of the first 
Christian emperor as follows: "Maximian Herculius, his wife's father; 
Bassianus. husband of his sister, Anastasia; Crispus, his own son; Fausta, 
his wife; Llcinius. husband of his sister, Constantia; and Licinianus, or 
Licinius, the younger, his nephew, and son of the forementioned Licin- 
ius."5 The last named victim was a mere lad when put to death, "not 
more than a little above eleven years of age, if so much," is Dr. Lard- 
ner's own description of him. Fausta was suffocated in a steam bath, 
though she had been his wife for twenty years and mother of three of 
his sons. It should be remembered that this is the list of victims admit- 
ted by a most learned and pious Christian writer, not a catalogue drawn 
up by pagan historians, whom we might suspect of malice against one 
who had deserted the shrines of the ancient gods for the faith of the 
Christians. But this rather formidable list of murdered victims ad- 
mitted by Dr. Lardner shakes not his faith in the goodness of the first 

iGibbon, Decline and Fall, ch. xx. 
2Neander Ch. Hist., vol. ii, p. 24. 
3Mosheim's Institutes, vol. i, p. 214. 
4Lardner, vol. iv, p. 39. 
sLardner, vol. iv, p. 39. 


Christian emperor. Some of these "executions" he palliates, if not jus- 
tifies, on the ground of political necessity; and others on the ground of 
domestic perfidy; though he almost stumbles in his efforts at excusing 
the taking off of Crispus, the emperor's own son; Fausta, his wife, and 
the lad Licinius. "These are the executions," he says, "which above all 
others cast a reflection upon the reign of Constantine; though there are 
also hints of the deaths of some others about the same time, with whom 
Constantine had till then lived in friendship."! After which the Doctor 
immediately adds — in the very face of all the facts he adduces, and after 
reciting the condemnation of both heathen and Christian writers of 
some of these murders — the following: "I do by no means think that 
Constantine was a man of a cruel disposition; and therefore I am un- 
willing to touch upon any other actions of a like nature: as his making 
some German princes taken captive, fight in the theatre; and sending 
the head of Maxentius to Africa, after it had been made a part of Con- 
stantine's triumphal entry at Rome." When one finds a sober Christian 
writer of the eighteenth century who can thus speak of Constantine; and 
further remembers that to this day a priest of the Greek Church sel- 
dom mentions the name of the "imperial saint," without adding the title, 
"Equal to the Apostles;" one is not surprised that while he lived and at 
his court a Christian bishop could be found who "congratulated him as 
constituted by God to rule over all, in the present world, and destined 
to reign with the son of God in the world to come. "2 Or that Eusebius, 
who is spoken of as one of the best bishops of the imperial court, "did 
not scruple for a moment to ascribe to the purest motives of a true 
servant of God, all those transactions into which the emperor, without 
evincing the slightest regard to truth or to humanity, had suffered him- 
self to be drawn by an ambition which could not abide a rival, in the 
struggle with Licinius; when he represents the emperor, in a war which, 
beyond a doubt, had been undertaken from motives of a purely selfish 
policy, as marshaling the order of the battle, and giving out the words 
of command by divine inspiration bestowed in answer to his prayer."3 

Concluding Reflections Upon Constantine: Enough of this. Let us 
look no longer at this first of the Christian emperors through the eyes of 
churchmen seeking to extol his virtues and hide his crimes, all for the 
honor of the Church. So odious had he become in Rome for his many 
murders that a pasquinade, which compared his reign to that of the de- 
tested Nero, was nailed to the palace gates. "The guilty emperor," says 
one, "in the first burst of anger, was on the point of darkening the 
tragedy, if such a thing had been possible, by a massacre of the Roman 
populace who had thus insulted him." His brothers were consulted on 
this measure of vengeance, however, and the result of their counsel was 
a resolution to degrade Rome to a subordinate rank, and build a metrop- 

iLardner, vol. iv, p. 44. 
2Neander Ch. His., vol. ii, p. 25. 
SNeander Ch. Hist, vol. ii, p. 25. 


olis elsewhere, and hence the new capital of the empire rose on the 
shores of the Bosphorus. 

Reflecting upon the career of Constantine from the days of his young 
manhood, which had in it something of the quality that makes the suc- 
cessful leader of men, to the time when he fell under the influence of 
the false priests of a corrupted religion, Draper says: 

"From the rough soldier who accepted the purple at York, how great 
the change to the effeminate emperor of the Bosphorus, in silken robes, 
stiffened with threads of gold; a diadem of sapphires and pearls, and 
false hair, stained of various tints; his steps stealthily guarded by mys- 
terious eunuchs, flitting through the palace; the streets full of spies, and 
an ever-watchful police! The same man who approaches us as the 
Roman imperator retires from us as the Asiatic despot. In the last days 
of his life, he put aside the imperial purple, and, assuming the custom- 
ary white garment, prepared for baptism, that the sins of his long and 
evil life might all be washed away. Since complete purification can 
thus be only once obtained, he was desirous to procrastinate that cere- 
mony to the last moment. Profoundly politic, even in his relations with 
heaven, he thenceforth reclined on a white bed, took no further part in 
worldly affairs, and, having thus insured a right to the continuance of 
that jrosperity in a future life which he had enjoyed in this, expired. "i 

And so Gibbon: 

"The sublime theory of the Gospel had made a much fainter impres- 
sion on the heart than on the understanding of Constantine himself. He 
pursued the great objects of his ambition through the dark and bloody 
paths of war and policy; and, after the victory, he abandoned himself, 
without moderation, to the abuse of his fortune. Instead of asserting 
his just superiority above the imperfect heroism and profane philosophy 
of Trajan and the Antonines, the mature age of Constantine forfeited 
the reputation which he had acquired in his youth. As he gradually 
advanced in the knowledge of truth, he proportionately declined in the 
practice of virtue; and the same year of his reign in which he convened 
the council of Nice, was polluted by the execution, or rather murder, of 
his eldest son (Crispus) ***** At the time of the death of Crispus, 
the emperor could no longer hesitate in the choice of religion; he 
could no longer be ignorant that the church was possessed of an infallible 
remedy (baptism), though he chose to defer the application of it, till the 
approach of death had removed the temptation and danger of a relapse. 
******* rj^^Q example and reputation of Constantine seemed to 
countenance the delay of baptism. Future tyrants were encouraged to 
believe that the innocent blood which they might shed in a long reign 
would instantly be washed away in the waters of regeneration; and the 
abuse of religion dangerously undermined the foundations of moral 

The First "Christian" Emperor: Such, then, was the first Christian 
emepror. He uplifted "Christianity" from the condition of a persecuted 
religion, and made it the state religion of Rome; and also provided means 
for its wider acceptance. If for this it shall be claimed, as it is, that 

iDraper, Intellectual Development, vol. i, p. 283. 
2Decline and Fall, ch. xx. 


much in his evil life should be overlooked, it would still be pertinent 
to ask whether his acts in connection with Christianity did not debase 
rather than exalt it; and if his provisions for its wider acceptance did 
not tend rather to the corruption of what remained true in the Christian- 
ity then extant, than to the establishment of true religion. 


(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. Transposition of the Attitude of 

Christianity and Paganism. ^'^^ the Authorities cited 

1. Persecution of the Pagans. '"^ '^^ ''°*^'- 

2. Persecution of the Heretics. 


The Edict of Milan: Ttie edict of Milan, by which was intended no 
more than the establishment of religious libertj'- in the empire, and 
which was issued in 313 A. D., by Constantine and his colleague, Licinius, 
was well enough. Freedom to teach and practice the truth is all the 
Christian Church could ask or expect. Had Constantine stopped here, 
his action in this particular would have met with universal applause. 
But he went beyond this. He not only protected the Christians by his 
laws, but prohibited by express edicts the free exercise of religion to 
the pagans. His proscriptions were mild at first, going no further than 
to prohibit sooth-saying and divination in private houses or anywhere in 
secret. Later, however, if we may believe the words of Eusebius, he 
placed the pagan religion under the ban of the laws. Eusebius says: 

"The emperor proceeded to act with great vigor, gave the government 
of the provinces chiefly to Christians, and when any Gentiles were made 
governors they were prohibited to sacrifice. Which law comprehended 
not only presidents of provinces, but also higher officers, and even the 
praetorian praefects. If they were Christians, they were required to 
act according to their principles. If they were otherwise disposed, still 
the practice of idolatrous rites were forbidden. ****** ^j^^ 
soon after that were two laws published at one and the same time, one 
prohibiting the detestable rites of idolatry hitherto practiced in cities 
and country places; and that for the future none should erect statues to 
the gods, nor perform the vain arts of divination, nor offer up any sac- 
rifices. The other law was for enlarging Christian oratories and churches, 
or for rebuilding them more grand and splendid."! 

A Contrast Between Christian and Heathen Methods: When con- 
trasting the course of the first Christian emperor with the pagan em- 
perors, Eusebius says: "They commanded the temples to be magnificent- 
ly adorned; he demolished them to the foundation, especially such as 
were omst respected by superstitious people."2 Later he expressly says 
that "throughout the whole Roman empire, the doors of idolatry were 

iLife of Constantine (Eusebius) I, ii, ch. 44. 
2Ibid, ch. 54. 


shut to the commonalty and to the soldiery;" and that "every kind 
of sacrifice was prohibited." Again, he says, that there were several 
laws published for these purposes, forbidding sacrifices, divinations,, 
raising statues, and the secret mysteries or rites of initiation. And he 
says further, that "in Egypt a sort of priesthood, consecrated to the 
honor of the Nile, was entirely suppressed."! I am not unmindful that 
some respectable authorities question if Constantine really departed 
from the policy of toleration announced in his edict of Milan; and that 
even Gibbon is inclined to believe in his toleration of paganism. The 
statement here made by Eusebius, the contemporary and biographer of 
Constantine, however, together with reference to the edicts of sup- 
pression quoted by his son, Constans, in the succeeding reign, and which 
is quoted by Lardner,2 establishes beyond question the policy of in- 
tolerance of Constantine toward Paganism. Especially when what EJuse- 
bius has said is supplemented by the fact that the emperor destroyed 
a number of heathen temples, and peremptorily ordered the closing of the 
others. Among the heathen temples destroyed was one at Aegae, in 
Cilicia, erected to Aesculapius, celebrated for the number of sick that 
had been healed there, and held in high esteem by men of the better 
class among the pagans and philosophers. It is said that by its destruc- 
tion and the public exhibition of certain images of the gods, many 
tricks of the priests were exposed and became objects of sport to the 
populace. 3 But while this may have been the conduct of some insin- 
cere pagans, those who remained heathens, as LeClerc has well said, 
"were no doubt extremely shocked at the manner in which the statues 
of their gods were treated; and could not consider the Christians aa 
men of moderation. For, in short, those statues were as dear to them 
as anything, the most sacred, could be to the Christians."4 Eusebius 
taunted the philosophers about the destruction of the temple, without 
any interference on the part of the god to whom it had been erected, 
apparently all unmindful of the fact that just such taunts had been. 
hurled at the Christian martyrs in the days that the kingdom of God 
suffered violence, and the violent took it by force." "Had not Euse- 
bius," remarked Lardner, "often heard with his own ears, and read in 
the history of ancient martyrs, the insults and thiumphs of the heathens, 
over the Christians, that they professed themselves the worshippers of 
the great and only true God, and yet everybody, that plaesed, was able 
to molest and destroy them, as he saw good?" 

The Policy of Constantine Indefensible: The zeal of Christian writers 

has done all in its power to excuse or palliate the conduct of Constan- 
tine in his acts for the suppression of the pagan religion and worship; 
but after all is said by his apologists that can be said, after every allow- 

iLife of Constantine (Eusebius), iv, ch., 23, 25. 

2Lardner, vol. viii. p. 169. 

SNeander Ch. Hist., vol. ii, pp. 26, 27. 

4Lardner Works, vol. iv. p. 49. 

SLardner. Works, vol. iv. p. 50. 


ance is conceded for the times in which he lived, and the previous con- 
duct of the pagans through two centuries of violence towards the Chris- 
tians, the fact remains that the first Christian emperor did by his edicts 
put the ancient religion of the empire under the ban of the law, and by 
acts of violence destroyed some of its temples and closed the rest by im- 
perial decree, that the pagan gods might not be worshiped; and this, 
doubtless, with the approval — and it would not be difficult to believe, 
under all the circumstances, at the suggestion — of Christian bishops who 
thronged his court. On the foundation of intolerance thus laid by him, 
others hastened to build. In the succeeding reign, among the first laws 
enacted, was this one against pagan sacrifices: 

"Let superstition cease; let the madness of sacrificing be abolished. 
For whoever shall presume contrary to the constitution of our father, a 
prince of blessed memory, and contrary to this command of our clem- 
ency, to offer sacrifices, let a proper and convenient punishment be in- 
flicted, and execution presently done upon him."i 

This edict was supplemented a few years later2 by the following 

"It is our pleasure that in all places and in all cities the temples be 
immediately shut, and carefully guarded, that none may have the power 
of offending. It is likewise our pleasure that all our subjects should 
abstain from sacrifices. If anyone should be guilty of such an act, let 
him feel the sword of vengeance; and after his execution, let his prop- 
erty be confiscated to the public use. "We denounce the same penalties 
against the governors of the provinces, if they neglect to punish the 

It is not necessary to pursue the subject much further. It will be 
sufficient to say that during the fourth century, by following the policy 
of suppression inaugurated by this first Christian emperor, Christianity 
was changed from a persecuted to a persecuting religion. Without 
restraint from the ecclesiastical authorities, the Christian emperors 
issued edicts against the pagan religion, proscribed its followers, de- 
stroyed its temples, and confiscated its property to the uses of the rival 
religion. Even Neander, speaking of this revolution, and constrained 
as he is to say all that he can for the honor of the Christian Church, is 
compelled to admit that "the relations of things had become reversed. 
As in former times the observance of the pagan ceremonies, the re- 
ligion of the state, had appeared in the light of a civil duty, and the pro- 
fession of Christianity in that of a crime against the state, so now it 
was the case, not indeed that the outward profession of Christianity was 
commanded as a universal civil duty, for against this the spirit of Chris- 
tianity too earnestly remonstrated; but that the exercise of the pagan 
religion was made politically dangerous. "4 In the pages of this emi- 
nent Christian historian one may read that before the close of the cen- 
tury which witnessed the elevation of Christianity to the dignity of the 

iLardner, Works, vol. viii, p. 169. 
2In 353 A. D., according to Gothford. 
3The law is extant in the Theodocian Code. 
4Neander, vol. ii. p. 34 


state religion of the empire, wild troops of Christian monks were under- 
taking compaigns, especially in the country, for the destruction of the 
heathen temples in which sacrifices were alleged to have been per- 
formed; of bishops who not only superintended the destruction of 
reathen temples at the head of bands of soldiers and gladiators, but 
paraded through the streets of the cities the symbols of the heathen 
faith, provoking civil conflicts, which Christian emperors did not hesitate 
to take advantage of for the more complete suppression of paganism, i 
Meantime, a pagan apologist, Libanius, arises to plead the cause of re- 
ligious toleration, and in the course of his address to the Christian 
emperor, Theodosius, he puts to shame the Christianity then in vogue, 
by showing the emperor how far the Church had departed from the 
spirit of the Christian religion, by saying: "Force is said not to be per- 
mitted, even according to the laws of your own religion; persuasion Is 
said to be praised, but force condemned by them. Why, then, do you 
wreak your fury against the temples, when this surely is not to per- 
suade, but to use force? Thus, then, it is plain you would transgress 
even the laws of your own religion. "2 Lardner calls attention to the 
fact that as under pagan emperors previous to Constantine, Christianity 
had been in a state of persecution, so now, after Constantine, he pro- 
ceeds to show that paganism under Christian emperors was all along in 
a state of persecution — "However, I would hope, not so severe and vig- 
orous as that of the Christians in the foregoing period of near three 
hundred years." 3 And so LeClere, as quoted by Lardner: 

"Thus it was that the Christians continued to return to ihe pagan 
what they had suffered from them during the first three centuries, in- 
stead of gaining them by patience and mildness, which they had so 
much recommended when they were the weakest. This conduct was 
proper to make the pagans more obstinate, by teaching them that the 
Christians affected to speak of humanity and moderation from interest 
only, and not from a principle of religion as they pretended. At least 
it is certain that thereby they lost the right to complain of the manner 
in which the pagans had treated them in times past, or to boast of the 
mildness of their religion, which they effectually disparaged by those 
persecutions. ******* j^'or ought we to imagine that the 
penalties laid by Christians upon the pagans were light. If a sacrifice 
was offered in a private place, with the knowledge of the proprietor, 
the place was confiscated; if not, they were to pay a fine of twenty 
pounds of gold, as much as if it had been done in a temple; and in 
some cases the penalty of death was appointed. We may look into the 
oration of Libanius for the temples, where that orator sustains the same 
character before Theodosius as the Christians had formerly done before 
pagan emperors. I must acknowledge that this phenomenon, if I may 
so call it, gives me pain: for I could wish that they who defended the 
truth had preserved to themselves the honor of being the only persons 
that were persecuted for religion." 4 

iNeander Ch. Hist., vol. ii, pp. 88-110. 
2Ibid., p. 67. 

Sl^ardner, Works, vol. viii, p. 164. 
41,ardner Works vn). viii, p. 276. 


Persecution of "Heretics:" Once started upon the policy of suppress- 
ing by force those of a different religion, Christianity did not stop with the 
persecution of the pagans; bad and un-Christian as that was, still more 
serious results occurred from the persecutions inflicted upon so-called 
heretics in the Church by those who were considered orthodox. It is true 
that there were heretics in th eChurch before the days of Constantine; 
much progress had been made in the matter of paganizing Christianity, 
and more or less tolerance was manifested by Christian sects towards 
each other; but it was the policy and example of this first Christian em- 
peror that laid the real foundation for that monument of shame and dis- 
grace to the Christian name which rises upon the plains of Christian dis- 
cord and strife and war waged against heretics in the name and for the 
glory of Christ. It is this which constitutes the most melancholy page 
of ecclesiastical history. 

In his office of supreme pontiff in the old pagan religion, which he 
held by virtue of being emperor of Rome, Constantine may naturally 
have supposed that the supreme headship of the religion he had pro- 
tected and the Church he had elevated fell to him for the same reason; 
and with it the right to reconcile differences, compose factions, and de- 
termine what should be the orthodox faith. At any rate, we find him 
acting somewhat in this capacity. When contending church parties 
appealed to him he at first was indifferent to their disputes, and tried to 
shame them into harmony by referring to the conduct of the Greek 
philosophers, who never discussed difficult questions before ignorant 
multitudes, who could "maintain their arguments without losing their 
temper; and assert their freedom without violating their friendship."! His 
efforts at reconciling the differences that arose among Christians over 
what is known as the Arian controversy were of no avail; and after six 
years of bitter strife the emperor summoned the bishops of the Church 
to Nicea in Bithynia. After long deliberation, Arianism was condemned, 
and orthodox Christianity was established by decree of the council, rati- 
fied by the emperor, to which all Christians must conform. Those who 
resisted the divine judgment of the synod must prepare themselves for 
immediate exile.2 How effectual the argument, "belief or banishment." 
even among the bishops at the council, was, may be determined from 
the fact that "the opposition to the decision of the council was almost 
instantly reduced from seventeen to two."3 In his zeal to enforce 
orthodoxy, the emperor forgot his former moderation, and in 326 A. D. — 
the year following the council at Nicea — he issued a general edict against 
heretics, in which, after condemning his own past forbearance as occa- 
sioning men's being seduced, he says to the various heretical parties: 

"Wherefore, since this your pernicious wickedness is no longer to be 
presume to meet together. And we have given orders that all those 

iDecline and Fall, ch. xxi. 
2Decline and Fall, ch. xxi. 
SDecllne and Fall, ch. xxi. 


places where you are wont to hold assemblies should be taken away. 
Yea, our concern for this matter is such that we not only forbid you to 
assemble in any public place, but we likewise forbid all assemblies of 
your foolish superstition in private houses, and in all private places 
whatever. All of you, therefore, who have any sincere love of truth, 
come to the Catholic church. And that this remedy may have its full 
effect, we ordain that all your superstitious conventicles, I mean ora- 
tories of all heretics, if it be fit to call such houses oratories, be forth- 
with taken away, and without any opposition delivered to the Catholic 
church: and that the rest of your places be adjudged to the public. "i 

"Thus the dens of heretics were laid open by the imperial edict," ex- 
ultantly exclaims Eusebius, the Christian bishop, "and the wild beasts, 
the ring leaders of their impiety, were scattered."2 And thus was the 
paganized Christian Church launched upon that career of persecution of 
heretics within the Church, as well as upon the policy of persecuting 
those of a different religion; a policy that has filled the world with he- 
ligious wars and deeds of cruelty which would better become the reign 
of a Nero than Christian rulers of Christian nations. It is a terrible 
arraignment which Gibbon draws against apostate Christendom in the 
concluding paragraph of his review of the persecutions which had been 
endured by the followers of Christ in the Christian centuries preceding 
Constantine. He says: 

"We shall conclude this chapter by a meloncholy truth, which ob- 
trudes itself on the reluctant mind; that, even admitting, without hesi- 
tation or inquiry, all that history has recorded, or devotion has feigned, 
on the subject of martyrdom, it must still be acknowledged that the 
Christians, in the course of their intestine dissensions, have inflicted far 
greater severities on each other than they have experienced from the 
zeal of infidels. During the ages of ignorance which followed the sub- 
version of the Roman empire in the west,3 the bishops of the imperial 
city extended their dominion over the laity as well as clergy of the Latin 
church. The fabric of superstition which they had erected, and which 
might long have defied the feeble efforts of reason, was at length as- 
saulted by a crowd of daring fanatics, who, from the twelfth to the six- 
teenth century, assumed the popular character of reformers. The church 
of Rome defended by violence the empire which she had acquired by 
fraud; a system of peace and benevolence was soon disgraced by pro- 
scriptions, wars, massacres, and the institution of the holy office; and 
as the reformers were animated by the love of civil as well as religious 
freedom, the Catholic princes connected their own interest with that of 
the clergy, and enforced by fire and sword the terror of spiritual cen- 
sures. In the Netherlands alone more than one hundred thousand of 
the subjects of Charles the Fifth are said to have suffered by the hand 
of the executioner; and this extraordinary number is attested by Gro- 
tious, a man of genius and learning, who presei-ved his moderation 
amidst the fury of contending sects, and who composed the annals of 
his own age and century, at the time when the invention of printing had 
facilitated the means of intelligence and increased the danger of detec- 
tion. If we are obliged to submit our belief to the authority of Grotious, 
it must be allowed that the number of protestants who were executed in 

iLardner Works, vol. iv. p. .36. 

2Life of Constantine, Eusebius, p. 66. 

3This event occurred about 476 A. D. 


a single province and a single reign far exceeded that of the primitive 
martyrs in the space of three centuries, and of the Roman empire! "i 

Both Guizot and Milman, eminent Christian scholars, annotated the 
work of Edward Gibbon, the former in French, the latter in an English 
edition; and at every point where they could modify a statement or 
soften a passage apparently unjust to Christianity, they did so; but in 
the presence of the important and terrible passage just quoted, they re- 
main absolutely silent! Nor has any other Christian writer since 
their day, so far as I know, attempted to contradict the statement of 
Mr. Gibbon. It is proper to say, however, that in a note Mr. Gibbon 
himself cites the fact that Fra Paola, an Italian writer, places the num- 
ber of Belgic martyrs at fifty thousand; but even that computation would 
still leave the conclusion of Mr. Gibbon's reflections unimpaired. 

The circumstance of the Church elevated by Constantine becoming a 
persecuting Cliurch is a strong evidence of its paganized state; for the 
true Christian religion is not a persecuting religion; the true Church of 
Christ is not a persecuting Church. When the Samaritans would not 
receive the Messiah, some of the Apostles would have them consumed 
by fire from heaven; but the Master turned and rebuked them, saying, 
"Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of. For the Son of Man is 
not come to destroy men's lives, but to save them." 2 It is true that Mes- 
siah said: "Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came 
not to send peace, but a sword. For I am come to set a man at vari- 
ance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the 
daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. And a man's foes shall be 
they of his own household."3 This, however, is but a prediction of the 
effect of the proclamation of the Gospel, not an authorization to force 
the acceptance of Christianity by the sword; nor does it authorize the 
Church to invoke the arm of the civil authority to execute by force her 
doctrinal decres. The Gospel of Jesus Christ, it is true, did not bring 
peace, but a sword; the sword, however, was found in the hands of 
those who rejected the Gospel, not in the hands of those who accepted 
and preached it. And when the Church departed so far from the spirit 
of Christ that she grasped the sword in her own hands, or dictated the 
civil authority to wield it in her behalf, and that became the policy of 
the Church, the adoption of that policy proclaimed her apostate condi- 
tion to the world, in a manner to be known and read of all men. 

iDecline and Fall, ch. xvi. 
2Luke ix: 54-56. 
3Matt. x: 34-36. 



(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. Moral Requirements of the Gospel. 

n. Moral Decline in the First Three Chris- Authority cited i n the 
tian Centuries. 


Christianity Before and After Constantine: I thinlc sufficient has 
been said to justify the belief that the reign of Constantine marks the 
period when the paganization of Christianity had become complete. I 
do not mean by this that there is any particular date which one may set 
down to show that here true Christianity ceases, and there apostate 
Christianity begins; which is a point frequently insisted upon by those 
who contend for the unbroken perpetuity of Christianity from the days of 
Messiah. They demand to know on what night it was that the whale 
collection of Christians, of different nationalities and languages, went to 
bed sound in the Christian faith, to awaken the next nwrning all pagan .! 
I claim no such sudden revolution brought about the apostasy which I am 
sure took place. We have seen by what has already been said, that even 
in the time of the Apostles, there was a tendency on the part of the 
Christians to depart from the religion of Jesus Christ; that after the days 
of the Apostles there was a steady increase in the number and influence 
of false teachers; an insidious introduction of heresies; a multiplication 
of rites and ceremonies well known in the pagan celebration of religious 
mysteries, but entirely foreign to the Gospel; and an amalgamation ot 
pagan doctrines with Christian principles. It remains to be shown that 
there was a steady increase of immorality among the professing Chris- 
tians; a marked loss of spirituality; a rapid growth of pride and worldli- 
ness on the part of Christian bishops and other church leaders; and, at 
last, an utter departure from the true and living God, and Jesus Christ, 
whom He had sent, and the establishment of a system in its place as 
debasing to men as it was dishonorable to God. 

Taking then the reign of Constantine as the period beyond which the 
true religion of Christ did not extend, nor the true Church of Christ 
exist, let us consider Christianity before his reign and after it. Here 

lEnd of Religious Controversy, Milner, Letter 26. 


I shall ask the reader to take into account as part of the consideration 
of Christianity previous to Constantine what I have already set before 
him in this treatise concerning the tendency to diversions and here- 
sies which existed in the Church in the days of the Apostles; and also 
those quotations I have made from eminent Christian authorities, which 
give evidence of the early corruptions of Christianity, and which too 
plainly testify that it was in a state of steady decline through the second 
and third centuries, until it was fit only for such enthronement as a Con- 
stantine could give it, when he made it the state religion of a corrupt 
empire, hastening to its decay. If the reader will do this, it will obviate 
the necessity of my referring to these matters again. 

Decline in IVIoral and Spiritual Living Among Christians: It will be 
conceded that the Gospel of Jesus Christ commands a very high order 
of moral and spiritual living and that the Apostles enjoined this moral 
law upon the early saints as essential to the favor of God. Others, 
also, after the days of the Apostles, followed in the same admonition, 
and, indeed, the sharp contrast that existed betwen the lives of con- 
verts before and after their acceptance of Christianity was a matter of 
pride not only to St. Paul.l but to Justin Martyr, of the secord ^'^"'- 
tury, who, in reference to the change produced in the lives of Christian 
converts, said: 

Moral Status of Christians of the Second Century: "We who were 
once slaves of lust, now have delight only in purity of morals; we, who 
once practiced arts of magic, have consecrated ourselves to the Eternal 
and Good God; we, who once prized gain above all things, give even what 
we have to the common use', and share it with such as are in need; 
we, who once hated and murdered one another, who on account of dif- 
ferences of customs would have no com'mon hearth with strangers, do 
now, since the appearance of Christ, live together with them; we pray 
for our enemies; we seek to convince those that hate us without cause, 
so that they may order their lives according to Christ's glorious doc- 
trine, and attain to the joyful hope of receiving like blessings with us 
from God, the Lord of all." 2 

It was not long, however, before there was a marked departure from 
this high moral level among the Christians. In tracing that decline I 
shall use chiefly the History of the Church, by Joseph Milner, published 
in 1794. My reason for doing so is this, as I have already stated in this 
writing, he wrote what some regard as his great history of the Church 
to counteract the influence of Dr. Mosheim's splendid "Institutes of 
Ecclesiastical History," which is evidently by some regarded as too much 
a history of the perversions and abuses of religion. Milner plainly in- 
forms his readers that he intends to write the history of those only who 
have been real, not nominal. Christians, irrespective of the external 
Church to which they belonged, proceeding upon the theory that these 
good men constitute the Church of Christ. His history, in other words, 
is a history of piety, not of the Church. It will be his purpose, therefore. 

iCor. vi: 9-11. 

2Neander Ch. Hist., vol. I, p. 250. 


to exalt the morality of the Christians of all ages, and I quote his work 
respecting the moral deterioration of the Christians that I may not be 
charged with quoting authorities who some think have made too much of 
Christian shortcomings. Milner says that a gloomy cloud, concerning 
moral conditions, hung over the close of the first century, and proceeds 
to argue that the first impressions made by the effusions of the spirit are 
the strongest; that human depravity- overborne for a time arose afresh; 
particularly in the next generation, and hence the disorders of schisms 
and heresies in the Church. Neander does not agree with the philosophy 
of Milner. He says: "Christianity, since it first entered human nature, 
has operated, wherever it has struck root, with the same divine power 
for sanctification; and this divine power cannot be weakened by the lapse 
of ages. In this respect, therefore, the period of the first appearance of 
Christianity could have no advantage over any of the following ages of 
the Christian Church. "l And he follows this declaration with a st-to_ 
ment that the change which Christianity produced in the lives of those 
who accepted it appeared so strongly marked, by the contrast it presented 
with what they had previously been when pagans. The correctness of 
the philosophy I shall leave these two great Christian authorities to settle 
between themselves. I am concerned more particularly with the facts in 
the case. 

In consequence of the prominence that has been given to the perse- 
cutions of the Christians during the first three centuries, the impression 
very extensively prevails that the early Christian Church was constantly 
under the hard pressure of continuous and relentless persecution. This, 
however, is not the case. There were many periods of peace granted 
to the Christians. Indeed, their periods of persecution were only occa- 
sional, and it is a question if these periods of peace were not more 
detrimental to Christianity than the seasons of persecution. Milner, 
under the authority of Origen, says that the long peace granted the 
Church in the third century, during the reigns of the several emperors, 
from about 260 A. D. to the opening of the fourth century, produced a 
great degree of lukewarmness and religious indecorum. "Let the reader," 
he says, "only notice the indifference which Origen here describes and 
the conduct of the Christians both in the first and second centuries, and 
he will be affected with the greatness of the declension." Then he 
quotes Origen: "Several come to church only on solemn festivals, and 
then not so much for instruction as diversion. Some go out again ns 
soon as they have heard the lecture, without conferring or asking the 
pastors questions. Others stay not till the lecture 'is ended, and others 
hear not so much as a single word, but entertain themselves in a corner 
of the church."2 

Coming to the middle of the third century, just previous to that se- 
vere persecution inaugurated by the Emperor Decius, and speaking of 
Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, Milner exclaims: "A star of the first magni- 

INeander Ch. Hist, vol. I, p. 259. 


tude, when we consider the time in which he lived! Let us recreate our- 
selves with the contemplation of it. We are fatigued with hunting for 
Christian goodness, and we have discovered but little, and that little with 
much difficulty. We shall find Cyprian to be a character who partook, 
indeed, of the declensions which we have noticed and lamented, but who 
was still far superior, I apprehend, in real simplicity and piety, to the 
Christians of the East."l This same Cyprian, in whom Milner delights 
speaking of the effects of the long peace upon the Church which pre- 
ceded the Decian persecution, says: 

Each had been bent on improving his own patrimony, and had for- 
gotten what believers had done under the Apostles, and what they 
ought always to do. They were brooding over the arts of amassing 
wealth; the pastors and the deacons each forgot his duty; works of 
mercy were neglected, and discipline was at the lowest ebb; luxury and 
effeminancy prevailed: meritricious arts in dress were cultivated; fraud 
and deception practiced among brthren Christians would unite 
themselves in matrimony with unbelievers; could swear, not only with- 
out reverence but even without veracity. With haughty asperity they 
despised their ecclesiastical superiors! thehy railed against one another 
with outrageous acrimony, and conducted quarrels with determined 
malice. Even many bishops, who ought to be quides and patterns to 
thhe rest, neglected the peculiar duties of their stations, gave themselves 
up to secular pursuits. They deserted their places of residence and 
their flocks; they traveled through distant provinces in quest of pleas- 
ure and gain; have no assistance to their nedy brethren, but were 
insatiable in their thirst of money. They possessed estates by fraud 
and multiplied usury. What have we deserved to suffer for such 
conduct? Even the divine word hath foretold us that we might ex- 
pect: "If his children forsake my law and walk not in my judgments, I 
will visit their offenses with the rod and their sins with scourges." 
These things had ben denounced and foretold, but in vain. Our sins 
had brought our affairs to that pass, that because we had despised the 
Lord's directions, we were obliged to undergo a correction of our mul- 
tiplied evils and a trial of our faith be severe remedies. 2 

Referring to the long reign of peace in the closing decades of the 
third century, Milner says: 

This new [the toleration of Christianity by a pagan govern- 
ment] did not prove favorable to the growth of grave and holiness. In 
no period since the Apostles was there ever so great a general decay as 
in this. Not even in particular instances can we discover during this 
interval much of lively Christianity. 3 e eeeeeeee 

Here I drop Milner to take up Eusebius, who was an eyewitness of 
the moral declensian among the Christians previous to the last great 
pagan persecution under the emperor Diocletian. Referring to the long 

iMilner's Ch. Hist. vol. I, cent. iii. ch. vi. 


SMilner's Ch. Hist, vol. I, cent, iii, ch. xvii. 


period of peace which the Church had enjoyed — a period of forty 
years — he says: 

But when, by reason of excessive liberty, we sunk into neghgence and 
sloth, one envying and reviling another in different ways, and we were 
almost, as it were, upon the point of taking up arms against each other 
with words as with darts and spears, prelates inveighing against pre- 
lates, and people rising up against people, and hypocrisy and dissimula- 
tion had risen to the greatest height of malignity, then the divine 
judgment, which usually preceeds with a lenient hand, whilst the mul- 
titude were yet crowding into the Church, with gentle and mild visita- 
tions began to affict the episcopacy; the persecution having begun with 
those brthren in the army. But as if destitute of all sensibility, we 
were not prompt in measures to appease and propitiate the Deity; some 
inded like atheists, regarding our situation as unheeded and unob- 
served by a Providence, we added one wickedness and misery to another. 
But some that appeared to be our pastors deserting the law of piety, 
were inflamed against each other with mutual strifes, only accumulating 
quarrels and threats, rivalship, hostility and hatred to each other, only 
anxious to assert the government as a kind of sovereignty for themselves.! 

Here I shall avail myself of some reflections upon this condition which 
I have elsewhere expressed: 2 Let it be remembered that what is s^M 'n 
the foregoing quotation is from a writer rontemporarv with the events, 
and who says, in the very chapter following the one from which I have 
just quoted, that it was not for him to record the dissensions and follies 
which the shepherds of the people exercised against each other before 
the persecution. He also adds: "We shall not make mention of those 
that were shaken by the persecution, nor of those that suffered ship- 
wreck in their salvation, and of their OAvn accord were sunk in the 
depths of the watery gulf."3 Then in his Book of Martyrs, referring ^ 
events that occurred between the edicts ordering the persecution, he 
says: "But the events that occurred in the intermediate times, besides 
those already related. I have thought proper to pass by; I mean more 
particularly the circumstances of the different heads of the churches, 
who from being shepherds of the reasonable flocks of Christ, htat did 
not govern in a lawful and manner, were condemned, by 
divine justice, as unworthy of such a charge, to be the keepers of the 
unreasonable camel, an animal deformed in the structure of his body; 
and condemned further to be the keepers of the imperial horses. * * * 
* * Moreover, the ambitious aspirings of many to office, and the in- 
judicious and unlawful ordinations that took place, the divisions among 
the confessors themselves, the great schisms and difficulties industriously 
fomented by the factions among the new members, against the relics of 
the Church, devising one innovation after another, and unmercifully 
thrusting them into the midst of all these calamities, heaping up afflic- 
tion upon affliction. All this, I say, I have resolved to pass by, judging 
it foreign to my purpose, wishing, as I said in the beginning, to shun 

lEusebius' Eccl. Hist., bk. viii, ch. i. 
2New Witness for God, pp. 75, 76. 
SEusebius' Eccl. Hist., bk. viii, ch. ii. 


and avoid giving an account of them."i Hence, however bad the on- 
dition of the Church is represented to be by ecclesiastical writers, we 
must know that it was still worse than that; however numerous the 
schisms, however unholy the ambition of aspiring prelates, however 
frequent and serious the innovations upon the primitive ordinances of 
the Gospel; hodsoever great the confusion and apostasy in the Church is 
represented to be, we must know that it is still worse than that, since 
tjie Church historians contemporaneous with the events refused to 
record these things in their fullness, lest it should prove disastrous to 
the Church; just as some of our modern scholars, professing to write 
Church history, express their determination to close their eyes to the 
corruption and abuses which form the greater part of the melancholy 
story of ecclesiastical history, for fear that relating these things would 
make it appear that real religion scarcely had any existence. - 

Constantine's Nicean Plan of Propaganda: I shall say no more upon 
the matter of moral declensions among Christians, except this: If there 
was such moral declension among Christians as is represented by the 
foregoing high authorities on Christian affairs in the centuries preceding 
Constantine, what moral declension must have prevailed when from a 
proscribed religion Christianity was exalted to the dignity of the state 
religion of the empire; and her prelates and clergy were recalled from 
exile and suffering, poverty and disgrace, and loaded with the wealth and 
honors that the lord of the Roman world could bestow? Consider, in this 
connection, the propositions of Constantine at the council of Nicea for the 
propaganda of Christianity, and pass a candid judgment upon the moral 
or rather immoral effect they would produce upon the Church. Neander 
thus states them: 

"The heathen would be most easily led to salvation, if the condition 
of the Christians were made to appear to them in all respects enviable. 

"They (the bishops) should consider, that the advantage to be derived 
from preaching could not belong to all. 

"Some, he said, might be drawn to the faith by being seasonably 
supplied with the means of subsistence. 

"Others were accustomed to repair to that quarter where they found 
protection and intercession (alluding to the intercessions of the bishops). 

"Others would be won by an affable reception. 

"Others by being honored with presents. 

"There were but few who honestly loved the exhibitions of relig- 
ious doctrine; but few were the friends of truth (therefore but few sin- 
cere converts). 

"For this reason they should accommodate themselves to the char- 
acters of all, and like skillful physicians, give to each man that which 
might contribute to his cure, so that in every way the saving doctrine 
might be glorified in all. "3 

The effect of adopting such methods for the more rapid propagation 
of Christianity, as is here proposed by the emperor to the bishops as- 

iBook of Martyrs, ch. xii. 

2See Milner's Introduction to his Church Hist., vil. I. 

3Neander's Ch. Hist., vol. ii, pp. 29-30. 


sembled at the council at Nicea, must be apparent to all, and is quite 
universally lamented by Christian writers of later ages. "A course of 
proceeding upon such principles," remarks Neander himself, "must en- 
tirely have thrown open a wide door for all manner of hypocrisy. Even 
Eusebius, the panegyrist of Constantine, blinded as he was by the 
splendor which the latter had outwardly cast over the Church — even he is 
obliged to reckon among the grievous evils of this period, of which he 
was an eye witness, the indescribable hypochisy of those who gave 
themselves out as Christians merely for temporal advantage, and who,* 
by their outward show of zeal for the faith, contrived to win the con- 
fidence of the emperor, which he suffered them to abuse." i "The pierc- 
ing eye of ambition and avarice," says Gibbon, "soon discovered that 
the profession of Christianity might contribute to the interest of the 
present as well as of a future life. The hopes of wealth and honors, 
the example of an emperor, his exhortations, his irresistible smiles, dif- 
fused conviction among the venal and obsequious crowds which usually 
fill the apartments of a palace. The cities, which signalized a forward 
zeal by the voluntary destruction of their temples, were distinguished 
by municipal privileges and rewarded with popular donatives. * * * * 
As the lower ranks of society are governed by imitation, the conversion 
of those who possessed any eminence of birth, of power, or of riches, 
was soon followed by dependent multitudes. The salvation of the com- 
mon people was purchased at an easy rate, if it be true that in one year 
twelve thousand men were baptized at Rome, besides a proportionable 
number of women and children; and that a white garment, with twenty 
pieces of gold had been promised by the emperor to every convert."2 

Under all these circumstances it is small wonder if men exclaimed as 
Augustine did somewhat later in his commentary on St. John — "How 
many seek Jesus only that He may benefit them in earthly matters! 
One man has a law suit, so he seeks the intercession of the clergy; an- 
other is oppressed by his superior, so he takes refuge in the Church. 
Others are seeking, one in this way and another in that, to be inter- 
ceded for in some quarter where they have but little influence them- 
selves. The Church is daily full of such persons. Seldom is Jesus 
sought for Jesus' sake! "3 After nicely balancing the possibility and 
probability of those who came into the Church for present wordly ad- 
vantage being converted in time to a true faith in the Christian religion, 
Neander says: "Beyond all doubt the number was far greater of those 
who grew hardened in that wordly sense by which from the first they 
had profaned a holy profession, and who were thus the means of intro- 
ducing into the Church a great mass of corruption." 

"Unhappily," he adds, "there were bishops whose only wish was to 
make the conversion to Christianity a right easy thing for the pagans. 
* * * ♦ * Hence they baptized even those who lived in open sin. 

iNeander's Ch. His., vol. ii, p. 30. 

^Decline and Fall, ch. xx. 

SAugustine on St. John, tract 25, ch. 10. 


and who plainly enough manifested that it was not their purpose to 
forsake it. They imagined that when these were only baptized and in- 
troduced into the fellowship of the Church, it was then time enough to 
admonish them against sin."i 

The Evil Effects of the Nicean Program: Surely it was not diflBcult 
among such a mass of unconverted members thus brought into the Church 
to find elements that would foster the errors, both in ethics and in doc- 
trine, which about this time arose in the Church, It is small wonder 
that it was well nigh publicly adopted in this age — as we are informed 
by Mosheim — "That to deceive and lie is a virtue when religion can be 
promoted by it, and that error in religion ought to be visited with pen- 
alties and punishmens." The first of these evils resulted in the accumu- 
lation of that mass of myth and fable that burdens the annals of the 
dark ages; the second established the "holy inquisition," alike the 
shame of the Roman Catholic church and the so-called Christian civili- 
zation she has infiuenced. "It is almost incredible," continues Mosheim, 
speaking of the first evil referred tc, "what a mass of the most insipid 
fables, and what a host of pious falsehoods have, through all the cen- 
turies, grown out of it, to the great detriment of true religion. If some 
inquisitive person were to examine the conduct and the writings of the 
great and most pious teachers of this century, I fear he would find about 
all of them infected with this leprosy." "Those idle fictions," he adds, 
"which a regard for the Platonic philosophy, and for the prevailing 
opinions of the day had induced most theologians to embrace, even be- 
fore the time of Constantino, were now in various ways confirmed, ex- 
tended and embellished. Hence it is that we see, on every side, evident 
traces of excessive veneration for departed saints; of a purifying fire for 
the soul when separated from the body; of the celibacy of the clergy; 
of the worship of images and relics, and of many other opinions, which 
in process of time almost banished the true religion, or" — and here the 
Doctor perhaps remembered that he was a Protestant and that his posi- 
tion as such would not admit of conceding the utter subversion of the 
Christian religion, and hence added — "or at least very much obscured and 
corrupted it." Genuine piety was supplanted by a long train of super- 
stitious observances, which originated partly from opinions inconsider- 
ately embraced, partly from a preposterous disposition to adopt profane 
rites and combine them with Christian worship, and partly from the 
natural predilection of mankind in general for a splendid and ostenta- 
tious religion." 

iNeander's Ch. Hist., vol. ii, p. 120. 



(Scripture Reading Exercise.) 



I. Spiritual Gifts. See the Authorities cited 

1. Nature and Enjoyment of them by in the notes. 

Early Christians. Oii tiie Christian Doc- 

2. Loss of them during the second and hl""^ °*' ^t^-^'' '? ^ If'^T 

, . i r^ ^. • Jesus Lhnst the Revela- 

tnircl bentunes. tion of Qod," in Mormon 

II. The Christian Doctrine of Diety. Doctrine of Diety, ch. iv. 


The Loss of Spiritual Gifts: Not only did the moral declensions in 
the Church which started soon after the demise of the Apostles, proceed 
with accelerated pace after Constantine became the patron of the Church, 
and with such resulting evils as I have pointed out, but there was a like 
declension in the enjoyment of spiritual gifts in the Church. It is well 
known that the Apostles promised the Holy Ghost to those who received 
the Gospel, and the enjoyment of those supernatural gifth which go with 
it. Indeed, Jesus Himself said in His last commission to His disciples: 

"Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature. 
He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth 
not shall be damned. And these signs shall follow them that believe: 
In my name shall they cast out devils: they shall speak with new 
tongues; they shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly 
thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they 
shall recover.'"! 

Paul, in speaking of the spiritual gifts pi'omised in the Gospel, says: 

"Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit. And there 
are differences of administrations, but the same Lord. And there are 
diversities of operations, but it is the same Gk)d which worketh all in all. 
But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit 
withal. For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom; to an- 
other the word of knowledge by the same Spirit; to another faith by 
the same Spirit; to another the gifts of healing by the same Spirit; to 
another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another dis- 
cerning of spirits; to another diverse kinds of tongues; to another the 
interpretation of tongues; but all these worketh that one and the self- 
same Spirit, dividing to every man severally as He will. "2 

It is well known that the spiritual gifts here enumerated were enjoyed 
by the saints in the early Christian centuries; and especially in Apostolic 

iMark xvi: 15-18. 
21 Cor. xii: 1-11. 


enjoyment of these gifts of the Spirit among the saints. Nor is there 
any intimation of the discontinuance of them. On the contrary it is 
reasonable to conclude that so long as the saints shall continue in the 
enjoyment of the Holy Ghost, that long also will they enjoy the spiritual 
gifts which proceed from a possession of Him. Moreover, "the 
fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering. gentleness, good- 
ness, faith, meekness, temperance; against such there is no law. And 
they that are Christ's have crucified the flesh with the affections and 

Effects of the Holy Spirit Upon IVlan: Such are the effects of the 
operations of the Holy Ghost upon the nature of man. These fruits of the 
Spirit indicate the change that the Spirit of God may effect in human na- 
ture; by which that which is corrupted through sin may be conformed 
to that which is pure and holy, according to the working whereby the 
Spirit is able to subdue all things unto Himself, in them that give place 
for His mdwelling in their souls. This effectual working of the Spirit in 
the souls of